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Mysteries of Ancient and Mo-dern 




''Cecy est un livre de bonne Foy." — Montaigne. 

Vol. \l.— theology. 





Copyright, by 


Printing and Bookdinding Co., 


205-213 Kast \ith St., 




Mrs. Elizabetli Thompson and Baroness Burdett-Coutts. 




Church statistics I 

Catholic " miracles" and spiritualistic "phenomena" 4 

Christian and Pagan beliefs compared lo 

Magic and sorcery practised by Christian clergy 20 

Comparative theology a new science , 25 

Eastern traditions as to Alexandrian Library 27 

Roman pontiffs imitators of the Hindu Brahm-atma 30 

Christian dogmas derived from Iieathen philosophy 33 

Doctrine of the Trinity of Pagan origin 45 

Disputes between Gnostics and Church Fathers SI 

Bloody records of Christianity S3 



Sorceries of Catherine of Medicis S5 

Occult arts practised by the clergy 59 

Witch-burnings and auto-da-fe of little children 62 

Lying Catholic saints 74 

Pretensions of missionaries in India and China 79 

Sacrilegious tricks of Catholic clergy 82 

Paul a kabalist 91 

Petsr not the founder of Roman church 91 

Strict lives of Pagan hierophants 98 

High character of ancient "mysteries" ■ lOI 



Jacolliot' s account of Hindu fakirs 

Cliristian symbolism derived from Pliallic worship " 

Hindu doctrine of the Pitris 

Brahminic spirit -communion 

Dangers of untrained mediumsliip 



Resemblance between early Christianity and Buddhism 123 

Peter never in Rome 4 

Meanings of " Nazar " and " Nazarene " 129 

Baptism a derived right ^ ' '34 

Is Zoroaster a generic name ? 14' 

Pythagorean teachings of Jesus '47 

The Apocalypse kabalistic '47 

Jesus considered an adept by some Pagan philosophers and early Christians 150 

Doctrine of permutation 'S^ 

The meaning of God-Incarnate '53 

Dogmas of the Gnostics I5S 

Ideas of Marcion, the "heresiarch" I59 

Precepts of Manu '"3 

Jehovah identical with Bacchus 165 



Discrepancies in the Pentateuch 167 

Indian, Chaldean and Ophite systems compared 17° 

Who were the first Christians? 17^ 

Christos and Sophia- Achamoth I S3 

Secret doctrine taught by Jesus 191 

Jesus never claimed to be God 1 93 

New Testament narratives and Hindu legends 199 

Antiquity of the " Logos ' ' and " Christ " 205 

Comparative Virgin-worship 209 



En-Soph and the Sephiroth 212 

The primitive wisdom-religion 2i6 

The book of Genesis a compilation of Old Wo- Id legends 217 

The Trinity of the Kabala , 22a 



Gnostic and Nazarene systems contrasted mth Hindu myths 225 

Kabalism in the book of Ezekiel * 232 

Story of the resurrection of Jairus's daughter found in the history of Christna 241 

Untrustworthy teachings of the eai'Iy Fathers 248 

Their persecuting spirit 249 



Decisions of Nicean Council, how arrived at 251 

Murder of Hypatia 252 

Origm of the fish-symbol of Vishnu 256 

Kabalistic doctrine of the Cosmogony 264 

Diagrams of Hindu and Chaldeo- Jewish systems 265 

Ten mythical Avatars of Vishnu 274 

Trinity of man taught by Paul 281 

Socrates and Plato on soul and spirit 283 

True Buddhism, what it is 288 



Nazareans, Ophites, and modern Druzes 291 

Etymology of TAG 29S 

" Hermetic Brothers "of Egypt 307 

True meaning of Nirvana 319 

The Jai'na sect 321 

Christians and Christians 323 

The Gnostics and their detractors 325 

Buddha, Jesus, and ApoUonius of Tyana 341 



The Sohar and Rabbi Simeon 348 

The Order of Jesuits and its relation to some of the Masonic orders 352 

Crimes permitted to its members 355 

Principles of Jesuitry compared with those of Pagan moralists 364 

Trinity of man in Egyptian Book of the Dead 367 

Freemasonry no longer esoteric 372 

Persecution of Templars by the Church 381 

Secret Masonic ciphers ^. 39S 

Jehovah not the " Ineffable Name " 398 



Nearly eveiy my th based on some gi'eat truth 4°S 

Whence the Christian Sabbath 4o6 

Antiquity of the Vedas 4'° 

Pythagorean doctrine of the potentialities of numbers 4^7 

" Days" of Genesis and " Days " of Brahma 422 

Fall of man and the Deluge in the Hindu books 425 

Antiquity of the Mahabharata 429 

Were the ancient Egyptians of the Aryan race ? 434 

Samuel, David, and Solomon mythical personages 439 

Symbolism of Noah's Ark 447 

The Patriarchs identical with zodiacal signs , 459 

All Bible legends belong to universal history 469 



The devil officially recognized by tha Church x.77 

Satan the mainstay of sacerdotalism , .gg 

Identity of Satan with the Egyptian Typhon -g. 

His relation to serpent-worship .gq 

The Book of Job and the Book of the Dead ,g. 

The Hindu devil a metaphysical abstraction coi 

Satan and the Prince of Hell in the Gospel of Nicodemus 515 



The age of philosophy produced no atheists c,g 

The legends of three Saviours .,_ 

Christian doctrine of the Atonement illogical p . , 

Cause of the failure of missionaries to convert Buddhists and Brahmanists cc-j 

Neither Buddha nor Jesus left written records -ro 

The grandest mysteries of religion in the Bagaved-gita rg. 

The meaning of regeneration explained in the Satapa-Brahmana rgr 

The sacrifice of blood interpreted <-^ 

Demoralization of British India by Christla-n missionaries 

The Bible less authenticated than any other sacred book 

Knowledge of chemistry and physics displayed by Indian jugglers. . . . cgi 



Recapitulation of fundamental propositions 

Seership of the soul and of the spirit 

^ S90 



The phenomenon of the so-called spirit-hand 594 

Difference between mediums and adepts •. 595 

Interview of an English ambassador with a reincarnated Buddha 598 

Flight of a lama's astral body related by Abbe Hue 604 

Schools of magic in Buddhist lamaseries 609 

The unknown race of Hindu Todas 613 

Will-power of fakirs and yogis 617 

Taming of wild beasts by fakirs 622 

Evocation of a living spirit by a Shaman, witnessed by the writer 626 

Sorcery by the breath of a Jesuit Father 633 

Why the study of magic is almost impracticable in Europe 635 

Conclusion 635 


WERE it possible, we would keep this work out of the hands of 
many Christians whom its perusal would not benefit, and for 
whom it was not written. We allude to those whose faith in their respec- 
tive churches is pure and sincere, and those whose sinless lives reflect the 
glorious example of that Prophet of Nazareth, by whose mouth the spirit 
of truth spake loudly to humanity. Such there have been at all times. 
History preserves the names of many as heroes, philosophers, philan- 
thropists, martyrs, and holy men and women ; but how many more have 
lived and died, unknown but to their intimate acquaintance, unblessed 
but by their humble beneficiaries ! These have ennobled Christianit)', 
but would have shed the same lustre upon any other faith they might have 
professed — for they were higher than their creed. The benevolence of 
Peter Cooper and Elizabeth Thompson, of America, who are not ortho- 
dox Christians, is no less Christ-like than that of the Baroness Angela 
Burdett-Coutts, of England, who is one. And yet, in comparison with 
the milhons who have been accounted Christians, such have always 
formed a small minority. They are to be found at this day, in pul- 
pit and pew, in palace and cottage ; but the increasing materialism, 
worldliness and hypocrisy are fast diminishing their proportionate num- 
ber. Their charity, and simple, child-like faith in the infallibiUty of their 
Bible, their dogmas, and their clergy, bring into full activity all the virtues 


that are implanted in our common nature. We have personally known 
such God-fearing priests and clergymen, and we have always avoided 
debate with them, lest we might be guilty of the cruelty of hurting their 
feelings; nor would we rob a single layman of his blind confidence, if it 
alone made possible for him holy living and serene dying. 

An analysis of religious beliefs in general, this volume is in particu- 
lar, directed against theological Christianity, the chief opponent of free 
thought. It contains not one word against the pure teachings of Jesus, 
but unsparingly denounces their debasement into pernicious ecclesiasti- 
cal systems that are ruinous to man's faith in his immortality and his 
God, and subversive of all moral restraint. 

We cast our gauntlet at the dogmatic theologians who would enslave 
both history and science ; and especially at the Vatican, whose despotic 
pretensions have become hateful to the greater portion of enlightened 
Christendom. The clergy apart, none but the logician, the investigator, 
the dauntless explorer should meddle with books like this. Such delv- 
ers after truth have the courage of their opinions. 





" Yea, the time cometh, that whomsoever killeth you, will think that he doeth God service." — Gospel 
accordi7ig to Joh7t^ xvi. 2. 

" Let him be Anathema . . . who shall say that human Sciences ought to be pursued In such a 
spirit of freedom that one may be allowed to hold as true their assertions even when opposed to revealed 
doctrines." — CEcununical Council of 1870. 

" Glouc— The Church ! Where is \f>"—King- He?iry VI., Act i., Sc. i. 

IN the United States of America, sixty thousand {60,428) men are paid 
salaries to teach the Science of God and His relations to His crea- 

These men contract to impart to us the knowledge which treats of 
the existence, character, and attributes of our Creator ; His laws and 
government ; the doctrines we are to believe and the duties we are to 
practice. Five thousand (5,141) of them,* with the prospect of 1273 
theological students to help them in time, teach this science according 
to a formula prescribed by the Bishop of Rome, to five million people. 
Fifty-five thousand (55,287) local and travelling ministers, representing 
fifteen different denominations, f each contradicting the other upon more 
or less vital theological questions, instnict, in their respective doctrines, 
thirty-three million (33,500,000) other persons. Many of these teach ac- 
cording to the canons of the cis-Atlantic branch of an establishment 
which acknowledges a daughter of the late Duke of Kent as its spiritual 

* These figures are copied from the " Religious Statistics of the United States for tin, 
year 1871." 

\ These are : The Baptists, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Northern Method- 
ists, Southern Methodists, Methodists various. Northern Presbyterians, Southern Pres- 
byterians, United Presbyterians, United Brethren, Brethren in Christ, Reformed 
Dutch., Reformed German, Reformed Presbyterians, Cumberland Presbyterians. 


head. There are many hundred thousand Jews; some thousands of 
Orientals of all kinds ; and a very few who belong to the Greek Church. 
A man at Salt Lake City, with nineteen wives and more than one hun- 
dred children and grandchildren, is the supreme spiritual ruler over 
ninety thousand people, who believe that he is in frequent mtercourse 
with the gods — for the Mormons are Polytheists as well as Polygamists, 
and their chief god is represented as living in a planet they call Colob. 

The God of the Unitarians is a bachelor; the Deity of the Presby- 
terians, Methodists, Congregationalists, and the other orthodox Protestant 
sects a spouseless Father with one Son, who is identical with Himself. 
In the attempt to outvie each other in the erection of their sixty-two 
thousand and odd churches, prayer-houses, and meeting-halls, in which 
to teach these conflicting theological doctrines, $354, 485, 581 have been 
spent. The value of the Protestant parsonages alone, in which are 
sheltered the disputants and their families, is roughly calculated to 
approximate $54,115,297. Sixteen million (16,179,387) dollars, are, 
morever, contributed every year for current expenses of the Protestant 
denominations only. One Presbyterian church in New York cost a round 
million ; a Catholic altar alone, one-fourth as much ! 

We will not mention the multitude of smaller sects, communities, and 
extravagantly original little heresies in this country which spring up one 
year to die out the next, like so many spores of fungi after a rainy day. 
We will not even stop to consider the alleged millions of Spiritualists ; 
for the majority lack the courage to break away from their respective re- 
ligious denominations. These are the back-door Nicodemuses. 

And now, with Pilate, let us inquire. What is truth ? Where is it to be 
searched for amid this multitude of warring sects ? Each claims to be 
based upon divine revelation, and each to have the keys of the celestial 
gates. Is either in possession of this rare truth ? Or, must we exclaim 
with the Buddhist philosopher, " There is but one truth on earth, and it 
is unchangeable : and this is — that there is no truth on it ! " 

Though we have no disposition whatever to trench upon the ground 
that has been so exhaustively gleaned by those learned scholars who have 
shown that every Christian dogma has its origin in a heathen rite, still the 
facts which they have exhumed, since the enfranchisement of science, will 
lose nothing by repetition. Besides, we propose to examine these facts 
from a different and perhaps rather novel point of view : that of the old 
philosophies as esoterically understood. These we have barely glanced 
at in our first volume. We will use them as the standard by which to 
compare Christian dogmas and miracles with the doctrines and pheno- 
mena of ancient magic, and the modern " New Dispensation," as Spirit- 
ualism is called by its votaries. Since the materialists deny the phenom- 

"THE church! where IS IT?" 3 

ena without investigation, and since the theologians in admitting them 
offer us the poor choice of two palpable absurdities — the Devil and mira- 
cles — we can lose httle by applying to the theurgists, and tbey may actu- 
ally help us to throw a great hght upon a very dark subject. 

Professor A. Butlerof, of the Imperial University of St. Petersburg, 
remarks in a recent pamphlet, entitled Mediuviistic Manifestations, as 
follows : " Let the facts (of modern spiritualism) belong if you will to the 
number of those which were more or less known by the ancients ; let 
them be identical with those which in the dark ages gave importance to 
the office of Egyptian priest or Roman augur ; let them even furnish the 
basis of the sorcery of our Siberian Shaman ; ... let them be all these, 
and, if they are real facts, it is no business of ours. All the facts in 
nature belong to science, and every addition to the store of science en- 
riches instead of impoverishing her. If humanity has once admitted a 
trutii, and then in the blindness of self-conceit denied it, to return to its 
realization is a step forward and not backward." 

Since the day that modern science gave what may be considered the 
death-blow to dogmatic theology, by assuming the ground that religion 
was full of mysterjf, and mystery is unscientific, the mental state of 
the educated class has presented a curious aspect. Society seems from 
that time to have been ever balancing itself upon one leg, on an unseen 
tight-rope stretched from our visible universe into the invisible one ; un- 
certain whether the end hooked on faith in the latter might not suddenly 
break, and hurl it into final annihilation. 

The great body of nominal Christians may be divided into three 
unequal portions : materialists, spiritualists, and Christians proper. The 
materialists and spiritualists make common cause against the hierarchical 
pretensions of the clergy ; wl>o, in retaliation, denounce both with equal 
acerbity. The materialists are as little in harmony as the Christian sects 
themselves — the Comtists, or, as they call themselves, the positivists, 
being despised and hated to the last degree by the schools of thinkers, 
one of which Maudsley honorably represents in England. Positivism, be 
it remembered, is that " religion " of the future about whose founder even 
Huxley has made himself wrathful in his famous lecture. The Physical 
Basis of Life ; and Maudsley felt obhged, in behalf of modern science, 
to express himself thus : "It is no wonder that scientific men should be 
anxious to disclaim Comte as their law-giver, and to protest against such 
a king being set up to reign over them. Not conscious of any personal 
obligation to his writings — conscious how much, in some respects, he has 
misrepresented the spirit and pretensions of science — they repudiate the 
allegiance which his enthusiastic disciples would force upon them, and 
which popular opinion is fast coming to think a natural one. They do 


well in thus making a timely assertion of independence ; for if it be not 
done soon, it will soon be too late to be done well." * When a mate- 
rialistic doctrine is repudiated so strongly by two such materialists as 
Huxley and Maudsley, then we must think indeed that it is absurdity 


Among Christians there is nothing but dissension. Their various 
churches represent every degree of religious belief, from the omnivorous 
credulity of blind faith to a condescending and high-toned deference to 
the Deity which thinly masks an evident conviction of their own deific 
wisdom. All these sects believe more or less in the immortality of the 
soul. Some admit the intercourse between the two worlds as a fact ; 
some entertain the opinion as a sentiment ; some positively deny it ; and 
only a few maintain an attitude of attention and expectancy. 

Impatient of restraint, longing for the return of the dark ages, the 
Romish Church frowns at the diabolical manifestations, and indicates 
what she would do to their champions had she but the power of old. 
Were it not for the self-evident fact that she herself is placed by science 
on trial, and that she is handcuffed, she would be ready at a moment's 
notice to repeat in the nineteenth century the revolting scenes of former 
days. As to the Protestant clergy, so furious is their common hatred 
toward spiritualism, that as a secular paper very truly remarks : " They 
seem willing to undermine the public faith in all the spiritual pheno- 
mena of the past, as recorded in the Bible, if they can only see the pes- 
tilent modern heresy stabbed to the heart." f 

Summoning back the long-forgotten memories of the Mosaic laws, 
the Romish Church claims the monopoly of miracles, and of the right 
to sit in judgment over them, as being the sole heir thereto by di- 
rect inheritance. The Old Testaynent, exiled by Colenso, his prede- 
cessors and contemporaries, is recalled from its banishment. The proph- 
ets, whom his Holiness the Pope condescends at last to place, if not on 
the same level with himself, at least at a less respectful distance, J are 
dusted and cleaned. The memory of all the diabolical abracadabra is 
evoked anew. The blasphemous horrors perpetrated by Paganism, its 

* H. Maudsley : " Body and Mind." 

f " Boston Sunday Herald," November 5, 1876. 

\ See the self-glorification of the present Pope in the work entitled, " Speeches of 
Pope Pius IX." by Don Pascale de Franciscis ; and the famous pamphlet of that name 
by the Rt . Hon. W. E. Gladstone. The latter quotes from the work named the fol- 
lowing sentence pronounced by the Pope; " My wish is that all governments should 
know that I am speaking in this strain. . . . And I have the right to speak even 
more than Nathan the prophet to David the king, and a great deal more than St. 
Ambrose had to Theodosins 1 1 " 


phallic worship, thaumaturgical wonders wrought by Satan, human sacri- 
fices, incantations, witchcraft, magic, and sorcery are recalled and 
DEMONISM is confronted with spiritualism for mutual recognition and 
identification. Our modern demonologists conveniently overlook a few 
insignificant details, among which is the undeniable presence of heathen 
phallism in the Christian symbols. A strong spiritual element of this 
worship may be easily demonstrated in the dogma of the Immaculate 
Conception of the Virgin Mother of God ; and a physical element 
equally proved in the fetish-worship of the holy limbs of Sts. Cosmo and 
Damiano, at Isernia, near Naples ; a successful traffic in which ex-voto 
in wax was carried on by the clergy, annually, until barely a half centurj' 
ago. * 

We find it rather unwise on the part of Catholic writers to pour out 
their vials of wrath in such sentences as these : " In a multitude of 
pagodas, the phallic stone, ever and always assuming, like the Grecian 
batylos, the brutally indecent form of the lingham . . . the Maha 
Deva." I Before casting slurs on a symbol whose profound metaphysi- 
cal meaning is too much for the modern champions of that religion of 
sensualism far excellence, Roman Catholicism, to grasp, they are in duty 
bound to destroy their oldest churches, and change the form of the cupolas 
of their own temples. The Mahody of Elephanta, the Round Tower of 
Bhangulpore, the minarets of Islam — either rounded or pointed — are the 
originals of the Campanile column of San Marco, at Venice, of the Roch- 
ester Cathedral, and of the modern Duorao of Milan. All of these steeples, 
turrets, domes, and Christian temples, are the reproductions of the primitive 
idea of the litJios, the upright phallus. "The western tower of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London," says the author of The Hosicrucians, "is one of the 
double liihoi placed always in front of every temple, Cliristian as well as 
heathen." \ Moreover, in all Christian Churches, " particularly in Prot- 
estant churches, where they figure most conspicuously, the two tables of 
stone of the Mosaic Dispensation are placed over the altar, side by side, 
as a united stone, the tops of which are rounded. . . . The right stone is 
masculine, the left feminine." Therefore neither CathoUcs nor Protest- 
ants have a right to talk of the "indecent forms " of heathen monuments 
so long as they ornament their own churches with the symbols of the 
Lingham and Yoni, and even write the laws of their God upon them. 

Another detail not redounding very particularly to the honor of the 
Christian clergy might be recalled in the word Inquisition. The torrents 

* See King's "Gnostics," and other works. 

\ Des Mousseaux ; " La Magie au XlXme Siecle," chap. i. 

X Hargrave Jennings: " The Rosicrucians," pp. 228-241. 


of human blood shed by this Christian institution, and the number of 
its human sacrifices, are unparalleled in the annals of Paganism. Another 
still more prominent feature in which the clergy surpassed their "'^^'^"' 
the "heathen," is sorcery. Certainly in no Pagan temple was black 
magic, in its real and true sense, more practiced than in the Vatican. 
While strongly supporting exorcism as an important source of revenue, 
they neglected magic as little as the ancient heathen. It is easy to prove 
that the sortilegium, or sorcery, was widely practiced among the clergy 
and monks so late as the last century, and is practiced occasionally even 

Anathematizing every manifestation of occult nature outside the pre- 
cincts of the Church, the clergy— notwithstanding proofs to the contrary 
—call it " the work of Satan," " the snares of the fallen angels," who 
" rush in and out from the bottomless pit," mentioned by John in his 
kabalistic Revelation, " from whence arises a smoke as the smoke of a 
great furnace. " " Intoxicated by its fumes, around this pit are daily gather- 
ing millions of Spiritualists, to worship at ''the Abyss of Baal:' * 

More than ever arrogant, stubborn, and despotic, now that she has 
been nearly upset by modern research, not daring to interfere with the 
powerful champions of science, the Latin Church revenges herself upon 
the unpopular phenomena. A despot without a victim, is a word 
void of sense ; a power which neglects to assert itself through outward, 
well-calculated effects, risks being doubted in the end. The Church has 
no intention to fall into the oblivion of the ancient myths, or to suffer her 
authority to be too closely questioned. Hence she pursues, as well as 
the times permit, her traditional policy. Lamenting the enforced extinc- 
tion of her ally, the Holy Inquisition, she makes a virtue of necessity. 
The only victims now within reach are the Spiritists of France. Recent 
events have shown that the meek spouse of Christ never disdains to 
retaliate on helpless victims. 

Having successfully performed her part of Deus-ex-Machina from 
behind the French Bench, which has not scrupled to disgrace itself for 
her, the Church of Rome sets to work and shows in the year 1876 what 
she can do. From the whirling tables and dancing pencils of profane 
Spiritualism, the Christian world is warned to turn to the divine " mira- 
cles " of Lourdes. Meanwhile, the ecclesiastical authorities utilize their 
time in arranging for other more easy triumphs, calculated to scare the 
superstitious out of their senses. So, acting under orders, the clergy 
hurl dramatic, if not very impressive anathemas from every Catliolic 
diocese ; threaten right and left ; excommunicate and curse. Per- 

* Des Mousseaux : " Hauls Phenomenes de la Magie." 


ceiving, finally, that her thunderbolts dhected even against crowned 
heads fall about as harmlessly as the Jupiterean lightnings of Offenbach's 
Calchas, Rome turns about in powerless fury against the vLctimized pro- 
teges of the Emperor of Russia — the unfortunate Bulgarians and Ser- 
vians. Undisturbed by evidence and sarcasm, unbaffled by proof, " the 
lamb of the Vatican " impartially divides his wrath between the liberals 
of Italy, " the impious whose breath has the stench of the sepulchre," * 
the " schismatic Russian Sarmates" and the heretics and spiritualists, 
"who worship at the bottomless pit where the great Dragon lies in 

Mr. Gladstone went to the trouble of making a catalogue of what he 
terms the " flowers of speech," disseminated through these Papal dis- 
courses. Let us cull a few of the chosen terms used by this vicegerent of 
Him who said that, " whosoever shall say Thou fool, shall be in danger of 
hell-fire." They are selected from authentic discourses. Those who 
oppose the Pope are " wolves, Pharisees, thieves, liars, hypocrites, drop- 
sical children of Satan, sons of perdition, of sin, and corruption, satellites 
of Satan in human flesh, monsters of hell, demons incarnate, stinking 
corpses, men issued from the pits of hell, traitors and Judases led by the 
spirit of hell ; children of the deepest pits of hell," etc., etc ; the whole 
piously collected and published by Don Pasquale di Franciscis, whom 
Gladstone has, with perfect propriety, termed, " an accomplished profes- 
sor oiflunkeyistn in things spiritual." f 

Since his Holiness the Pope has such a rich vocabulary of invectives 
at his command, why wonder that the Bishop of Toulouse did not scruple 
to utter the most undignified falsehoods about the Protestants and Spirit- 
ualists of America — people doubly odious to a Catholic — in his address 
to his diocese : " Nothing," he remarks, " is more common in an era of 
unbelief than to see a false revelation substitute itself for the true o?ie, 
and minds neglect the teachings of the Holy Church, to devote them- 
selves to the study of divination and the occult sciences." With a fine 
episcopal contempt for statistics, and strangely confounding in his mem- 
ory the audiences of the revivalists, Moody and Sankey, and the patrons 
of darkened seance-rooms, he utters the unwarranted and fallacious as- 
sertion that " it has been proven that Spiritualism, in the United States, 
has caused one-sixth of all the cases of suicide and insanity." He says 
that it is not possible that the spirits ' ' teach either an exact science, 
because they are lying demons, or a usefiil science, because the character 

* Don Pasquale di Franciscis : " Discorsi del Sommo Pontefice Pio IX.," Part i., 

P- 34°- 

f "Speeches of Pius IX.," p. 14. Am. Edition. 


of the word of Satan, like Satan himself, Is sterile." He warns his dear 
collaborateurs, that " the writings In favor of Spiritualism are under_ e 
ban ; " and he advises them to let It be known that " to frequent spiritual 
circles with the Intention of accepting the doctrine, is to apostatize trom 
the Holy Church, and assume the risk of excommunication ; hnally 
says he, "Publish the fact that the teaching of no spirit should prevail 
against that of the pulpit of Peter, which is the teaching of the Spirit of 
God Himself!!" 

Aware of the many false teachings attributed by the Roman Church 
to the Creator, we prefer disbeUeving the latter assertion. The famous 
Catholic theologian, Tlllemont, assures us in his work that " all the illus- 
trious Pagans are condemned to the eternal torments of hell, because 
they hved before the time of Jesus, and, therefore, could not be benefited 
by the redemption I ! " He also assures us that the Virgin Mary person- 
ally testified to this truth over her own signature in a letter to a saint. 
Therefore, this is also a revelation — " the Spirit of God Himself" teaching 
such charitable doctrines. 

We have also read with great advantage the topographical descrip- 
tions of Hell and Purgatory in the celebrated treatise under that name 
by a Jesuit, the Cardinal Bellarmin. A critic found that the author, who 
gives the description from a divine vision with which he was favored, 
" appears to possess all the knowledge of a land-measurer " about the 
secret tracts and formidable divisions of the "bottomless pit." Justin 
Martyr having actually committed to paper the heretical thought that 
after all Socrates might not be altogether fixed in hell, his Benedictine 
editor criticises this too benevolent father very severely. Whoever 
doubts the Christian charity of the Church of Rome in this direction is 
invited to peruse the Censure of the Sorbonne, on Marmontel's Belisa- 
rius. The odium theologicum blazes in it on the dark sky of orthodox 
theology like an aurora borealis — the precursor of God's wrath, accord- 
ing to the teaching of certain mediaeval divines. 

We have attempted in the first part of this work to show, by histori- 
cal examples, how completely men of science have deserved the sting- 
ing sarcasm of the late Professor de Morgan, who remarked of them 
that "they wear the priest's cast-off garb, dyed to escape detection." 
The Christian clergy are, in like manner, attired in the cast-off garb of 
the heathen priesthood ; acting diametrically in opposition to their Gods 
moral precepts, but nevertheless, sitting in judgment over the whole 

When dying on the cross, the martyred Man of Sorrows forgave his 
enemies. His last words were a prayer in their behalf. He taught his 
disciples to curse not, but to bless, even their foes. But the heirs of 


St. Peter, the self-constituted representatives on earth of that same meek 
Jesus, unhesitatingly curse whoever resists their despotic will. Besides, 
was not the " Son " long since crowded by them into the 'background ? 
They make their obeisance only to the Dowager Mother, for — according 
to their teaching — again through "the direct Spirit of God," she alone 
acts as a mediatrix. The CEcumenical Council of 1870 embodied the 
teaching into a dogma, to disbelieve which is to be doomed forever to 
the ' bottomless pit.' The work of Don Pasquale di Franciscis is posi- 
tive on that point ; for he tells us that, as the Queen of Heaven owes to 
the present Pope " the finest gem in her coronet," since he has conferred 
on her the unexpected honor of becoming suddenly immaculate, there is 
nothing she cannot obtain from her Son for " her Church." * 

Some years ago, certain travellers saw in Barri, Italy, a statue of the 
Madonna, arrayed in a flounced pink skirt over a swelling crinoline ! 
Pious pilgrims who may be anxious to examine the regulation wardrobe 
of their God's mother may do so by going to Southern Italy, Spain, and 
Catholic North and South America. The Madonna of Barri must still 
be there — between two vineyards and a locanda (gin-shop). When last 
seen, a half-successful attempt had been made to clothe the infant Jesus ; 
they had covered his legs with a pair of dirty, scollop-edged pantaloons. 
An English traveller having presented the " Mediatrix " with a green 
silk parasol, the grateful population of the contadini, accompanied by the 
village-priest, went in procession to the spot. They managed to stick 
the sunshade, opened, between the infant's back and the arm of the 
Virgin which embraced him. The scene and ceremony were both sol- 
emn and highly refreshing to our religious feelings. For there stood the 
image of the goddess in its niche, surrounded with a row of ever-burning 
lamps, the flames of which, flickering in the breeze, infect God's pure air 
with an offensive smell of olive oil. The Mother and Son truly repre- 
sent the two most conspicuous idols of Monotheistic Christianity ! 

For a companion to the idol of the poor contadini of Barri, go to the 
rich city of Rio Janeiro. In the Church of the Duomo del Candelaria, 
in a long hall running along one side of the church, there might be seen, 
a few years ago, another Madonna. Along the walls of the hall there is 
a line of saints, each standing on a contribution-box, which thus forms a 
fit pedestal. In the centre of this line, under a gorgeously rich canopy 
of blue silk, is exhibited the Virgin Mary leaning on the arm of Christ. 
" Our Lady " is arrayed in a very decollete blue satin dress with short 

*Vide "Speeches of Pope Pius IX.," by Don Pasq. di Franciscis; Gladstone's 
pamphlet on this book; Draper's "Conflict between Religion and Science," and 


sleeves, showing, to great advantage, a snow-white, exquisitely-mou c 
neck, shoulders, and arms. The skirt equally of blue satin with an over- 
skirt of rich lace and gauze puffs, is as short as that of a ballet-dancei ; 
hardly reaching the knee, it exhibits a pair of finely-shaped legs covered 
with flesh colored silk tights, and blue satin French boots with very high 
red heels ! The blonde hair of this " xMother of God " is arranged in 
the latest fashion, with a voluminous chignon and curls. As she leans on 
her Son's arm, her face is lovingly turned toward her Only-Begotten, 
whose dress and attitude are equally worthy of admiration. Christ wears 
an evening dress-coat, with swallow-tail, black trousers, and low cut 
white vest ; varnished boots, and white kid gloves, over one of which spar- 
kles a rich diamond ring, worth many thousands we must suppose— a 
precious Brazihan jewel. Above this body of a modern Portuguese dan- 
dy, is a head with the hair parted in the middle ; a sad and solemn face, 
and eyes whose patient look seems to reflect all the bitterness of this 
last insult flung at the majesty of the Crucified. * 

The Egyptian Isis was also represented as a Virgin Mother by her 
devotees, and as holding her infant son, Horus, in her arms. In some 
statues and basso-relievos, when she appears alone she is either com- 
pletely nude or veiled from head to foot. But in the Mysteries, in common 
with nearly every other goddess, she is entirely veiled from head to foot, 
as a symbol of a mother's chastity. It would not do us any harm were 
we to borrow from the ancients some of the poetic sentiment in their 
religions, and the innate veneration they entertained for their symbols. 

It is but fair to say at once that the last of the true Christians died 
with the last of the direct apostles. Max Miiller forcibly asks : " How 
can a missionary in such circumstances meet the surprise and questions 
of his pupils, unless he may point to that seed, f and tell them what 
Christianity was meant to be ? unless he may show that, like all other reli- 
gions, Christianity too, has had its history ; that the Christianity of the 
nineteenth century is not the Christianity of the middle ages, and that 
the Christianity of the middle ages was not that of the early Councils ; 
that the Cliristianity of the early Councils was not that of the Apostles, 
and that what has been said by Christ, that alone was well said ? " J 

Thus we may infer that the only characteristic difference between 
modern Christianity and the old heathen faiths is the belief of the former 
in a personal devil and in hell. " The Aryan nations had no devil," 
says Max Miiller. " Pluto, though of a sombre character, was a very 

* The fact is given to us by an eye-witness who has visited the church several times • 
a Roman Catholic, who felt perfectly horrified, as he expressed it. 
\ Referring to the seed planted by Jesus and his Apostles. 
\ "Chips," vol. i., p. 26, Preface. 


respectable personage ; and Loki (the Scandinavian), though a mischiev- 
ous person, was not a fiend. The German Goddess, Hell, too, like 
Proserpine, had once seen better days. Thus, when the'Germans were 
indoctrinated with the idea of a real devil, the Semitic Seth, Satan or 
Diabolus, they treated him in the most good-humored way." 

The same may be said of hell. Hades was quite a different place from 
our region of eternal damnation, and might be termed rather an inter- 
mediate state of purification. Neither does the Scandinavian Hel or 
Hela, imply either a state or a place of punishment ; for when Frigga, 
the grief-stricken mother of Bal-dur, the white god, who died and found 
himself in the dark abodes of the shadows (Hades) sent Hermod, a son 
of Thor, in quest of her beloved child, the messenger found him in the 
inexorable region — alas ! but still comfortably seated on a rock, and 
reading a book.* The Norse kingdom of the dead is moreover situated 
in the higher latitudes of the Polar regions ; it is a cold and cheerless 
abode, and neither the gelid halls of Hela, nor the occupation of Baldur 
present the least similitude to the blazing hell of eternal fire and the 
miserable " damned " sinners with which the Church so generously peoples 
it. No more is it the Eg)^tian Amenthes, the region of judgment and 
purification ; nor the Onderah — the abyss of darkness of the Hindus ; 
for even the fallen angels hurled into it by Siva, are allowed by Para- 
brahma to consider it as an intermediate state, in which an opportunity 
is afforded them to prepare for higher degrees of purification and redemp- 
tion from their wretched condition. The Gehenna of the New Testa- 
ment was a locality outside the walls of Jerusalem ; and in mentioning 
it, Jesus used but an ordinary metaphor. Whence then came the dreary 
dogma of hell, that Archimedean lever of Christian theology, with which 
they have succeeded to hold in subjection the numberless millions of 
Christians for nineteen centuries ? Assuredly not from the Jewish 
Scriptures, and we appeal for corroboration to any well-informed Hebrew 

The only designation of something approaching hell in the Bible is 
Gehen?ia or Hinnom, a valley near Jerusalem, where was situated Tophet, 
a place where a fire was perpetually kept for sanitary purposesi The 
prophet Jeremiah informs us that the Israelites used to sacrifice their 
children to Moloch-Hercules on that spot ; and later we find Chris- 
tians quietly replacing this divinity by their god of mercy, whose wrath 
will not be appeased, unless the Church sacrifices to him her unbaptized 
children and sinning sons on the altar of " eternal damnation ! " 

Whence then did the divine learn so well the conditions of hell, as 

* Mallet : " Northern Antiquities." 


to actually divide its torments into two kinds, i\\^ pana damni and paenEe 
sensus, the former being the privation of the beatific vision ; the latter 
the eternal pains in a lake of fire and brimstone ? If they answer us that 
it is in the Apocalypse (xx. lo), we are prepared to demonstrate whence 
the theologist John himself derived the idea, " And ///^ fl'^wV that deceived 
them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast ^z.nA 
the false prophet are and shall be tormented for ever and ever," he 
says. Laying aside the esoteric interpretation that the "devil" or 
tempting demon meant our own earthly body, which after death will 
surely dissolve in \he fiery or ethereal elements,* the word "eternal" by 
which our theologians interpret the words '• for ever and ever" does not 
exist in the Hebrew language, either as a word or meaning. There is 
no Hebrew word which properly expresses eternity ; d>ij? oulam, according 
to Le Clerc, only imports a time whose beginning or end is not known. 
While showing that this word does not mean infinite duration, and that 
in the Old Testament the word forever only signifies a long time. Arch- 
bishop Tillotson has completely perverted its sense with respect to the 
idea of hell-torments. According to his doctrine, when Sodom and 
Gomorrah are said to be suffering " eternal fire," we must understand it 
only in the sense of that fire nat being extinguished till both cities were 
entirely consumed. But, as to hell-fire the words must be understood in 
the strictest sense of infinite duration. Such is the decree of the learned 
divine. For the duration of the punishment of the wicked must be 
proportionate to the eternal happiness of the righteous. So he says, 
" These (speaking of the wicked) " shall go away eis KoKaaw uuivtov into 
eternal punishment ; but the righteous €is Jcuryv amviov into life eternal." 

The Reverend T. Surnden, f commenting on the speculations of his 
predecessors, fills a whole volume with unanswerable arguments, tending 
to show that the locality of Hell is in the sun. We suspect that the rev- 
erend speculator had read the Apocalypse in bed, and had the night- 
mare in consequence. There are two verses in the Revelation of John 
reading thus : "And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun, 
and power was given him to scorch men with fire. And men were 
scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the name of God." J This is 
simply Pythagorean and kabahstic allegory. The idea is new neither with 
the above-mentioned author nor with John. Pythagoras placed the 
" sphere of purification in the sun," which sun, with its sphere, he moreover 

* Ether is both pure and impure fire. The composition of the latter comprises all 
its visible forms, such as the " correlation of forces" — heat, flame, electricity etc. 
The former is the Spirit of Fire. The difference is purely alchemical. 

I See " Inquiry into the Nature and Place of Hell," by Rev. T. Surnden. 

:|; Revelation xvi. S-9. 


locates in the middle of the universe, * the allegory having a double mean- 
ing : I. Symbolically, the central, spiritual sun, the Supreme Deity. 
Arrived at this region every soul becomes purified of its sins, and unites 
itself forever with its spirit, having previously suffered throughout all the 
lower spheres. 2. By placing the sphere of visible fire in the middle of 
the universe, he simply taught the heliocentric system which appertained 
to the Mysteries, and was imparted only in the higher degree of initiation. 
John gives to his Word a purely kabalistic significance, which no " Fathers," 
except those who had belonged to the Neo-platonic school, were able to 
comprehend. Origen understood it well, having been a pupil of Ammo- 
nius Saccas ; therefore we see him bravely denying the perpetuity of hell- 
torments. He maintains that not only men, but even devils (by which 
term he meant disembodied human sinners), after a certain duration of 
punishment shall be pardoned and finally restored to heaven, f In con- 
sequence of this and other such heresies Origen was, as a matter of 
course, exiled. 

Many have been the learned and truly-inspired speculations as to the 
locality of hell. The most popular were those which placed it in the 
centre of the earth. At a certain time, however, skeptical doubts which 
disturbed the placidity of faith in this highly-refreshing doctrine arose in 
consequence of the meddling scientists of those days. As a Mr. Swinden 
in our own century observes, the theory was inadmissible because of two 
objections : ist, that a fund of fuel or sulphur sufficient to maintain so 
furious and constant a fire could not be there supposed ; and, 2d, that it 
must want the nitrous particles in the air to sustain and keep it alive. 
"And how," says he, "can a fire be eternal, when, by degrees, the whole 
substance of the earth must be consumed thereby ? " J 

The skeptical gentleman had evidently forgotten that centuries ago St. 
Augustine solved the difficulty. Have we not the word of this learned 
divine that hell, nevertheless, is in the centre of the earth, for " God sup- 
plies the central fire with air by a miracle? " The argument is unanswerable, 
and so we will not seek to upset it. 

The Christians were the first to make the existence of Satan a dogma 
of the Church. And once that she had established it, she had to 
struggle for over 1,700 years for the repression of a mysterious force 
which it was her policy to make appear of diabolical origin. Unfortu- 
nately, in manifesting itself, this force invariably tends to upset such 
a belief by the ridiculous discrepancy it presents between the alleged 
cause and the effects. If the clergy have not over-estimated the real power 

* Aristotle mentions Pythagoreans who placed the sphere of fire in the sun, and 
named it Jupiter''s Prison. See " De Coelo," lib. ii. 

\ "DeCivit. Dei," i, xxi., c. 17. % " Demonologia and Hell," p. 289. 


of the " Arch-Enemy of God," it must be confessed that he takes mig^'y 
precautions against being recognized as the " Prince of Darkness wio 
aims at our souls. If modern " spirits " are devils at all, as preactiea 
by the clergy, then they can only be those "poor" or " stupid devils 
whom Max Mffller describes as appearing so often in the German and 
Norwegian tales. ,. 

Notwithstanding this, the clergy fear above all to be forced to relin- 
quish this hold on humanity. They are not willing to let us judge of the 
tree by its fruits, for that might sometimes force them into dangerous di- 
lemmas. They refuse, likewise, to admit, with unprejudiced people, that 
the phenomena of Spiritualism has unquestionably spiritualized and re- 
claimed from evil courses many an indomitable atheist and skeptic. But, as 
they confess themselves, what is the use in a Pope, if there is no Devil ? 

And so Rome sends her ablest advocates and preachers to the rescue 
of those perishing in " the bottomless pit." Rome employs her cleverest 
writers for this purpose— albeit they all indignantly deny the accusation— 
and in the preface to every book put forth by the prolific des Mousseaux, 
the French Tertullian of our century, we find undeniable proofs of the 
fact. Among other certificates of ecclesiastical approval, every volume is 
ornamented with the text of a certain original letter addressed to the very 
pious author by the world-known Father Ventura de Raulica, of Rome. 
Few are those who have not heard this famous name. It is the name of 
one of the chief pillars of the Latin Church, the ex-General of the Order 
of the Theatins, Consultor of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, Examiner 
of Bishops, and of the Roman Clergy, etc., etc., etc. This strikingly 
characteristic document vnll remain to astonish future generations by 
its spirit of unsophisticated demonolatry and unblushing sincerity. We 
translate a fragment verbatim, and by thus helping its circulation hope to 
merit the blessings of Mother Church : * 

"Monsieur and excellent Friend: 

"The greatest victory of Satan was gained on that day when he succeeded in mak- 
ing himself denied. 

" To demonstrate the existence of Satan, is to reestablish one of the fundamental 
dogmas of the Church, which serve as a basis for Christianity, and, without which, Satan 
would be but a name. . . . 

" Magic, mesmerism, magnetism, somnambulism, spiritualism, spiritism, hypnotism 
. . . are only other names for SATANISM. 

" To bring out such a truth and show it in its proper light, is to unmask the enemy ; 
it is to unveil the immense danger of certain practices, reputed innocent ; it is to de- 
serve well in the eyes of humanity and of religion. 

" Father Ventura de Raulica." 

* " Les Hauts Ph^nomenes de la Magie," p. v., Preface. 


A — men ! 

This is an unexpected honor indeed, for our American " controls " in 
general, and the innocent "Indian guides" in particular. *To be thus 
introduced in Rome as princes of the Empire of Eblis, is more than they 
could ever hope for in other lands. 

Without in the least suspecting that she was working for the future 
welfare of her enemies — the spiritualists and spiritists — the Church, some 
twenty years since, in tolerating des Mousseaux and de Mirville as the 
biographers of the Devil, and giving her approbation thereto, tacitly con- 
fessed the literary copartnership. 

M. the Chevalier Gougenot des Mousseaux, and his friend and colla- 
borateur, the Marquis Eudes de Afirville, to judge by their long titles, 
must be aristocrats J>ur sang, and they are, moreover, writers of no small 
erudition and talent. Were they to show themselves a little more parsi- 
monious of double points of exclamation following every vituperation, 
and invective against Satan and his worshippers, their style would be fault- 
less. As it is, the crusade against the enemy of mankind was fierce, and 
lasted for over twenty years. 

What with the Catholics piling up their psychological phenomena to 
prove the existence of a personal devil, and the Count de Gasparin, an 
ancient minister of Louis Philippe, collecting volumes of other facts to 
prove the contrary, the spiritists of France have contracted an everlast- 
ing debt of gratitude toward the disputants. The existence of an unseen 
spiritual imiverse peopled with invisible beings has now been demon- 
strated beyond question. Ransacking the oldest libraries, they have dis- 
tilled from the historical records the quintessence of evidence. All 
epochs, from the Homeric ages down to the present day, have supplied 
their choicest materials to these indefatigable authors. In trying to prove 
the authenticity of the miracles wrought by Satan in the days preceding 
the Christian era, as well as throughout the middle ages, they have sim- 
ply laid a firm foundation for a study of the phenomena in our modern 

Though an ardent, uncompromising enthusiast, des Mousseaux un- 
wittingly transforms himself into the tempting demon, or — as he is fond 
of calling the Devil — the " serpent of Genesis." In his desire to demon- 
strate in every manifestation the presence of the Evil One, he only suc- 
ceeds in demonstrating that Spiritualism and magic are no new things in 
the world, but very ancient twin-brothers, whose origin must be sought 
for in the earliest infancy of ancient India, Chaldea, Babylonia, Egypt, 
Persia, and Greece. 

He proves the existence of "spirits," whether these be angels or 
devils, with such a clearness of argument and logic, and such an amount 


of evidence, historical, irrefutable, and strictly authenticated, that little is 
left for spiritualist authors who may come after him. How unfortunate 
that the scientists, who beheve neither in devil nor spirit, are more than 
likely to ridicule M. des Mousseaux's books without reading them, for 
they really contain so many facts of profound scientific interest ! 

But what can we expect in our own age of unbelief, when we find 
Plato, over twenty-two centuries ago, complaining of the same ? " Me, 
too," says he, in his Euthyphron, " when I say anything in the public 
assembly concerning divine things, and predict to the7n what is going to 
happen, they ridicule as mad ; and although nothing that I have predicted 
has proved untrue, yet they envy all such men as we are. However, we 
ought not to heed, but pursue our own way." 

The literary resources of the Vatican and other Catholic repositories 
of learning must have been freely placed at the disposal of these modern 
authors. When one has such treasures at hand— original manuscripts, 
papyri, and books pillaged from the richest heathen libraries ; old trea- 
tises on magic and alchemy ; and records of all the trials for witchcraft, 
and sentences for the same to rack, stake, and torture, it is mighty easy 
to write volumes of accusations against the Devil. We affirm on good 
grounds that there are hundreds of the most valuable works on the occult 
sciences, which are sentenced to eternal concealment from the pubhc, 
but are attentively read and studied by the privileged who have access to 
the Vatican Library. The laws of nature are the same for heathen sor- 
cerer as for Catholic saint ; and a " miracle " may be produced as well by 
one as by the other, without the slightest intervention of God or devil. 

Hardly had the manifestations begun to attract attention in Europe, 
than the clergy commenced their outcry that their traditional enemy had 
reappeared under another name, and "divine miracles" also began to 
be heard of in isolated instances. First they were confined to humble 
individuals, some of whom claimed to have them produced through the 
intervention of the Virgin Mary, saints and angels ; others — according to 
the clergy — began to suffer from obsession and possession ; for the Devil 
must have his share of fame as well as the Deity. Finding that, not- 
withstanding the warning, the independent, or so-called spiritual phe- 
nomena went on increasing and multiplying, and that these manifesta- 
tions threatened to upset the carefully-constructed dogmas of the Church, 
the world was suddenly startled by extraordinary intelligence. In 1864, 
a whole community became possessed of the Devil. Morzine, and the 
awful stories of its demoniacs ; A'alleyres, and the narratives of its well- 
authenticated exhibitions of sorcery ; and those of the Presbytere de 
Cideville curdled the blood in Catholic veins. 

Strange to say, the question has been asked over and over again, 


why the " divine " miracles and most of the obsessions are so strictly 
confined to Roman Catholic dioceses and countries ? Why is it that 
since the Reformation there has been scarcely one single mvine " mira- 
cle " in a Protestant land? Of course, the answer we must expect from 
Catholics is, that the latter are peopled by heretics, and abandoned by 
God. Then why are there no more Church-miracles in Russia, a coun- 
try whose religion differs from the Roman Catholic faith but in external 
forms of rites, its fundamental dogmas being identically the same, except 
as to the emanation of the Holy Ghost ? Russia has her accepted saints 
and thaumaturgical relics, and miracle-working images. The St. Mitro- 
phaniy of Voroneg is an authenticated miracle-worker, but his miracles 
are limited to heaUng ; and though hundreds upon hundreds have been 
healed through faith, and though the old cathedral is full of magnetic ef- 
fluvia, and whole generations will go on believing in his i^ower, and some 
persons will always be healed, still no such miracles are heard of in Rus- 
sia as the Madonna-walking, and Madonna letter-writing, and statue-talk- 
ing of CathoHc countries. Why is this so .' Sunply because the emperors 
have strictly forbidden that sort of thing. The Czar, Peter the Great, 
stopped every spurious " divine " njiracle with one frown of his mighty 
brow. He declared he would have no false miracles played by the holy 
icones (images of saints), and they disappeared forever. * 

There are cases on record of isolated and independent phenomena 
exhibited by certain images in the last century ; the latest was the bleed- 
ing of the cheek of an image of the Virgin, when a soldier of Napoleon 
cut her face in two. This miracle, alleged to have happened in 1812, in 
the days of the invasion by the " grand army," was the final farewell.f 

* Dr. Stanley: "Lectures on the Eastern Church," p. 407. 

■j- In the government of Tambov, a gentleman, a rich landed proprietor, had a curious 
case happen in his family during the Hungarian campaign of 1S4S. His only and much- 
beloved nephew, whom, having no children, he had adopted as a son, was in the Russian 
army. The elderly couple had a portrait of his — a water-color painting — constantly, 
during the meals, placed on the table in front of the young man's usual seat. One 
evening as the family, with some friends, were at their early tea, the glass over the por- 
trait, without any one touching it, was shattered to atoms with a loud explosion. As 
the aunt of the young soldier caught the picture in her hand she saw the forehead and 
head besmeared with blood. The guests, in order to quiet her, attributed the blood to 
her having £Ut her fingers with the broken glass. But, examine as they would, they 
could not find the vestige of a cut on her fingers, and no one had touched the picture but 
herself. Alarmed at her state of excitement the husband, pretending to examine the 
portrait more closely, cut his finger on purpose, and then tried to assure her that it was 
his blood and that, in the first excitement, he had touched the frame without any one 
remarking it. All was in vain, the old lady felt sure that Dimitry was killed. She 
began to have masses said for him daily at the village church, and arrayed the whole 


But since then, although the three successive emperors have been pious 
men. their will has been respected, and the images and saints have 
remained quiet, and hardly been spoken of except as connected with 
religious worship. In Poland, a land of furious ultramontanism, there 
wer°e, at different times, desperate attempts at miracle-doing. They died 
at birth, however, for the argus-eyed police were there ; a Catholic mira- 
cle in Poland, made public by the priests, generally meaning pohtical 
revolution, bloodshed, and war. 

Is It then, not permissible to at least suspect that if, in one country 
divine miracles may be arrested by civil and military law, and in another 
they never occur, we must search for the explanation of the two facts in 
some natural cause, instead of attributing them to either god or devil ? 
In our opinion— if it is worth anything— the whole secret may be 
accounted for as follows. In Russia, the clergy know better than to 
bewilder their parishes, whose piety is sincere and faith strong without 
miracles ; they know that nothing is better calculated than the latter to 
sow seeds of distrust, doubt, and finally of skepticism which leads directly 
to atheism. Moreover the climate is less propitious, and the magnetism 
of the average population too positive, too healthy, to call forth independ- 
ent phenomena ; and fraud would not answer. On the other hand, 
neither in Protestant Germany, nor England, nor yet in America, since 
the days of the Reformation, has the clergy had access to any of the Vati- 
can secret libraries. Hence they are all but poor hands at the magic of 
Albertus Magnus. 

As for America being overflowed with sensitives and mediums, the 
reason for it is partially attributable to climatic influence and especially 
to the physiological condition of the population. Since the days of the 
Salem witchcraft, 200 years ago, when the comparatively few settlers had 
pure and unadulterated blood in their veins, nothing much had been 
heard of " spirits" or "mediums" until 1840. * The phenomena then 
first appeared among the ascetic and exalted Shakers, whose religious 
aspirations, peculiar mode of life, moral purity, and physical chastity 
all led to the production of independent phenomena of a psychological 

household in deep mourning. Several weeks later, an official communication was 
received from the colonel of the regiment, stating that their nephew was killed by a 
fragment of a shell which had carried off the upper part of his head. 

* Executions for witchcraft took place, not much later than a century ago, in other 
of the American provinces. Notoriously there were negroes executed in New Jersey by 
burning at the stake — the penalty denounced in several States. Even in South Caro- 
lina, in 1865, when the State government was " reconstructed," after the civil war the 
statutes inflicting death for witchcraft were found to be still unrepealed. It is not a 
hundred years since they have been enforced to the murderous letter of their text. 


as well as physical nature. Hundreds of thousands, and even millions 
of men from various climates and of different constitutions and habits, 
have, since 1692, invaded North America, and by intermarrying have sub- 
stantially changed the physical type of the inhabitants. Of what country 
in the world do the women's constitutions bear comparison with the deli- 
cate, nervous, and sensitive constitutions of the feminine portion of the 
population of the'United States ? We were struck on our arrival in the 
country with the semi-transparent delicacy of skin of the natives of both 
sexes. Compare a hard-working Irish factory girl or boy, with one from 
a genuine American family. Look at their hands. One works as hard 
as the other ; they are of equal age, and both seemingly healthy ; and 
still, while the hands of the one, after an hour's soaping, will show a skin 
little softer than that of a young alligator, those of the other, notwith- 
standing constant use, will allow you to observe the circulation of the 
blood under the thin and delicate epidermis. No wonder, then, that 
while America is the conservatory of sensitives the majority of its clergy, 
unable to produce divine or any other miracles, stoutly deny the possi- 
bility of any phenomena except those produced by tricks and juggling. 
And no wonder also that the Catholic priesthood, who are practically 
aware of the existence of magic and spiritual phenomena, and believe in 
them while dreading their consequences, try to attribute the whole to the 
agency of the Devil. 

Let us adduce one more argument, if only for the sake of circum- 
stantial evidence. In what countries have " divine miracles " flourished 
most, been most frequent and most stupendous ? Catholic Spain, and 
Pontifical Italy, beyond question. And which more than these two, has 
had access to ancient literature ? Spain was famous for her libraries ; 
the Moors were celebrated for their profound learning in alchemy and 
other sciences. The Vatican is the storehouse of an immense number 
of ancient manuscripts. During the long interval of nearly 1,500 years 
they have been accumulating, from trial after trial, books and manuscripts 
confiscated from their sentenced victims, to their own profit. The Cath- 
olics may plead that the books were generally committed to the flames ; 
that the treatises of famous sorcerers and enchanters perished with their 
accursed authors. But the Vatican, if it could speak, could tell a dif- 
ferent story. It knows too well of the existence of certain closets and 
rooms, access to which is had but by the very few. It knows that the 
entrances to these secret hiding-places are so cleverly concealed from 
sight in the carved frame-work and under the profuse ornamentation of 
the library-walls, that there have even been Popes who lived and died 
within the precmcts of the palace without ever suspecting their existence. 
But these Popes were neither Sylvester II., Benedict IX., John XX., nor 


the Vlth and Vllth Gregory ; nor yet the famous Borgia of toxicolo^cal 
memory. Neither were those who remained ignorant of the hidden lore 
friends of the sons of Loyola. 

Where, in the records of European Magic, can we iind cleverer 
enchanters than in the mysterious solitudes of the cloister ? Albert 
Magnus, the famous Bishop and conjurer of Ratisbon, was never sur- 
passed in his art. Roger Bacon was a monk, and Thomas Aquinas one 
of the most learned pupils of Albertus. Trithemius, Abbot of the 
Spanheim Benedictines, was the teacher, friend, and confidant of Corne- 
lius Agrippa; and while the confederations of the Theosophists were 
scattered broadcast about Germany, where they first originated, assist- 
ing one another, and struggling for years for the acquirement of esoteric 
knowledge, any person who knew how to become the favored pupil of cer- 
tain monks, might very soon be proficient in all the important branches 
of occult learning. 

This is all in history and cannot be easily denied. Magic, in all its 
aspects, was widely and nearly openly practiced by the clergy till the 
Reformation. And even he who was once called the " Father of the 
Reformation," the famous John Reuchlin, * author of the Mirific Word 
and friend of Pico di Mirandola, the teacher and instructor of Erasmus, 
Luther, and Melancthon, was a kabalist and occultist. 

The ancient Soriilegium, or divination by means of Sortes or lots — 
an art and practice now decried by the clergy as an abomination, desig- 
nated by Stat. lo Jac. as felony, f and by Stat. 12 Carolus I J. ex- 
cepted out of the general pardons, on the ground of being sorcery — 
was widely practiced by the clergy and monks. Nay, it was sanctioned 
by St. Augustine himself, who does not " disapprove of this method of 
learning futurity, provided it be not used for worldly purposes." More 
than that, he confesses having practiced it himself. J 

Aye ; but the clergy called it Sortes Sa?tctorum, when it was they 
who practiced it ; while the Sortes Prce.nestince, succeeded by the Sortes 
Homcric(C and Sortes Virgiliana, were abominable heathenism, the 
worship of the Devil, when used by any one else. 

Gregory de Tours informs us that when the clergy resorted to the 
Sortes their custom was to lay the £ible on the altar, and to pray the 
Lord that He would discover His will, and disclose to them futurity in 
one of the verses of the book. Gilbert de Nogent writes that in his days 

* Vide the title-page on tlie English translation of Mayerhoff's " Reuchlin und 
Seine Zeit," Berlin, 1830. "The Life and Times of John Reuchlin, or Capnion, the 
Father of the German Reformation," by F. Barham, London, 1843. 

f Lord Coke : 3 " Institutes," fol. 44. 

I Vidi "The Life of St. Gregory of Tours." 

- i 


(about the twelfth century) the custom was, at the consecration of 
bishops, to consult the Sortes Sanctorum, to thereby learn the success 
and fate of the episcopate. On the other hand, we are told that the Sor- 
tes Sanctorum were condemned by the Council of Agda, in 506. In this 
case again we are left to inquire, in which instance has the infallibihty of 
the Church failed ? Was it when she prohibited that which was practiced 
by her greatest saint and patron, Augustine, or in the twelfth centur)', 
when it was openly and with the sanction of the same Church practiced 
by the clergy for the benefit of the bishop's elections ? Or, must we still 
believe that in both of these contradictory cases tlie Vatican was inspired 
by the direct " spirit of God? " 

If any doubt that Gregory of Tours approved of a practice that pre- 
vails to this day, more or less, even among strict Protestants, let them 
read this : " Lendastus, Earl of Tours, who was for ruining me with 
Queen Fredegonde, coming to Tours, big with evil designs against me, I 
withdrew to my oratory under a deep concern, where I took the Psalms. 
. . . My heart revived within me when I cast my eyes on this of the 
seventy-seventh Psalm : ' He caused them to go on with confidence, 
whilst the sea swallowed up their enemies.' Accordingly, the count 
spoke not a word to my prejudice ; and leaving Tours that very day, the 
boat in which he was, sunk in a storm, but his skill in swimming saved 

The sainted bishop simply confesses here to having practiced a bit of 
sorcery. Every mesmerizer knows the power of u<ill during an intense 
desire bent on any particular subject. Whether in consequence of " co- 
incidents " or otherwise, the opened verse suggested to his mind revenge 
by drowning. Passing the remainder of the day in " deep concern," and 
possessed by this aU-absorbing thought, the saint — it may be unconsciously 
— exercises his will on the subject ; and thus while imagining in the acci- 
dent the hand of God, he simply becomes a sorcerer exercising his mag- 
netic will which reacts on the person feared ; and the count barely 
escapes with his life. Were the accident decreed by God, the culprit 
would have been drowned ; for a simple bath could not have altered his 
malevolent resolution against St. Gregory had he been very intent on it. 

Furthermore, we find anathemas fulminated against this lottery of 
fate, at the council of Varres, which forbids " all ecclesiastics, under pain 
of excommunication, to perform that kind of divination, or to pry into 
futurity, by looking into any book, or writing, whatsoever." The same 
prohibition is pronounced at the coimcils of Agda in 506, of Orleans, in 
SIX, of Auxerre in 595, and finally at the council of Aenham in mo ; 
the latter condemning " sorcerers, witches, diviners, such as occasioned 
death by magical operations, and who practiced fortune-telling by the 


holy-book lots ; " and the complaint of the joint clergy against de Gar- 
lande, their bishop at Orleans, and addressed to Pope Alexander III., 
concludes in this manner : " Let your apostolical hands put on strength 
to strip naked the iniquity of this man, that the curse prognosticated on 
the day of his consecration may overtake him ; for the gospels bemg 
opened on the altar according to custom, the first words were : and the 
young man, leaving his linen cloth, fled from them naked!' * 

Why then roast the lay-magicians and consulters of books, and cano- 
nize the ecclesiastics ? Simply because the mediseval as well as the 
modern phenomena, manifested through laymen, whether produced 
through occult knowledge or happening independently, upset the claims 
of both the Catholic and Protestant Churches to divine miracles. In the 
face of reiterated and unimpeachable evidence it became impossible for 
the former to maintain successfully the assertion that seemingly miracu- 
lous manifestations by the "good angels" and God's direct intervention 
could be produced exclusively by her chosen ministers and holy saints. 
Neither could the Protestant well maintain on the same ground that 
miracles had ended with the apostolic ages. For, whether of the same 
nature or not, the modern phenomena claimed close kinship with the 
biblical ones. The magnetists and healers of our century came into 
direct and open competition with the apostles. The Zouave Jacob, of 
France, had outrivalled the prophet Elijah in recalling to life persons 
who were seemingly dead ; and Alexis, the somnambulist, mentioned by 
Mr. Wallace in his work,f was, by his lucidity, putting to shame apostles, 
prophets, and the Sibyls of old. Since the burning of the last witch, the 
great Revolution of France, so elaborately prepared by the league of 
the secret societies and their clever emissaries, had blown over Europe 
and awakened terror in the bosom of the clergy. It had, like a destroy- 
ing hurricane, swept away in its course those best allies of the Church, 
the Roman Catholic aristocracy. A sure foundation was now laid for 
the right of individual opinion. The world was freed from ecclesiastical 
tyranny by opening an unobstructed path to Napoleon the Great, who 
had given the deathblow to the Inquisition. This great slaughter-house 
of the Christian Church — wherein she butchered, in the name of the 
I^ainb, all the sheep arbitrarily declared scurvy — was in ruins, and she 
found herself left to her own responsibility and resources. 

So long as the phenomena had appeared only sporadically, she had 
always felt herself powerful enough to repress the consequences. Super- 

* Translated from the original document in the Archives of Orleans, France j also 
see " Sortes and Sortilegium ; " " Life of Peter de Blois." 
f "Miracles and Modern Spiritualism." 


stition and belief in the Devil were as strong as ever, and Science had not 
yet dared to publicly measure her forces with those of supernatural Religion. 
Meanwhile the enemy had slowly but surely gained ground. All at once 
it broke out with an unexpected violence. " Miracles " began to appear 
in full daylight, and passed from their mystic seclusion into the domain 
of natural law, where the profane hand of Science was ready to strip off 
their sacerdotal mask. Still, for a time, the Church held her position, and 
with the powerful help of superstitious fear checked the progress of the 
intruding force. But, when in succession appeared mesmerists and som- 
nambulists, reproducing the physical and mental phenomenon of ecstasy, 
hitherto believed to be the special gift of saints ; when the passion for 
the turning tables had reached in France and elsewhere its climax of 
fury ; when the psychography — alleged spiritual — from a simple curiosity 
had developed itself and settled into an unabated interest, and finally 
ebbed into religious mysticism ; when the echoes aroused by the first raps 
of Rochester, crossing the oceans, spread until they were re-percussed from 
nearly every corner of the world — then, and only then, the Latin Church 
was fully awakened to a sense of danger. Wonder after wonder was 
reported to have occurred in the spiritual circles and the lecture-rooms 
of the mesmerists ; the sick were healed, the blind made to see, the lame 
to walk, the deaf to hear. J. R. Newton in America, and Du Potet in 
France, were healing the multitude without the slightest claim to divine 
intervention. The great discovery of Mesmer, which reveals to the 
earnest inquirer the mechanism of nature, mastered, as if by magical 
power, organic and inorganic bodies. 

But this was not the worst. A more direful calamity for the Church 
occurred in the evocation from the upper and nether worlds of a multi- 
tude of " spirits," whose private bearing and conversation gave the direct 
lie to the most cherished and profitable dogmas of the Church. These 
" spirits " claimed to be the identical entities, in a disembodied state, of 
fathers, mothers, sons, and daughters, friends and acquaintances of the 
persons viewing the weird phenomena. The Devil seemed to have no 
objective existence, and this struck at the very foundation upon which 
the chair of St. Peter rested.* Not a spirit except the mocking nianni- 

* There were two chairs of the titular apostle at Rome. The clergy, frightened at 
the uninterrupted evidence furnished by scientific research, at last decided to confront 
the enemy, and we find the *' Chronique des Arts " giving the cleverest, and at the same 
time most jfesuitical, explanation of the fact. According to their story, " The increase 
in the number of the faithful decided Peter upon making Rome henceforth the centre 
of his action. The cemetery of Ostrianum was too distant and would 7ioi snjffice for 
the reunions of the Christians. The motive which had induced the Apostle to confer 
on Linus and Cletus successively the episcopal character, in order to render them capa- 


kins of Planchette would confess to the most distant relationship with the 
Satanic majesty, or accredit him with the governorship of a single mch 
of territory. The clergy felt their prestige growing weaker every day, 
as they saw the people impatiently shaking off, in the broad daylight 
of truth, the dark veils with which they had been blindfolded for so many 
centuries. Then finally, fortune, which previously had been on their side 
in the long-waged conflict between theology and science, deserted to 
their adversary. The help of the latter to the study of the occult side of 
nature was truly precious and timely, and science has unwittingly widened 
the once narrow path of the phenomena into a broad highway. Had not 

ble of sharing the solicitudes of a church whose extent was to be without limits, led 
naturally to a multiplication of the places of meeting. The particular residence of Peter 
was therefore fixed at Viminal ; and there was established that mysterious Chair, the 
symbol of power and truth. The august seat which was venerated at the Ostrian Cata- 
combs was not, however, removed. Peter still visited this cradle of the Roman Church, 
and often, without doubt, exercised his holy functions there, A. second Chair, expressing 
the same mystery as the first, was set up at Cornelia, and it is this which has come down 
to us through the ages." 

Now, so far from it being possible that there ever were two genuine chairs of this 
kind, the majority of critics show that Peter never was at Rome at all ; the reasons are 
many and unanswerable. Perhaps we had best begin by pointing to the works of Justin 
Martyr. This great champion of Christianity, writing in the early part of the second 
century in Rome, where he fixed his abode, eager to get hold of the least proof in favor 
of the truth for which he suffered, seems perfectly unconscious of St. Peter'' s existence! I 

Neither does any other writer of any consequence mention him in connection with 
the Church of Rome, earlier than the days of Irenieus, when the latter set himself to 
invent a new religion, drawn from the depths of his imagination. We refer the reader 
anxious to learn more to the able work of Mr. George Reber, entitled " The Christ of 
Paul." The arguments of this author are conclusive. The above article in the "Chron- 
ique des Arts," speaks of the increase of the faithful to such an extent that Ostrianum 
could not contain the number of Christians. Now, if Peter was at Rome at all— runs 
Mr. Reber' s argument — it must have been between the years A. D. 64 and 69 ; for at 
64 he was at Babylon, from whence he %vrote epistles and letters to Rome, and at 
some time between 64 and 68 (the reign of Nero) he either died a mai-tyr or in his bed, 
for Irenteus makes him deliver the Church of Rome, together with Paul ( ! ? ) (whom 
he persecuted and quarrelled with all his life), into the hands of Linns, who became 
bishop in 69 (see Reber's " Christ of Paul," p. 122). We will treat of it more fully in 
chapter iii. 

Now, we ask, in the name of common sense, how could the faithful of Peter's 
Church increase at such a rate, when Nero trapped and killed them like so many 
mice during his reign ? History shows the few Christians fleeing from Rome, wherever 
they could, to avoid the persecution of the emperor, and the "Chronique des Arts " 
makes them increase and multiply ! " Christ," the article goes on to say, "willed that 
this visible sign of the doctrmal authority of his vicar should also have its portion of 
immortality ; one can follow it from age to age in the documents of the Roman Church." 
TertuUian formally attests its existence in his book "De Proescriptionibus." Eager to 
learn everything concerning so interesting a subject, we would like to be shown when 


this conflict culminated at the nick of time, we might have seen repro- 
duced on a miniature scale the disgraceful scenes of the episodes of 
Salem witchcraft and the Nuns of Loudun. As it was, the clergy were 

But if science has unintentionally helped the progress of the occult 
phenomena, the latter have reciprocally aided science herself. Until 
the days when newly-reincarnated philosophy boldly claimed its place in 
the world, there had been but few scholars who had undertaken the difficult 
task of studying comparative theology. This science occupies a domain 
heretofore penetrated by few explorers. The necessity which it involved 
of being well acquainted with the dead languages, necessarily limited the 
number of students. Besides, there was less popular need for it so long 
as people could not replace the Christian orthodoxy by something more 
tangible. It is one of the most undeniable facts of psychology, that the 
average man can as little exist out of a religious element of some kind, 
as a fish out of the water. The voice of truth, " a voice stronger than 
the voice of the mightiest thunder," speaks to the inner man in the nine- 
teenth century of the Christian era, as it spoke in the corresponding 
century B.C. It is a useless and unprofitable task to ofifer to humanity 
the choice between a future life and annihilation. The only chance that' 
remains for those friends of human progress who seek to establish for 
the good of mankind a faith, henceforth stripped entirely of superstition 

did Christ WILL anything of the kind ? However : ' ' Ornaments of ivory have been fitted 
to the front and back of the chair, but only on those parts repaired with acacia-wood. 
Those which cover the panel in front are divided into three superimposed rows, each 
containing six plaques of ivory, on which are engraved various subjects, among others the 
' Labors of Hercules.' Several of the plaques were wrongly placed, and seemed to have 
been affixed to the chair at a time when the remains of antiquity were employed as orna- 
ments, without much regard to fitness." This is the point. The article was written 
simply as a clever answer to several facts published during the present century. Bower, 
in his "History of the Popes " (vol. li., p. 7), narrates that in the year 1662, while cleaning 
one of the chairs, "the ' Twelve Labors of Hercules' unluckily appeared engraved upon it," 
after which the chair was removed and another substituted. But in 1795, when Bona- 
parte's troops occupied Rome, the chair was again examined. This time there was 
found the Mahometan confession of faith, in Arabic letters : " There is no Deity 
but Allah, and Mahomet is his Apostle." (See appendix to "Ancient Symbol- Worship," 
by H. M. Westropp and C. Staniland Wake.) In the appendix Prof. Alexander 
Wilder very justly remarks as follows : " We presume that the Apostle of the Circum- 
cision, as Paul, his great rival, styles him, was never at the Imperial City, nor had a 
successor there, not even in the ghetto. The ' Chau- of Peter,' therefore, is sacred 
rather than apostolical. Its sanctity proceeded, however, from the esoteric religion of 
the former times of Rome. The hierophant of the Mysteries probably occupied it on 
the day of initiations, when exhibiting to the candidates the Petronia (stone tablet 
containing the last revelation made by the hierophant to the neophyte for initiation)." 


and dogmatic fetters is to address them in the words of Joshua : " Choose 
ye this day whom you will serve ; whether the gods which your fathers 
served that were on the other side of the flood, or the gods of the 
Amorites, in whose land ye dwell.'' * 

"The science of religion," wrote Max Miiller in i860, "is only just 
beginning. . . . During the last fifty years the authentic documents of 
the most important religions in the world have been recovered in a most 
unexpected and almost miraculous mattncr.\ We have now before us the 
Canonical books of Buddhism ; the Zend-Avesta of Zoroaster is no 
longer a sealed book ; and the hymns of the Rig- Veda have revealed a 
state of religions anterior to the first beginnings of that mythology which 
in Homer and Hesiod stands before us as a mouldering ruin." \ 

In their insatiable desire to extend the dominion of blind faith, the 
early architects of Christian theology had been forced to conceal, as 
much as it was possible, the true sources of the same. To this end 
they are said to have burned or otherwise destr03'ed all the original man- 
uscripts on the Kabala, magic, and occult sciences upon which they 
could lay their hands. They ignorantly supposed that the most danger- 
ous writings of this class had perished with the last Gnostic ; but some 
day they may discover their mistake. Other authentic and as important 
documents will perhaps reappear in a " most unexpected and almost 
miraculous manner." 

* Joshua xxiv. 15. 

\ One of the most surprising facts that have come under our observation, is that 
students of profound research should not couple the frequent recurrence of these "un- 
expected and almost miraculous " discoveries of important documents, at the most op- 
portune moments, with a premeditated design. Is it so strange that the custodians of 
"Pagan" lore, seeing that the proper moment had arrived, should cause the needed 
document, book, or relic to fall as if by accident in the right man's way? Geological 
surveyors and explorers even as competent as Humboldt and Tschuddi, have not dis- 
covered the hidden mines from which the Peruvian Incas dug their treasure, although 
the latter confesses that the present degenerate Indians have the secret. In 1S39, Per- 
ring, the archiEologist, proposed to the sheik of an Arab village two purses of gold, if he 
helped him to discover the entrance to the hidden passage leading to the sepulchral 
chambers in the North Pyramid of Doshoor. But though his men were o^t of employ- 
ment and half stai-ved, the sheik proudly refused to "sell the secret of the dead," 
promising to show it gratis^ when the time would come for it. Is it, then, impossible 
that in some other regions of the earth are guarded the remains of that glorious litera- 
ture of the past, which was the fruit of its majestic civilization ? What is there so sur- 
prising in the idea ? Who knows but that as the Christian Church has unconsciously 
begotten free thought by reaction against her own cruelty, rapacity, and dogmatism, the 
public mind may be glad to follow the lead of the Orientalists, away from Jerusalem 
and towards EUora ; and that then much more will be discovered that is now hidden? 

I " Chips from a German Workshop," vol. i., p. 373 ; Semitic Monotheism. 


There are strange traditions current in various parts of the East — 
on Mount Athos and in the Desert of Nitria, for instance — among 
certain monks, and with learned Rabbis in Palestine, who' pass their 
lives in commenting upon the Talmud. They say that not all the rolls 
and manuscripts, reported in history to have been burned by Csesar, by 
the Christian mob, in 389, and by the Arab General Amru, perished as 
it is commonly believed ; and the story they tell is the following : At 
the time of the contest for the throne, in 51 B.C., between Cleopatra 
and her brother Dionysius Ptolemy, the Bruckion, which contained over 
seven hundred thousand rolls, all bound in wood and fire-proof parch- 
ment, was undergoing repairs, and a great portion of the original man- 
uscripts, considered among the most precious, and which were not 
duplicated, were stored away in the house of one of the librarians. As 
the fire which consumed the rest was but the result of accident, no pre- 
cautions had been taken at the time. But they add, that several hours 
passed between the burning of the fleet, set on fire by Cffisar's order, 
and the moment when the first buildings situated near the harbor caught 
fire in their turn ; and that all the librarians, aided by several hundred 
slaves attached to the museum, succeeded in saving the most precious of 
the rolls. So perfect and solid was the fabric of the parchment, that while 
in some rolls the inner pages and the wood-binding were reduced to ashes, 
of others the parchment binding remained unscorched. These particu- 
lars were all written out in Greek, Latin, and the Chaldeo-Syriac dia- 
lect, by a learned youth named Theodas, one of the scribes employed 
in the museum. One of these manuscripts is alleged to be preserved 
till now in a Greek convent ; and the person who narrated the tradi- 
tion to us had seen it himself. He said that many more will see it and 
learn where to look for important documents, when a certain prophecy 
will be fulfilled ; adding, that most of these works could be found in 
Tartary and India.* The monk showed us a copy of the original, which, 
of course, we could read but poorly, as we claim but little eiudition in 
the matter of dead languages. But we were so particularly struck by 

* An after-thought has made us fancy that we can understand what is meant by the 
following sentences of Moses of Choreni: "The ancient Asiatics," says he, "five 
centuries before our era — and especially the Hindus, the Persians, and the Chaldeans, 
had in their possession a quantity of historical and scientific books. These works 
were partially borrowed, partially translated in the Greek language, mostly since the 
Ptolemies had established the Alexandrian library and encouraged the writers by their 
liberalities, so that the Greek language became the deposit of all the sciences" 
(" History of Armenia"). Therefore, the greater part of the literature included in 
the 700,000 volumes of the Alexandrian Library was due to India, and her next 


the vivid and picturesque translation of the holy father, that we perfectly 
remember some curious paragraphs, which run, as far as we can recall 
them, as follows :—" When the Queen of the Sun (Cleopatra) was 
brought back to the half-ruined city, after the fire had devoured the 
Glory of the World ; and when she saw the mountains of books— or 
rolls— covering the half-consumed steps of the estrada ; and when she 
perceived that the inside was gone and the indestructible covers alone 
remained, she wept in rage and fury, and cursed the meanness of her 
fathers who had grudged the cost of the real Perganios for the inside as 
well as the outside of the precious rolls." Further, our author, Theodas, 
indulges in a joke at the expense of the queen for believing that nearly 
all the library was burned ; when, in fact, hundreds and thousands of the 
choicest books were safely stored in his own house and those of other 
scribes, librarians, students, and philosophers. 

No more do sundry very learned Copts scattered all over the East 
in Asia Minor, Egypt, and Palestine believe in the total destruction of 
the subsequent libraries. For instance, they say that out of the library 
of Attains III. of Pergamus, presented by Antony to Cleopatra, not a 
volume was destroyed. At that time, according to their assertions, from 
the moment that the Christians began to gain power in Alexandria— 
about the end of the fourth century — and Anatolius, Bishop of Laodicea, 
began to insult the national gods, the Pagan philosophers and learned 
theurgists adopted effective measures to preserve the repositories of 
their sacred learning. Theophilus, a bishop, who left behind him the 
reputation of a most rascally and mercenary villain, was accused by one 
named Antoninus, a famous theurgist and eminent scholar of occult 
science of Alexandria, with bribing the slaves of the Serapion to steal 
books which he sold to foreigners at great prices. History tells us how 
Theophilus had the best of the philosophers, in a.d. 389 ; and how his 
successor and nephew, the no less infamous Cyril, butchered Hypatia. 
Suidas gives us some details about Antoninus, whom he calls Anto- 
nius, and his eloquent friend Olympus, the defender of the Serapion. 
But history is far from being complete in the miserable remnants of 
books, which, crossing so many ages, have reached our own learned cen- 
tury ; it fails to give the facts relating to the first five centuries of Chris- 
tianity which are preserved in the numerous traditions current in the 
East. Unauthenticated as these may appear, there is unquestionably 
in the heap of chaff much good grain. That these traditions are not 
oftener communicated to Europeans is not strange, when we consider 
how apt our travellers are to render themselves antagonistic to the 
natives by their skeptical bearing and, occasionally, dogmatic intoler- 
ance. When exceptional men like some archccologists, who knew how 


to win the confidence and even friendship of certain Arabs, are 
favored with precious documents, it is declared simply a " coinci- 
dence." And yet there are widespread traditions of the existence of 
certain subterranean, and immense galleries, in the neighborhood of 
Ishmonia — the " petrified City," in which are stored numberless manu- 
scripts and rolls. For no amount of money would the Arabs go near 
it. At night, they say, from the crevices of the desolate ruins, sunk 
deep in the unwatered sands of the desert, stream the rays from lights 
carried to and fro in the galleries by no human hands. The Afrites 
study the literature of the antediluvian ages, according to their behef, 
and the Djin learns from the magic rolls the lesson of the following 

The Encyclopedia Brtta?inica, in its article on Alexandria, says : 
"Wlien the temple of Serapis was demolished . . . the valuable library 
was pillaged or destroyed ; and twenty years afterwards * the empty shelves 
excited the regret . . . etc." But it does not state the subsequent fate of 
the pillaged books. 

In rivalry of the fierce Mary-worshippers of the fourth century, the 
modern clerical persecutors of liberalism and " heresy " would wiUingly 
shut up all the heretics and their books in some modern Serapion and 
burn them alive.f The cause of this hatred is natural. Modern re- 
search has more than ever unveiled the secret. " Is not the worship of 
saints and angels now," said Bishop Newton, years ago, " in all respects 
the same that the worship of demons was in former times ? The name 
only is different, the thing is identically the same . . . the very same 
temples, the very same images, which were once consecrated to Jupiter 
and the other demons, are now consecrated to the Virgin Mary and 
other saints . . . the whole of Paganism is converted and applied to 

\Vhy not be impartial and add that " a good portion of it was adopted 
by Protestant religions also ? " 

The very apostolic designation Peter is from the Mysteries. The 
hierophant or supreme pontiff bore the Chaldean title -ins, peter, or in- 
terpreter. The names Phtah, Peth'r, the residence of Balaam, Patara, 
and Patras, the names of oracle-cities, pateres or pateras and, perhaps, 

* Bonamy says in " Le Bibliotheque d'Alexandrie," quoting, we suppose, the Pres- 
byter Orosius, wlio was an eye-witness, *' thirty years later.'' 

■)• Since the above was written, the spirit here described has been beautifully exem- 
plified at Barcelona, Spain, where the Bishop Fray Joachim invited the local spiritual- 
ists to witness a formal burning of spiritual books. We find the account in a paper 
called " The Revelation," published at Alicante, which sensibly adds that the perform- 
ance was ** a caricature of the memorable epoch of the Inquisition.'* 


Buddha,* all come from the same root. Jesus says : " Upon this pdra I 
will build my Church, and the gates, or rulers of Hades, shall not prevail 
against it ; " meaning by petra the rock-temple, and by metaphor, the 
Christian Mysteries ; the adversaries to which were the old mystery-gods 
of the underworld, who were worshipped in the rites of Isis, Adonis, 
Atys, Sabazius, Dionysus, and the Eleusinia. No apostle Peter was ever 
at Rome ; but the Pope, seizing the sceptre of the Pontifex Maximus, the 
keys of Janus and Kubel6, and adorning his Christian head with the cap 
of the Magna Mafer, copied from that of the tiara of Brahmatma, the 
Supreme Pontiff of the Initiates of old India, became the successor of 
the Pagan high priest, the real Peter-Roma, or Petroma.\ 

The Roman Catholic Church has two far mightier enemies than the 
" heretics " and the " infidels ; " and these are — Couiparative Mythology 
and Philology. When such eminent divines as the Rev. James Free- 
man Clarke go so much out of their way to prove to their readers that 
" Critical Theology from the time of Origen and Jerome . . . and the 
Controversial Theology during fifteen centuries, has not consisted in 
accepting on authority the opinions of other people," but has shown, 
on the contrary, much "acute and comprehensive reasoning," we can but 
regret that so much scholarship should have been wasted in attempting 
to prove that which a fair survey of the history of theology upsets at 
every step. In these "controversies" and critical treatment of the doc- 
trines of the Church one can certainly find any amount of " acute rea- 
soning," but far more of a still acuter sophistry. 

Recently the mass of cumulative evidence has been reinforced to an 
extent which leaves little, if any, room for further controversy. A con- 
clusive opinion is furnished by too many scholars to doubt the fact that 
India was the Alma-]\Tater, not only of the civilization, arts, and sciences, 
but also of all the great religions of antiquity ; Judaism, and hence 
Christianity, included. Herder places the cradle of humanity in India, 
and shows Moses as a clever and relatively wz^^^/^rw compiler of the ancient 
Brahmanical traditions : " The river which encircles the country (India) 
is the sacred Ganges, which all Asia considers as the paradisaical river. 
There, also, is the biblical Gihon, which is none else but the Indus. 
The Arabs call it so unto this day, and the names of the countries watered 
by it are yet existing among the Hindus." Jacolliot claims to have 
translated every ancient palm-leaf manuscript which he had the fortune 
of being allowed by the Brahmans of the pagodas to see. In one of liis 

* E. PococUe gives the variations of the name Buddha as : Bud'ha, Buddha, Booddha, 
Butta, Pout, Pote, Pto, Pte, Phte, Phtha, Phut, etc., etc. See "India in Greece," 
Note, Appendix, 397. 

\ The tiara of the Pope is also a perfect copy of that of the Dalai- Lama of Thibet. 


translations, we found passages which reveal to us the undoubted origin 
of the keys of St. Peter, and account for the subsequent adoption of the 
symbol by their Holinesses, the Popes of Rome. 

He shows us, on the testimony of the Agrouchada Parikshai, which 
he freely translates as " the Book oj Spirits " (Pitris), that centuries 
before our era the initiates of the temple chose a Superior Council, pre- 
sided over by the Brahm-titma or supreme chief of all these Initiates. 
That this pontificate, which could be exercised only by a Brahman who 
had reached the age of eighty years ; * that the Brahm-atnia was sole 
guardian of the mystic formula, resume of every science, contained jn the 
three mysterious letters, 


which signify creation, conservation, and transformation. He alone 
could expound its meaning in the presence of the initiates of the third 
and supreme degree. Whomsoever among these initiates revealed to a 
profane a single one of the truths, even the smallest of the secrets en- 
trusted to his care, was put to death. He who received the confidence 
had to share his fate. 

"Finally, to crown this able system," says JacoUiot, "there existed a 
word still more superior to the mysterious monosyllable — A U M, and 
which rendered him who came into the possession of its key nearly the 
equal of Brahma himself. The Brahm-4tma alone possessed this key, 
and transmitted it in a sealed casket to his successor. 

" This unknown word, of which no human power could, even to-day, 
when the Brahmanical authority has been crushed under the Mongolian 
and European invasions, to-day, when each pagoda has its Brahm-atma, f 
force the disclosure, was engraved in a golden triangle and preserved in 
a sa,nctuary of the temple of Asgartha, whose Brahm-atma alone held the 
keys. He also bore upon his tiara two crossed keys supported by two 
kneeling Brahmans, symbol of the precious deposit of which he had the 
keeping. . . . This word and this triangle were engraved upon the tablet 
of the ring that this religious chief wore as one of the signs of his dig- 
nity ; it was also framed in a golden sun on the altar, where every morn- 
ing the Supreme Pontiff offered the sacrifice of the sarvameda, or sacri- 
fice to all the forces of nature." t 

* It is the traditional policy of the College of Cardinals to elect, whenever practi- 
cable, the new Pope among the oldest valetudinarians. The hierophant of the Eleusi- 
nia was likewise always an old man, and unmarried. 

•f This is not correct. | " Le Spiritisme dans le Monde," p. 28. 


Is this clear enough ? And will the Catholics still maintain that it 
M-as the Brahraans of 4,000 years ago who copied the ritual, symbols, and 
dress of the Roman Pontiffs ? We would not feel in the least surprised. 

Without going very far back into antiquity for comparisons, if we only 
stop at the fourth and fifth centuries of our era, and contrast the so-called 
"heathenism" of the third Neo-platonic Eclectic School with the grow- 
ing Christianity, the result may not be favorable to the latter. Even at 
that early period, when the new religion had hardly outlined its contra- 
dictory dogmas ; when the champions of the bloodthirsty Cyril knew not 
themselves whether Mary was to become " the Mother of God," or rank 
as a " demon " in company with Isis ; when the memory of the meek and 
lowly Jesus still lingered lovingly in every Christian heart, and his words 
of mercy and charity vibrated still in the air, even then the Christians 
were outdoing the Pagans in every kind of ferocity and religious intoler- 

And if we look still farther back, and seek for examples of true 
Christism, in ages when Buddhism had hardly superseded Brahmanism in 
India, and the name of Jesus was only to be pronounced three centuries 
later, what do we find ? Which of the holy pillars of the Church has ever 
elevated himself to the level of religious tolerance and noble simplicity 
of character of some heathen ? Compare, for instance, the Hindu 
Asoka, who lived 300 B.C., and the Carthaginian St. Augustine, who flour- 
ished three centuries after Christ. According to Max Miiller, this is 
what is found engraved on the rocks of Girnar, Dhauli, and Kapurdigiri : 

" Piyadasi, the king beloved of the gods, desires that the ascetics of 
all creeds might reside in all places. All these ascetics profess alike the 
command which people should exercise over themselves, and the purity 
of the soul. But people have different opinions and different inclina- 

And here is what Augustine wrote after his baptism : " Wondrous 
depth of thy words ! whose surface, behold ! is before us, inviting to 
little ones ; yet are they a wondrous depth, O my God, a wondrous 
depth ! It is awful to look therein ; yes ... an awfulness of honor, 
and a trembling of love. Thy enemies [read Pagans] thereof I hate 
vehemently ; Oh, that thou wouldst slay them with thy two-edged sword, 
that they might no longer be enemies to it ; for so do I love to have them 
slain." * 

Wonderful spirit of Christianity ; and that from a Manichean con- 
verted to the religion of one who even on his cross prayed for his ene- 
mies ! 

* Translated by Prof. Draper for "Conflict between Religion and Science;" 
book xii. 


Who the enemies of the "Lord" were, according to the Christians, is 
not difficult to surmise ; the few inside the Augustinian fold werg His new 
children and favorites, who had supplanted in His affections the sons of 
Israel, His " chosen people." The rest of mankind were His natural foes. 
The teeming multitudes of heathendom were proper food for the flames 
of hell; the handful within the Church communion, "heirs of salvation." 

But if such a prescriptive policy was just, and its enforcement was 
" sweet savor " in the nostrils of the " Lord," why not scorn also the 
Pagan rites and philosophy ? Why draw so deep from the wells of wisdom, 
dug and filled up to brim by the same heathen ? Or did the fathers, in 
their desire to imitate the chosen people whose time-worn shoes they 
were trying to fit upon their feet, contemplate the reenaction of the 
spoliation-scene of the Exodus 1 Did they propose, in fleeing from 
heathendom as the Jews did from Egypt, to carry off the valuables of its 
religious allegories, as the "chosen ones" did the gold and silver orna- 
ments ? 

It certainly does seem as if the events of the first centuries of Chris- 
tianity were but the reflection of the images thrown upon the mirror of 
the future at the time of the Exodus. During the stormy days of Irenaeus, 
the Platonic philosophy, with its mystical submersion into Deity, was not 
so obnoxious after all to the new doctrine as to prevent the Christians 
from helping themselves to its abstruse metaphysics in every way and 
manner. Allying themselves with the ascetical theurapeut» — forefathers 
and models of the Christian monks and hermits, it was in Alexandria, let 
it be remembered, that they laid the first foundations of the purely Pla- 
tonic trinitarian doctrine. It became the Plato-Philonean doctrine later, 
and such as we find it now. Plato considered the divine nature under a 
three-fold modification of the First Cause, the reason or Logos, and the 
soul or spirit of the universe. "The three archial or original principles," 
says Gibbon,* " were represented in the Platonic system as three gods, 
united with each other by a mysterious and ineffable generation." Blend- 
ing this transcendental idea with the more hypostatic figure of the Logos 
of Philo, whose doctrine was that of the oldest Kabala, and who viewed 
the King Messiah, as the metatron, or "the angel of the Lord," the 
Legatus descended in flesh, but not the Ancient of Days Himself; f the 
Christians clothed with this mythical representation of the Mediator for 
the fallen race of Adam, Jesus, the son of Mary. Under this unexpected 
garb his personality was all but lost. In the modern Jesus of the Chris- 
tian Church, we find the ideal of the imaginative Iren?eus, not the adept 

* " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." 

f " Sohar Comment.," Gen. xl. lo; " Kabbal. Denud.," i., 528. 



of the Essenes, the obscure reformer from Galilee. We see him under 
the disfigured Plato-Philonean mask, not as the disciples heard him on 
the mount. 

So far then the heathen philosophy had helped them in the building 
of the principal dogma. But when the theurgists of the third Neo-pla- 
tonic school, deprived of their ancient Mysteries, strove to blend the 
doctrines of Plato with those of Aristotle, and by combining the two 
philosophies added to their theosophy the primeval doctrines of the 
Oriental Kabala, then the Christians from rivals became persecutors. 
Once that the metaphysical allegories of Plato were being prepared to be 
discussed in pubhc in the form of Grecian dialectics, all the elaborate 
system of the Christian trinity would be unravelled and the divine pres- 
tige completely upset. The eclectic school, reversing the order, had 
adopted the inductive method ; and this method became its death-knell. 
Of all things on earth, logic and reasonable explanations vie.T?: the most 
hateful to the new religion of mystery ; for they threatened to unveil the 
whole ground-work of the trinitarian conception ; to apprise the multi- 
tude of the doctrine of emanations, and thus destroy the unity of the 
whole. It could not be permitted, and it was not. History records the 
ChristVik.& means that were resorted to. 

The universal doctrine of emanations, adopted from time immemo- 
rial by the greatest schools which taught the kabalistic, Alexandrian, and 
Oriental philosophers, gives the key to that panic among the Christian 
fathers. That spirit of Jesuitism and clerical craft, which prompted 
Parkhurst, many centuries later, to suppress in his Hebrew Lexicon thS 
true meaning of the first word of Genesis, originated in those days of 
war against the expiring Neo-platonic and eclectic school. The fathers 
had decided to pervert the meaning of the word " daimon," * and they 
dreaded above all to have the esoteric and true meaning of the word 
Rasit unveiled to the multitudes ; for if once the true sense of this 
sentence, as well as that of the Hebrew word asdt (translated in the 
Septuagint ^^ angels" while it means emanations),! were understood 
rightly, the mystery of the Christian trinity would have crumbled, carry- 
ing in its downfall the new religion into the same heap of ruins with the 
ancient Mysteries. This is the true reason why dialecticians, as well as 
Aristotle himself, the "prying philosopher," were ever obnoxious to 
Christian theology. Even Luther, while on his work of reform, feeling 
the ground insecure under his feet, notwithstanding that the dogmas had 

* " The beings which the philosophers of other peoples distinguish by the name 
' Dfemons,' Moses names ' Angels,' " sa)'S Philo Judfeus. — " De Gigant," i. 253. 
f Deuteronomy xxxiii. 2., mC'X is translated "fiery law" in the English Bible. 


been reduced by him to their simplest expression, gave full vent to his 
fear and hatred for Aristotle. The amount of abuse he heaped ifpon the 
memory of the great logician can only be equalled — never surpassed — 
by the Pope's anathemas and invectives against the liberals of the Italian 
government. Compiled together, they might easily fill a copy of a nevv 
encycloptedia with models for monkish diatribes. 

Of course the Christian clergy can never get reconciled with a doc- 
trine based on the application of strict logic to discursive reasoning ? 
The number of those who have abandoned theology on this account has 
never been made known. They have asked questions and been forbid- 
den to ask them ; hence, separation, disgust, and often a despairing 
plunge into the abyss of atheism. The Orphean views of ether as chief 
medium betwee?i God and created matter were likewise denounced. The 
Orphic ^ther recalled too vividly the Archeus, the Soul of the World, 
and the latter was in its metaphysical sense as closely related to the 
emanations, being the first manifestation — Sephira, or Divine Light. 
And when could the latter be more feared than at that critical moment ? 

Origen, Clemens Alexandrinus, Chalcidius, Methodius, and Maimoni- 
des, on the authority of the Targum of Jerusalem, the orthodox and 
greatest authority of the Jews, held that the first two words in the book 
of Genesis — b-rasit, mean lVisdoi?i, or the Principle. And that the 
idea of these words meaning " in the beginning " was never shared but 
by the profane, who were not allowed to penetrate any deeper into the 
esoteric sense of the sentence. Beausobre, and after him Godfrey Hig- 
gins, have demonstrated the fact. " All things," says the Kabala, " are 
derived from one great Principle, and this principle is the unknown and 
invisible God. From Him a substantia^ power immediately proceeds, 
which is the image of God, and the source of all subsequent emanations. 
This second principle sends forth, by the energy {or will s^nA force) oi 
emanation, other natures, which are more or less perfect, according to 
their different degrees of distance, in the scale of emanation, from the 
First Source of existence, and which constitute different worlds, or orders 
of being, all united to the eternal power from which they proceed. 
Matter is nothing more than the most remote effect of the emanative energy 
of the Deity. The material world receives its form from the immediate 
agency of powers far beneath the First Source of Being * . . . Beausobre f 
makes St. Augustine the Manichean say thus : 'And if by Rasit we 
^understand the active Principle of the creation, instead of its beginning, 
,in such a case we will clearly perceive that Moses never meant to say 

* See Rees's " Encyclopcedia," art. Kabala. 
\ " Histor. Manich.," Liv. vi., ch. i., p. 291. 


that heaven and earth were the first works of God. He only said t 
God created heaven and earth through the Principle, who is His Son. 
is not the timeht points to, but to the immediate author of the creatu 
Angels, according to Augustine, were created before the firmament, f 
according to the esoteric interpretation, the heaven and earth were c 
ated after that, evolving from the second Principle or the Logos — 
creative Deity. " The word principle," says Beausobre, " does i 
mean that the heaven and earth were created before anything else, i 
to begin with, the angels were created before that ; but that God i 
everything through His Wisdom, which is His Verbum, and which I 
Christian Bible named the Beginning" thus adopting the exoteric me 
ing of the word abandoned to the multitudes. The Kabala — the C 
ental as well as the Jewish — shows that a number of emanations (l 
Jewish Sephiroth) issued from the First Principle, the chief of whi 
was Wisdom. This Wisdom is the Logos of Philo, and Michael, t 
chief of the Gnostic Eons ; it is the Ormazd of the Persians ; Minen 
goddess of wisdom, of the Greeks, who emanated from the head 
Jupiter ; and the second Person of the Christian Trinity. The eai 
Fathers of the Church had not much to exert their imagination ; tli 
found a ready-made doctrine that had existed in every theogony for thi 
sands of years before the Christian era. Their trinity is but the trio 
Sephiroth, the first three kabalistic lights of which Moses Nachmanic 
says, that " they have never been seen by any one ; there is not any def( 
in them, nor any disunion." The first eternal number is the Father, 
the Chaldean primeval, invisible, and incomprehensible chaos, out 
which proceeded the Intelligible one. The Egyptian Phtah, or "t 
Principle of Light — not the, light itself, and the Principle of Li 
though himself no life." The Wisdom by which the Father created ti 
heavens is the Son, or the kabalistic androgynous Adam Kadmo 
The Son is at once the male Ra, or Light of Wisdom, Prudence or Int 
ligcnce, Sephira, the female part of Himself ; while from this dual beii 
proceeds ;he third emanation, the, Binah or Reason, the second Intel 
gence — the Holy Ghost of the Christians. Therefore, strictly speakit 
there is a Tetraktis or quaternary, consisting of the Unintelligit 
First monad, and its triple emanation, which properly constitute o 

How then avoid perceiving at once, that had not the Christians pi 
posely disfigured in their interpretation and translation the Mosaic Gena 
to fit their own views, their religion, with its present dogmas, would ha' 
been impossible ? The word Rasit, once taught in its new sense of tl 
Principle and not the Beginning, and the anathematized doctrine ( 
emanations accepted, the position of the second trinitarian personal 


becomes untenable. For, if the angels are the first divine emanations 
from the Divine Substance, and were in existence before the Second 
Principle, then the anthropomorphized Son is at best an emanation like 
themselves, and cannot be God hypostatically any more than our visible 
works are ourselves. That these metaphysical subtleties never entered 
into tlie head of the honest-minded, sincere Paul, is evident ; as it is fur- 
thermore evident, that like all learned Jews he was well acquainted with 
the doctrine of emanations and never thought of corrupting it. How 
can any one imagine that Paul identified the Son with the Father, when 
he tells us that God made Jesus " a little lower than the angels " 
{Hebrews ii. 9), and a little higher than Moses ! " For this man was 
counted worthy of more glory than Moses" {Hebrews iii. 3). Of what- 
ever, or how many forgeries, interlined later in the Acts, the Fathers are 
guilty we know not ; btlt that Paul never considered Christ more than 
a man " full of the Spirit of God " is but too evident : " In the arche 
was the Logos, and the Logos was adnate to the Theos." 

Wisdom, the first emanation of En-Soph ; the Protogonos, the Hy- 
postasis ; the Adam Kadmon of the kabalist, the Brahma of the Hindu ; 
the Logos of Plato, and the "Beginning" of St. John — is the Rasit — 
n-csn, of the Book of Genesis. If rightly interpreted it overturns, as we 
have remarked, the whole elaborate system of Christian theology, for 
it proves that behind the creative Deity, there was a higher god ; a 
planner, an architect ; and that the former was but His executive agent 
— a simple power ! 

They persecuted the Gnostics, murdered the philosophers, and burned 
the kabalists and the masons ; and when the day of the great reckoning 
arrives, and the light shines in darkness, what will they have to offer in 
the place of the departed, expired religion ? What will they answer, 
these pretended monotheists, these worshippers and /j^«^i!'- servants of 
the one living God, to their Creator ? How will they account for this 
long persecution of them who were the true followers of the grand 
Megalistor, the supreme great master of the Rosicrucians, the first 
of masons. " For he is the Builder and Architect of the Teniple of the 
universe ; He is the Verbum Sapienti." * 

" Every one knows," wrote the great Manichean of the third century, 
.. Fauste, " that the Evangeliums were written neither by Jesus Christ, 

• " The altogether mystical coloring of Christianity harmonized with the Essene 
rules of life and opinions, and it is not improbable that Jesus and John the Baptist 
were initiated into the Essene Mysteries, to which Christianity may be indebted for 
many a form of expression ; as indeed the community of Therapeuts!, an offspring of 
, the Essene order, soon belonged wholly to Christianity " ("Yost," i., 411 — quoted by 
the author of " Sod, the Son of the Man "). 


nor his apostles, but long after their time by some unknown persons, 
who, judging well that they would hardly be beHeved when telhng of 
things they had not seen themselves, headed their narratives with the 
names of the apostles or of disciples contemporaneous with the latter." 

Commenting upon the subject, A. Franck, the learned Hebrew 
scholar of the Institute and translator of the Kabala, expresses the same 
idea. " Are we not authorized," he asks, " to view the Kabala as a 
precious remnant of rehgious philosophy of the Orient, which, trans- 
ported into Alexandria, got mixed to the doctrine of Plato, and under the 
usurped name of Dionysius the Areopagite, bishop of Athens, converted 
and consecrated by St. Paul, was thus enabled to penetrate into the 
mysticism of the mediceval ages ? " * 

Says Jacolliot : " What is then this religious philosophy of the Orient, 
which has penetrated into the mystic symbolism of Christianity ? We 
answer : This philosophy, the traces of which we find among the Ma- 
gians, the Chaldeans, the Egyptians, the Hebrew kabalists and the Chris- 
tians, is none other than that of the Hindu Brahraans, the sectarians of 
the pitris, or the spirits of the invisible worlds which surround us." f 

But if the Gnostics were destroyed, the Gnosis, based on the secret 
science of sciences, still lives. It is the earth which helps the woman, 
and which is destined to open her mouth to swallow up mediaeval Chris- 
tianity, the usurper and assassin of the great master's doctrine. The 
ancient Kabala, the Gnosis, or traditional secret knowledge, was never 
without its representatives in any age or country. The trinities of initiates, 
whether passed into history or concealed under the impenetrable veil of 
mystery, are preserved and impressed throughout the ages. They are 
known as Moses, Aholiab, and Bezaleel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, 
as Plato, Philo, and Pythagoras, etc. At the Transfiguration we see them 
as Jesus, Moses, and Elias, the three Trismegisti ; and three kabalists, 
Peter, James, and John — whose revelation is the key to all wisdom. We 
found them in the twilight of Jewish history as Zoroaster, Abraham, and 
Terah, and later as Henoch, Ezekiel, and Daniel. 

Who, of those who ever studied the ancient philosophies, who under- 
stand intuitionally the grandeur of their conceptions, the boundless subli- 
mity of their views of the Unknown Deity, can hesitate for a moment to 
give the preference to their doctrines over the incomprehensible dog- 
matic and contradictory theology of the hundreds of Christian sects? 
Who that ever read Plato and fathomed his To 'Ov, " whom no person lias 
seen except the Son," can doubt that Jesus was a disciple of the same 

* A. Franck: "Die Kabbala." 
f " Le Spiritisme dans le Monde." 


secret doctrine which had instructed the great philosopher ? For, as we 
have shown before now, Plato never claimed to be the inventor of all 
tliat he wrote, but gave credit for it to Pythagoras, who, ia his turn, 
pointed to the remote East as the source whence he derived his informa- 
tion and his philosophy. Colebrooke shows that Plato confesses it in his 
epistles, and says that he has taken his teachings from ancient and sacred 
doctrines ! * Moreover, it is undeniable that the theologies of all the 
great nations dovetail together and show that each is a part of " one 
stupendous whole." Like the rest of the initiates we see Plato taking 
great pains to conceal the true meaning of his allegories. Every time 
the subject touches the greater secrets of the Oriental Kabala, secret of 
the true cosmogony of the universe and of the ideal, preexisting world, 
Plato shrouds his philosophy in the profoundest darkness. His Timaus 
is so confused that no one but an initiate can understand the secret 
meaning. And Mosheim thinks that Philo has filled his works with pas- 
sages directly contradicting each other for the sole purpose of concealing 
the true doctrine. For once we see a critic on the right track. 

And this very trinitarian idea, as well as the so bitterly denounced 
doctrine of emanations, whence their remotest origin ? The answer is 
easy, and every proof is now at hand. In the sublime and profoundest 
of all philosophies, that of the universal " Wisdom-Religion," the first 
traces of which, historical research now finds in the old pre-Vedic 
religion of India. As the much-abused JacoUiot well remarks, " It is not 
in the religious works of antiquity, such as the Vedas, the Zend Avesta, 
the Bible, that we have to search for the exact expression of the enno- 
bling and sublime beliefs of those epochs." f 

" The holy primitive syllable, composed of the three letters 
A — U — M., in which is contained the Vedic Trimurti (Trinity), must 
be kept secret, like another triple Veda," says Manu, in book xi., sloka 

Swayambhouva is the unrevealed Deity ; it is the Being existent 
through and of itself; he is the central and immortal germ of all that 
exists in the universe. Three trinities emanate and are confounded in 
him, forming a Supreme unity. These trinities, or the triple Trijnurti, 
are : the Nara, Nari, and Viradyi — the initial triad ; the Agni, Vaya, and 
Sourya — the manifested tT\3.A; Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, the creative triad. 
Each of these triads becomes less metaphysical and more adapted to 
the vulgar intelligence as it descends. Thus the last becomes but the 
symbol in its concrete expression ; the necessarianism of a purely meta- 

• " Asiat. Trans.," i. , p. 579. 

f Louis JacoUiot : " The Initiates of the Ancient Temples." 


physical conception. Together with Swayambhouva, they are the ten 
Sephiroth of the Hebrew kabaHsts, the ten Hindu Prajapatis— the 
En-Soph of the former, answering to the great Unknown, expressed by 
the mystic A U M of the latter. 

Says Franck, the translator of the Kabala : 

" The ten Sephiroth are divided into iAree classes, each of them 
presenting to us the divinity under a different aspect, the whole still 
remaining an indivisible Tri7iity, 

"The first three Sephiroth are purely intellectual in metaphysics, 
they express the absolute identity of existence and thought, and form 
what the modern kabalists called the intelligible world — which is the 
first manifestation of God. 

" The three that follow, make us conceive God in one of their 
aspects, as the identity of goodness and wisdom ; in the other they show 
to us, in the Supreme good, the origin of beauty and magnificence (in 
the creation). Therefore, they are named the virtues, or the sensible 

" Finally, we learn, by the last three Sephiroth, that the Universal 
Providence, that the Supreme artist is also absolute Force, the all- 
powerful cause, and that, at the same time, this cause is the generative 
element of all that is. It is these last Sephiroth that constitute the 
natural world, or nature in its essence and in its active principle. 
Naiura naturans." * 

This kabalistic conception is thus proved identical with that of the 
Hindu philosophy. "Whoever reads Plato and his Dialogue Timasus, 
will find these ideas as faithfully re-echoed by the Greek philosopher, 
Moreover, the injunction of secrecy was as strict with the kabaHsts, as 
with the initiates of the Adyta and the Hindu Yogis. 

" Close thy mouth, lest thou shouldst speak of this (the mystery), 
and thy heart, lest thou shouldst think aloud ; and if thy heart has es- 
caped thee, bring it back to its place, for such is the object of our alli- 
ance " {Sepher Jezireh, Book of Creation). 

" This is a secret which gives death : close thy mouth lest thou 
shouldst reveal to the vulgar ; compress thy brain lest something should 
escape from it and fall outside " (Agrouchada-Parikshai). 

Truly the fate of many a future generation hung on a gossamer thread, 
in the days of the third and fourth centuries. Had not the Emperor 
sent in 389 to Alexandria a rescript — which was forced from him by the 
Christians — for the destruction of every idol, our own century would 
never have had a Christian mythological Pantheon of its own. Never 

* Franck : "Die Kabbala." 


did the Neo-platonic school reach such a height of philosophy as when 
nearest its end. Uniting the mystic theosophy of old Egypt with the 
refined philosophy of the Greeks ; nearer to the ancient Mysteries of 
Thebes and Memphis than they had been for centuries ; versed in the 
science of soothsaying and divination, as in the art of the Therapeutists ; 
friendly with the acutest men of the Jewish nation, who were deeply 
imbued with the Zoroastrian ideas, the Neo-platonists tended to amal- 
gamate the old wisdom of the Oriental Kabala with the more refined 
conceptions of the Occidental Theosophists. Notwithstanding the 
treason of the Christians, who saw fit, for political reasons, after the days 
of Constantine, to repudiate their tutors, the influence of the new 
Platonic philosophy is conspicuous in the subsequent adoption of 
dogmas, the origin of which can be traced but too easily to that remark- 
able school. Though mutilated and disfigured, they still preserve a 
strong family likeness, which nothing can obliterate. 

But, if the knowledge of the occult powers of nature opens the 
spiritual sight of man, enlarges his intellectual faculties, and leads him 
unemngly to a profounder veneration for the Creator, on the other hand 
ignorance, dogmatic narrow-mindedness, and a childish fear of looking to 
the bottom of things, invariably leads to fetish-worship and superstition. 

When Cyril, the Bishop of Alexandria, had openly embraced the 
cause of Isis, the Egyptian goddess, and had anthropomorphized her into 
!Mary, the mother of God ; and the trinitarian controversy had taken 
place ; from that moment the Egyptian doctrine of the emanation of the 
creative God out of Emepht began to be tortured in a thousand ways, 
until the Councils had agreed upon the adoption of it as it now stands — 
the disfigured Ternary of the kabalistic Solomon and Philo ! But as 
its origin was yet too evident, the Word was no longer called the 
"Heavenly man," the primal Adaxn Kadmon, but became the Logos — 
Christ, and was made as old as the " Ancient of the Ancient," his 
father. The concealed WISDOM became identical with its emanation, 
the Divine Thought, and made to be regarded coequal and coeternal 
with its first manifestation. 

If we now stop to consider another of the fundamental dogmas of 
Christianity, the doctrine of atonement, we may trace it as easily back to 
heathendom. This corner-stone of a Church which had believed herself 
built on a firm rock for long centuries, is now excavated by science and 
proved to come from the Gnostics. Professor Draper shows it as hardly 
known in the days of TertuUian, and as having "originated among the 
Gnostic heretics." * We will not permit ourselves to contradict such a 

* See " Conflict between Religion and Science," p. 224. 


learned authority, farther than to state that it originated among them 
no more than their "anointed" Christos and Sophia. The former 
they modelled on the original of the " King Messiah," the male prmci- 
ple of wisdom, and the latter on the third Sephiroth, from the Chaldean 
Kabala,* and even from the Hindu Brahma and Sara-asvati, f and the 
Pagan Dionysus and Demeter. And here we are on firm ground, if it 
were only because it is now proved that the New Testament never 
appeared in its complete form, such as we find it now, till 300 years 
after the period of apostles, \ and the Sohar and other kabalistic books 
are found to belong to the first century before our era, if not to be far 
older still. 

The Gnostics entertained many of the Essenean ideas; and the 
Essenes had their "greater" and "minor" Mysteries at least two centu- 
ries before our era. They were the Isarim or Initiates, the descendants 
of the Egyptian hierophants, in whose country they had been settled for 
several centuries before they were converted to Buddhistic monasticism by 
the missionaries of King Asoka, and amalgamated later with the earhest 
Christians ; and they existed, probably, before the old Egyptian temples 
were desecrated and ruined in the incessant invasions of Persians, Greeks, 
and other conquering hordes. The hierophants had their atonement 
enacted in the Mystery of Initiation ages before the Gnostics, or even 
the Essenes, had appeared. It was known among hierophants as the Bap- 
tism OF Blood, and was considered not as an atonement for the " fall of 
man " in Eden, but simply as an expiation for the past, present, and future 
sins of ignorant but nevertheless polluted mankind. The hierophant 
had the option of either offering his pure and sinless life as a sacrifice for 
his race to the gods whom he hoped to rejoin, or an animal victim. The 
former depended entirely on their own will. At the last moment of the 
solemn "new birth," the initiator passed "the word" to the initiated, and 
immediately after that the latter had a weapon placed in his right hand, 
and was ordered to strike. § This is the true origin of the Christian dogma 
of atonement. 

* See "Soliar;" " Kab. Den.;" "The Book of Mystery," the oldest book 
of the kabalists; and Milman : "History of Christianity," pp. 212, 213-215. 

f Milman : " History of Christianity," p. 2S0. The Kurios and Kora are men- 
tioned repeatedly in " Justin Martyr." See p. 97. 

:j; .See Okhausen : " Biblischer Commentar iiber sammtliche Schriften des Neuen 
Testaments," ii. 

§ There is a wide-spread superstition ( ? ), especially among the Slavonians and Rus- 
sians, that the magician or wizard cannot die before he has passed the "word" to a 
successor. So deeply is it rooted among the popular beliefs, that we do not imagine 
there is a person in Russia who has not heard of it. It is but too easy to trace the 
origin of this superstition to the old Mysteries wliich had been for ages spread all over 


Verily the " Christs " of the pre-Christian ages were many. But they 
died unknown to the world, and disappeared as silently and as mysteri- 
ously from the sight of man as Mos-es from the top of Pisgab, the moun- 
tain of Nebo (oracular wisdom), after he had laid his hands upon Joshua, 
who thus became "full of the spirit of wisdom "(z.(?., initiated). 

Nor does the Mystery of the Eucharist pertain to Christians alone. 
Godfrey Higgins proves that it was instituted many hundreds of years 
before the " Paschal Supper," and says that " the sacrifice of bread and 

the globe. The ancient Variago-Rouss had his Mysteries in the North as well as in 
the South of Russia; and there are many relics of the by-gone faith scattered in the 
lands watered by the sacred Dnieper, the baptismal Jordan of all Russia. No Zn&char 
(the knowing one) or Koldoun (sorcerer), male or female, can die in fact before he has 
passed the mysterious word to some one. The popular belief is that unless he does that 
he will linger and suffer for weeks and months, and were he even finally to get liberated, 
it would be only to wander on earth, unable to quit its region unless he finds a successor 
even after death. How far the belief may be verified by others, we do not know, but 
we have seen a case which, for its tragical and mysterious dhtoument, deserves to be given 
here as an illustration of the subject in hand. An old man, of over one hundred years 

of age, a peasant-serf in the government of S , having a wide reputation as a sorcerer 

and healer, was said to be dying for several days, and still unable to die. The report 
spread like lightning, and the poor old fellow was shunned by even the members of his 
own family, as the latter were afraid of receiving the unwelcome inheritance. At last 
the public rumor in the village was that he had sent a message to a colleague less versed 
than himself in the art, and who, although he lived in a distant district, was nevertheless 
coming at the call, and would be on hand early on the following morning. There was 
at that time on a visit to the proprietor of the village a young physician who, belonging 
to the famous school of Nihilism of that day, laughed outrageously at the idea. The 
master of the house, being a very pious man, and but half inclined to make so cheap 
of the ** superstition,'* smiled — as the saying goes — but with one corner of his mouth. 
Meanwhile the young skeptic, to gratify his curiosity, had made a visit to the dying 
man, had found that he could not live twenty-four hours longer, and, determined to 
prove the absurdity of the " superstition," had taken means to detain the coming "suc- 
cessor " at a neighboring village. 

Early in the morning a company of four persons, comprising the physician, the mas- 
ter of the place, his daughter, and the writer of the present lines, went to the hut in 
which was to be achieved the triumph of skepticism. The dying man was expecting his 
liberator every moment, and his agony at the delay became extreme. We tried to per- 
suade the physician to humor the patient, were it for humanity's sake. He only laughed. 
Getting hold with one hand of the old wizard's pulse, he took out his watch with the 
other, and remarking in French that all would be over in a few moments, remained ab- 
sorbed in his professional experiment. The scene was solemn and appalling. Suddenly 
the door opened, and a young boy entered with the intelligence, addressed to the doctor, 
that the ioum was lying dead drunk at a neighboring village, and, according to his 
orders, could not be with "grandfather" till the next day. The young doctor felt 
confused, and was just going to address the old man, when, as quick as lightn-ng, the 
Znachar snatched his hand from his grasp and raised himself in bed. His deep-sunken 
eyes flashed ; his yellow-white beard and hair streaming round his livid face made him a 


wine was common to many ancient nations."* Cicero mentions it m his 
works, and wonders at the strangeness of the rite. There had been an 
esoteric meaning attached to it from the first estabUshment of the Mys- 
teries, and the Eucharistia is one of the oldest rites of antiquity. With 
the hierophants it had nearly the same significance as with the Chris- 
tians. Ceres was bread, and Bacchus was wine ; the former meaning re- 
generation of life from the seed, and the latter- — the grape — the emblem 
of wisdom and knowledge ; the accumulation of the spirit of things, and 
the fermentation and subsequent strength of that esoteric knowledge 
being justly symbolized by wine. The mystery related to the drama of 
Eden ; it is said to have been first taught by Janus, who was also the first 
to introduce in the temples the sacrifices of " bread " and " wine " in com- 
memoration of the "fall into generation" as the symbol of the "seed." 
" I am the vine, and my Father is the husbandman," says Jesus, alluding 
to the secret knowledge that could be imparted by him. " I will drink 
no more of the fruit of the vine until that day that I drink it new in the 
kingdom of God." 

The festival of the Eleusinian Mysteries began in the month of Boe- 
dromion, which corresponds with the month of September, the time of 
grape-gathering, and lasted from the 15th to the 22d of the month, seven 
days.f The Hebrew festival of the Eeast of Tabernacles began on the 
15th and ended on the 22d of the month of Ethanim, which Dunlap 
shows as derived, from Adonim, Adonia, Attenim, Ethanim ; \ and this 
feast is named in Exodus (xxiii. 16) the feast of ingatherings. "All the 
men of Israel assembled unto King Solomon at the feast in the month 
Ethanim, which is the seventh." § 

Plutarch thinks the feast of the booths to be the Bacchic rites, not 

dreadful sight. One instant more, and his long, sinewy arms were clasped romid the 
physician's neck, as with a supernatural force he drew the doctor's head closer and closer 
to his own face, where he held liim as in a vise, while whisperhig words inaudible to us 
in his ear. The skeptic struggled to free himself, but before he had lime to make one 
effective motion the work had evidently been done ; the hands relaxed their grasp, and 
the old sorcerer fell on his back — a corpse ! A strange and ghostly smile had settled on 
the stony lips — a smile of fiendish triumph and satisfied revenge ; but the doctor looked 
paler and more ghastly than the dead man himself. He stared round with an expression 
of terror difficult to describe, and without answering our inquiries ruslied out wildly from 
the hut, in the direction of the woods. Messengers were sent after him, but he was 
nowhere to be found. About sunset a report was heard in the forest. An hour later 
his body was brought home, with a bullet through his head, for the skeptic had blown 
out his brains ! 

What made him commit suicide ? What magic spell of sorcery had the " word " of 
the dying wizard left on his mind ? Who can tell ? 

* " Anacalypsis ; " also Tertullian. \ " Anthon," art. Eleusinia. 

\ Dunlap: " Musah, His Mysteries," p. 71. § i Kings, viil. 2. 


the Eleusinian. Thus " Bacchus was directly called upon," he says. 
The Sabazian worship was Sabbatic ; the names Evius, pr Hevius, and 
Luaios are identical with Hivite and Levite. The French name Louis 
is the Hebrew Levi ; lacchus again is lao or Jehovah ; and Baal or Adon, 
like Bacchus, was a phallic god. "Who shall ascend into the hill (the 
high place) of the Lord ? " asks the holy king David, " who shall stand in 
the place of his Kadushii vinp" ? {^Psalms xxiv. 3). Kadesh may mean in 
one sense to devote, hallow, sanctify, and even to initiate or to set apart ; 
but it also means the ministers of lascivious rites (the Venus-worship) 
and the true interpretation of the word Kadesh is bluntly rendered in 
Deuteronomy xxiii. 17 ; Hosea iv. 14 ; and Genesis xxxviii., from verses 
15 to 22. The "holy" Kadeshuth of the Bible were identical as to the 
duties of their office with the Nautch-girls of the later Hindu pagodas. 
The Hebrew Kadeshim or galli lived " by the house of the Lord, where 
the women wove hangings for the gi'ove," or bust of Venus-Astartfe, says 
verse the seventh in the twenty-third chapter of 2 Kings. 

The dance performed by David round the ark was the "circle-dance" 
said to have been prescribed by the Amazons for the Mysteries. Such 
was the dance of the daughters of Shiloh [Judges xxi. 21, 23 et passim), 
and the leaping of the prophets of Baal (i Kings xviii. 26). It was simply 
a characteristic of the Sabean worship, for it denoted the motion of the 
planets round the sun. That the dance was a Bacchic frenzy is appar- 
ent. Sistra were used on the occasion, and the taunt of Michael and the 
king's reply are very expressive. " The king of Israel uncovered him- 
self before his maid-servants as one of the vain (or debauched) fellows 
shamelessly uncovereth himself." And he retorts : " I will play (act 
wantonly) before runi, and I will be yet more vile than this, and I will 
be base in my own sight." When we remember that David had so- 
journed among the Tyrians and Philistines, where their rites were com- 
mon ; and that indeed he had conquered that land away from the house 
of Saul, by the aid of mercenaries from their country, the countenancing 
and even, perhaps, the introduction of such a Pagan-like worship by the 
weak " psalmist" seems very natural. David knew nothing of Moses, it 
seems, and if he introduced the Jehovah-worship it was not in its mono- 
theistic character, but simply as that of one of the many gods of the 
neighboring nations — a tutelary deity to whom he had given the prefer- 
ence, and chosen among " all other gods." 

Following the Christian dogmas seriatim, if we concentrate our atten- 
tion upon one which provoked the fiercest battles until its recognition, 
that of the Trinity, what do we find ? We meet it, as we have shown, 
northeast of the Indus ; and tracing it to Asia Minor and Europe, recog- 
nize it among every people who had anything like an established re- 


ligion. It was taught in the oldest Chaldean, Egyptian, and Mithraitic 
schools. The Chaldean Sun-god, Mithra, was called " Triple," and the 
trinitarian idea of the Chaldeans was a doctrine of the Akkadians, who, 
themselves, belonged to a race which was the first to conceive a meta- 
physical trinity. The Chaldeans are a tribe of the Akkadians, according 
toRawlinson, who lived in Babylonia from the earliest times. They were 
Turanians, according to others, and instructed the Babylonians into the 
first notions of religion. But these same Akkadians, who were they ? 
Those scientists who would ascribe to them a Turanian origin, make 
of them the inventors of the cuneiform characters ; others call them Su- 
merians ; others again, respectively, make their language, of which (for 
very good reasons) no traces whatever remain — Kasdean, Chaldaic, 
Proto-Chaldean, Kasdo-Scythic, and so on. The only tradition worthy 
of credence is that these Akkadians instructed the Babylonians in the 
Mysteries, and taught them the sacerdotal or Mysiery-limguSige. These 
Akkadians were then simply a tribe of the Hindu-Brahmans, now called 
Aryans — their vernacular language, the Sanscrit * of the Vedas ; and the 
sacred or Mystery-language, that which, even in our own age, is used by 
the Hindu fakirs and initiated Brahmans in their magical evocations, f 
It has been, from time immemorial, and still is employed by the initiates 
of all countries, and the Thibetan lamas claim that it is in this tongue 
that appear the mysterious characters on the leaves and bark of the 
sacred Koumboum. 

Jacolhot, who took such pains to penetrate the mysteries of the 
Brahmanical initiation in translating and commenting upon the Agrou- 
chada-Parikshai, confesses the following : 

" It is pretended also, without our being able to verify the assertion, 
that the magical evocations were pronounced in a particular language, 
and that it was forbidden, under pain of death, to translate them into 
vulgar dialects. The rare expressions that we have been able to catch 
like — L'rhovi, h'hom, sKhrum, sho'rhim, are in fact most curious, and do 
not seem to belong to any known idiom." \ 

Those who have seen a fakir or a lama reciting his mantras and con- 

* Let us remember in this connection that Col. Van Kennedy has long ago declared 
his opinion that Babylonia was once the seat of the Sanscrit language and of Brahman- 
ical influence. 

f " ' Tlie Agi-ouchada-Parikshai,' which discloses, to a certain extent, the order of in- 
itiation, does not give the formula of evocation," says Jacolliot, and he adds that, accord- 
ing to some Brahmans, " these formula were never written, they were and still are im- 
parted in a whisper in the ear of the adepts" (" month to ear, and the word at Imo 
breath^'' say the Masons). — " Le Spiritisme daiis le Monde," p. loS. 

t " Le Spiritisme dans le Monde," p. loS. 


jurations, know that he never pronounces the words audibly when pre- 
paring for a phenomenon. His lips move, and none will fver hear the 
terrible formula pronounced, except in the interior of the temples, and 
then in a cautious whisper. This, then, was the language now respect- 
ively baptized by every scientist, and, according to his imaginative and 
philological propensities, Kasdeo-Semitic, Scythic, Proto-Chaldean, and 
the like. 

Scarcely two of even the most learned Sanscrit philologists are agreed 
as to the true interpretation of Vedic words. Let one put forth an essay, 
a lecture, a treatise, a translation, a dictionary, and straightway all the 
others fall to quarrelling with each other and with him as to his sins of 
omission and commission. Professor Whitney, greatest of American 
Orientalists, says that Professor MUUer's notes on the Rig Veda Sdnhiia 
" are far from showing that sound and thoughtful judgment, that modera- 
tion and economy which are among the most precious qualities of an 
exegete." ProfessoT- Miiller angril}' retorts upon his critics that " not 
only is the joy embittered which is the inherent reward of all bona fide 
work, but selfishness, malignity, aye, even untruthfubiess, gain the upper 
hand, and the healthy growth of science is stunted." He differs "in 
many cases from the explanations of Vedic words given by Professor 
Roth" in his Sanscrit Dictionary, and Professor Whitney shampooes 
both their heads by sa)ring that there are, unquestionably, words and 
phrases "as to which both alike will hereafter be set right." 

In volume i. of his Chips, Professor Miiller stigmatizes all the Vedas 
except the Rik, the Atharva-Veda included, as "theological twaddle," 
while Professor Whitney regards the latter as " the most comprehensive 
and valuable of the four collections, next after the Rik." To return to 
the case of JacoUiot. Professor Whitney brands him as a "bungler 
and a humbug," and, as we remarked above, this is the very general 
verdict. But when the Bible dans V Inde appeared, the Societe Acade- 
mique de Saint Quentin requested M. Textor de Ravisi, a learned In- 
dianist, ten years Governor of Karikal, India, to report upon its merits. 
He was an ardent Catholic, and bitterly opposed JacoUiot's conclusions 
where they discredited the Mosaic and Catholic revelations ; but he was 
forced to say : "Written with good faith, in an easy, vigorous, and pas- 
sionate style, of an easy and varied argumentation, the work of M. Jac- 
oUiot is of absorbing interest ... a learned work on known facts and 
with familiar arguments." 

Enough. Let Jacolliot have the benefit of the doubt when such 
very imposing authorities are doing their best to show up each other as 
incompetents and literary journeymen. We quite agree with Professor 
Whitney that " the truism, that [for European critics?] it is far easier to 


pull to pieces than to build up, is nowhere truer than in matters affecting 
the archseology and history of India." * 

Babylonia happened to be situated on the way of the great stream of 
the earliest Hindu emigration, and the Babylonians were one of the first 
peoples benefited thereby, f These Khaldi were the worshippers of the 
Moon-god, Deus Lunus, from which fact we may infer that the Akkadians 
— if such must be their name — belonged to the race of the Kings of the 
Moon, whom tradition shows as having reigned in Pruyay — now Allaha- 
bad. With them the trinity of Deus I.unus was manifested in the three 
lunar phases, completing the quaternary with the fourth, and typifying 
the death of the Moon-god in its gradual waning and final disappearance. 
This death was allegorized by them, and attributed to the triumph of the 
genius of evil over the light-giving deity ; as the later nations allegorized 
the death of their Sun-gods, Osiris and Apollo, at the hands of Typhon 
and the great Dragon Python, when the sun entered the winter solstice. 
Babel, Arach, and Akkad are names of the sun. The Zoroastrian 
Oracles are full and explicit upon the subject of the Divine Triad. "A 
triad of Deity shines forth throughout the whole world, of which a Monad 
is the head," admits the Reverend Dr. Maurice. 

" For from this Triad, in the bosoms, are all things governed," says 
a Chaldean oracle. The Phos, Pur, and Phlox, of Sanchoniathon, \ are 
Light, Fire, and Flame, three manifestations of the Sun who is one. 
Bel-Saturn, Jupiter-Bel, and Bel or Baal-Chom are the Chaldean trinity ;§ 
" The Babylonian Bel was regarded in the Triune aspect of Belitan, 
Zeus-Belus (the mediator) and Baal-Chom who is Apollo Chomseus. 
This was the Triune aspect of the ' Highest God,' who is, according to 
Berosus, either El (the Hebrew), Bel, Belitan, Mithra, or Zervana, and 
has the name Trarrip, "the Father." || The Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva,^ 
corresponding to Power, Wisdom, and Justice, which answer in their turn 

* W. D. Whitney: " Oriental and Linguistic Studies, Tlie Veda, etc." 

\ Jacolliot seems to have very logically demonstrated the absurd contradictions of 
some philologists, anthropologists, and Orientalists, in regard to their Akkado 
and Semito mania. " There is not, perhaps, much of good faith in their negations," 
he writes. "Tlie scientists who invent Turanian peoples know very well that in Manu 
alone, there is more of veritable science and philosophy than in all that this pretended 
Semitism has hitherto furnished us with ; but they are the slaves of a path which some 
of them are following the last fifteen, twenty, or even thirty years. . . . We expect, 
therefore, nothing of the present. India will owe its reconstitution to the scientists of 
the next generation " (" Le Gen^se de I'HumanitS," pp. 60-61). 

:j;Cory; "Anc. Frag." § Movers :" Phoinizer," 263. 

II Dunlap : " Sp. Hist, of Man," p. 2S1. 

1 Siva is not a god of the Vedas, strictly speaking. When the Vedas were written, 
he held the rank of Maha-Deva or Bel among the gods of aboriginal India. 


to Spirit, Matter, Time, and the Past, Present, and Future, can he found 
in the temple of Gharipuri ; thousands of dogmatic Brahmans worship 
these attributes of the Vedic Deity, while the severe monks and nuns 
of Buddhistic Thibet recognize but the sacred trinity of the three cardi- 
nal virtues : Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience, professed by the Christians, 
practiced by the Buddhists and some Hindus alone. 

The Persian triplicate Deity also consists of three persons, Ormazd, 
Mithra, and Ahriman. " That is that principle," says Porphyry,* " which 
the author of the Chaldaic Summary saith, ' They conceive there is one 
principle of all things, and declare that is one and good.' " The Chinese 
idol Sanpao, consists of three equal in all respects; f and the Peruvians 
" supposed their Tanga-tanga to be one in three, and three in one," says 
Faber.J The Egyptians have their Emepht, Eicton, and Phta ; and the 
triple god seated on the Lotos can be seen in the St. Petersburg Museum, 
on a medal of the Northern Tartars. 

Among the Church dogmas which have most seriously suffered of 
late at the hands of the Orientalists, the last in question stands con- 
spicuous. The reputation of each of the three personages of the an- 
thropomorphic godhead as an original revelation to the Christians 
through Divine will, has been badly compromised by inquiry into its 
predecessors and origin. Orientalists have published more about the 
similarity between Brahmanism, Buddhism, and Christianity than was 
strictly agreeable to the Vatican. Draper's assertion that " Paganism 
was modified by Christianity, Christianity by Paganisra,"§ is being daily 
verified. " Olympus was restored but the divinities passed under other 
names," he says, treating of the Constantine period. "The more pow- 
erful provinces insisted on the adoption of their time-honored concep- 
tions. Views of the trinity in accordance with the Egyptian traditions 
were established. Not only was the adoration of Isis under a new name 
restored, but .even her image, standing on the crescent moon, reappeared. 
The well-known effigy of that goddess with the infant Horus in her arms 
has descended to our days, in the beautiful artistic creations of the 
Madonna and child." 

But a still earlier origin than the Egyptian and Chaldean can be 
assigned to the Virgin " Mother of God," Queen of Heaven. Though 

* " De Antro Nympharum." -j- " Navarette," book ii., c. x. 

X " On the Origin of Heathen Idolatry." 

§ Isis and Osiris are said, in the Egyptian sacred books, to have appeared {i.^., been 
worshipped), on earth, later than Thot, the Jirst Hermes, called Trismegistus, who 
wrote all their sacred books according to the command of God or by "divine revela- 
tion." The companion and instructor of Isis and Osiris was Thot, or Hermes II., who 
was an incarnation of the celestial Hermes. 



Isis is also by right the Queen of Heaven, and is generally represented 
carrying in her hand the Crux Ansata composed of the mundane cross, 
and of the Stauros of the Gnostics, she is a great deal younger than the 
celestial virgin, Neith. In one of the tombs of the Pharaohs — Rham- 
eses, in the valley of Biban-el-M61ouk, in Thebes, Champollion, Junior, 
discovered a picture, according to his opinion the most ancient ever yet 
found. It represents the heavens symbolized by the figure of a woman 
bedecked with stars. The birth of the Sun is figured by the form of a 
little child, issuing from the bosom of its " Divine Mother." 

In the Book of Hermes, " Pimander " is enunciated in distinct and un- 
equivocal sentences, the whole trinitarian dogma accepted by the Chris- 
tians. " The light is me," says Pimander, the divine thought. " I 
am the nous or intelligence, and I am thy god, and I am far older than 
the human principle which escapes from the shadow. I am the germ of 
thought, the resplendent word, the son of God. Think that what thus 
sees and hears in thee, is the Verbum of the Master, it is the Thought, 
which is God the Father. . . . The celestial ocean, the ^ther, which 
flows from east to west, is the Breath of the Father, the life-giving 
Principle, the holy ghost ! " " For they are not at all separated and 
their union is life." 

Ancient as may be the origin of Hermes, lost in the unknown days of 
Egyptian colonization, there is yet a far older prophecy, directly relating 
to the Hindu Christna, according to the Brahmans. It is, to say the 
least, strange that the Christians claim to base their religion upon a pro- 
phecy of the Bible, which exists nowhere in that book. In what chapter 
or verse does Jehovah, the " Lord God," promise Adam and Eve to send 
them a Redeemer who will save humanity ? "I will put enmity between 
thee and the woman," says the Lord God to the serpent, "and between 
thy seed and her seed ; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his 

In these words there is not the slightest allusion to a Redeemer, and 
the subtilest of intellects could not extract from them, as they stand in the 
third chapter of Genesis, anything like that which the Christians have 
contrived to find. On the other hand, in the traditions and Mann, Brahma 
promises directly to the first couple to send them a Saviour who will 
teach them the way to salvation. 

" It is from the lips of a messenger of Brahma, who will be born in 
Kuroukshetra, Matsya, and the land of Pantchola, also called Kanya- 
Cubja (mountain of the Virgin), that all men on earth will learn their 
duty," says Manii (book ii., slokas ig and 20). 

The Mexicans call the Father of their Trinity Yzona, the Son Bacab, 
and the Holy Ghost Echvah, " and say they received it (the doctrine) 


from their ancestors." * Among the Semitic nations we can trace the trin- 
ity to the prehistorical days of the fabled Sesostris, who is identified by 
more than one critic with Nimrod, " the mighty hunter." Manetho makes 
the oracle rebuke the king, when the latter asks, "Tell me, O thou 
strong in fire, who before me could subjugate all things? and who shall 
after me ? " And the oracle saith thus : " First God, then the Word, 
and then ' the Spirit.' " f 

In the foregoing lies the foundation of the fierce hatred of the Chris- 
tians toward the "Pagans" and the theurgists. Too much had been 
borrowed ; the ancient religions and the Neo-platonists had been laid by 
them under contribution sufficiently to perplex the world for several 
thousand years. Had not the ancient creeds been speedily obliterated, 
it would have been found impossible to preach the Christian religion as a 
New Dispensation, or the direct Revelation from God the Father, through 
God the Son, and under the influence of God the Holy Ghost. As a 
political exigence the Fathers had — to gratify the wishes of their rich 
converts — instituted even the festivals of Pan. They went so far as to 
accept the ceremonies hitherto celebrated by the Pagan world in honor 
of the God of the gardens, in all their primitive sincerity.\ It was 
time to sever the connection. Either the Pagan worship and the Neo- 
platonic theurgy, with all ceremonial of magic, must be crushed out for- 
ever, or the Christians become Neo-platonists. 

The fierce polemics and single-handed battles between Irenseus and 
the Gnostics are too well known to need repetition. They were carried on 
for over two centuries after the unscrupulous Bishop of Lyons had uttered 
his last religious paradox. Celsus, the Neo-platonist, and a disciple of 
the school of Ammonius Saccas, had thrown the Christians into perturba- 
tion, and even had arrested for a time the progress of proselytism by suc- 
cessfully proving that the original and purer forms of the most important 
dogmas of Christianity were to be found only in the teachings of Plato. 
Celsus accused them of accepting the worst superstitions of Paganism, and 
of interpolating passages from the books of the Sybils, without rightly 
understanding their meaning. The accusations were so plausible, and the 
facts so patent, that for a long time no Christian writer had ventured to 
answer the challenge. Origen, at the fervent request of his friend, Am- 
brosius, was the first to take the defense in hand, for, having belonged to 
the same Platonic school of Ammonius, he was considered the most com- 
petent man to refute the well-founded charges. But his eloquence failed, 
and the only remedy that could be found was to destroy the writings of 

* Lord Kingsborough : "Ant. Mex,," p. 165. 

f " Ap. Malal.," lib. i., cap. iv. % Payne Knight : "Phallic Worship." 


Celsus themselves. * This could be achieved only in the fifth century, 
when copies had been taken from this work, and many were those who 
had read and studied them. If no copy of it has descended to our pres- 
ent generation of scientists, it is not because there is none extant at 
present, but for the simple reason that the monks of a certain Oriental 
church on Mount Athos will neither show nor confess they have one in 
their possession. f Perhaps they do not even know themselves the value 
of the contents of their manuscripts, on account of their great ignorance. 
The dispersion of the Eclectic school had become the fondest hope 
of the Christians. It had been looked for and contemplated with intense 
anxiety. It was finally achieved. The members were scattered by the 

* The Celsus above mentioned, who lived between the second and third centuries, 
is not Celsus the Epicurean. The latter wrote several works against Magic, and lived 
earlier, during the reign of Hadrian, 

f We have the facts from a trustworthy witness, having no interest to invent such a 
story. Having injured his leg in a fall from the steamer into the boat in which he was 
to land at the Mount, he was taken care of by these monks, and during his convalescence, 
through gifts of money and presents, became their greitest friend, and finally won their 
entire confidence. Having asked for the Joan of some books, he was taken by the Supe- 
rior to a large cellar in which they keep their sacred vessels and other property. Opening 
a great trunk, full of old musty manuscripts and rolls, he was invited by the Superior 
to " amuse himself." The gentleman was a scholar, and well versed in Greek and Latin 
text. " I was amazed," he says, in a private letter, " and had my breath taken away, 
on finding among these old parchments, so unceremoniously treated, some of the most 
valuable relics of the first centuries, hitherto believed to have been lost." Among others 
he found a half-destroyed manuscript, which he is perfectly sure must be a copy of the 
" True Doctrine," the Aoyo; aXt]Qr\% of Celsus, out of which Origen quoted whole pages. 
The traveller took as many notes as he could on that day, but when he came to offer to the 
Superior to purchase some of these writings he found, to his gi-eat surprise, that no amount 
of money would tempt the monks. They did not know what the manuscripts contained, 
nor "did they care," they said. But the "heap of writing," they added, was transmitted 
to them from one generation to another, and there was a tradition among them that 
these papers would one day become the means of crushing the "Great Beast of the 
Apocalypse," their hereditary enemy, the Church of Rome. They were constantly 
quarrelling and fighting with the Catholic monks, and among the whole "heap" they 
knew that there was a "holy" relic which protected them. They did not know which, 
and so in their doubt abstained. It appears that the Superior, a shrewd Greek, under- 
stood his bevue and repented of his kindness, for first of all he made the traveller give 
him his most sacred word of honor, strengthened by an oath he made him take on the 
image of the Holy Patroness of the Island, never to betray their secret, and never men- 
tion, at least, the name of their convent. And finally, when the anxious student who 
had passed a fortnight in reading all sorts of antiquated trash before he happened to 
stumble over some precious manuscript, expressed the desire to have the key, to "amuse 
himself " with the writings once more, he was very naively informed that the " key had 
been lost," and that they did not know where to look for it. And thus he was left to 
the few notes he had taken. 


hand of the monsters Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria, and his nephew 
Cyril — the murderer of the young, the learned, and the innocent Hy- 
patia ! * 

With the death of the martyred daughter of Theon, the mathematician, 
there remained no possibility for the Neo-platonists to continue their 
school at Alexandria. During the life-time of the youthful Hypatia her 
friendship and influence with Orestes, the governor of the city, had assured 
the philosophers security and protection against their murderous enemies. 
With her death they had lost their strongest friend. How much she was 
revered by all who knew her for her erudition, noble virtues, and charac- 
ter, we can infer from the letters addressed to her by Synesius, Bishop of 
Ptolemais, fragments of which have reached us. " My heart yearns for 
the presence of your divine spirit," he wrote in 413 a. d., "which more 
than anything else could alleviate the bitterness of my fortunes." At 
another time he says : " Oh, my mother, my sister, my teacher, my ben- 
efactor ! My soul is very sad. The recollection of my children I have 
lost is killing me. . . . When I have news of you and learn, as I hope, 
that you are more fortunate than myself, I am at least only half-unhappy." 

What would have been the feelings of this most noble and worthy of 
Christian bishops, who had surrendered family and children and happiness 
for the faith into which he had been attracted, had a prophetic vision dis- 
closed to him that the only friend that had been left to him, his " mother, 
sister, benefactor," would soon become an unrecognizable mass of flesh 
and blood, pounded to jelly under the blows of the club of Peter the 
Reader — that her youthful, innocent body would be cut to pieces, " the 
flesh scraped from the bones," by oyster-shells and the rest of her cast 
into the fire, by order of the same Bishop Cyril he knew so well — Cyril, 
the CANONIZED Saint ! ! f 

There has never been a religion in the annals of the world with such 
a bloody record as Christianity. All the rest, including the traditional 
fierce fights of the "chosen people" with their next of kin, the idolatrous 
tribes of Israel, pale before the murderous fanaticism of the alleged fol- 
lowers of Christ ! Even the rapid spread of Mahometanism before the 
conquering sword_ of the Islam prophet, is a direct consequence of the 

* See the historical romance of Canon Kingsley, "Hypatia," for a highly pictu- 
resque account of the tragical fate of this yoimg martyr. 

+ We beg the reader to bear in mind that it is the same Cyril who was accused and 
proved guilty of having sold the gold and silver ornaments of his church, and spent the 
money. He pleaded guilty, but tried to excuse himself on the ground that he had used 
the money for the poor, but could not give evidence of it. His duplicity with Arius 
and his party is well known. Thus one of the first Christian saints, and the founder 
of the Trinity, appears on the pages of history as a murderer and a thief ! 


bloody riots and fights among Christians. It was the intestine war be- 
tween the Nestorians and Cyrilians that engendered Islamism ; and it is 
in the convent of Bozrah that the prolific seed was first sown by Bahira, 
the Nestorian monk. Freely watered by rivers of blood, the tree of 
Mecca has grown till we find it in the present century overshadowing 
nearly two hundred millions of people. The recent Bulgarian atrocities 
are but the natural outgrowth of the triumph of Cyril and the Mario- 

The cruel, crafty politician, the plotting monk, glorified by ecclesias- 
tical history with the aureole of a martyred saint. The despoiled philoso- 
phers, the Neo-platonists, and the Gnostics, daily anathematized by the 
Church all over the world for long and dreary centuries. The curse of 
the unconcerned Deity hourly invoked on the magian rites and theurgic 
practice, and the Christian clergy themselves using sorcery for ages. 
Hypatia, the glorious maiden-philosopher, torn to pieces by the Christian 
mob. And such as Catherine de Medici, Lucrezia Borgia, Joanna of 
Naples, and the Isabellas of Spain, presented to the world as the faithful 
daughters of the Church — some even decorated by the Pope with the 
order of the "Immaculate Rose," the highest emblem of womanly purity 
and virtue, a symbol sacred to the Virgin-mother of God ! Such are the 
examples of human justice ! How far less blasphemous appears a total 
rejection of Mary as an immaculate goddess, than an idolatrous worship 
of her, accompanied by such practices. 

In the next chapter we will present a few illustrations of sorcery, as 
practiced under the patronage of the Roman Church. 


" They undertake by scales of miles to tell 
The bounds, dimensions, and extent of hell ; 

Where bloated souls in smoky durance hung 
Like a Westphalia gammon or neat*s tongue. 
To be redeemed with masses and a song." 

— Oldham ; Satires %iJ>on the Jesuitt. 

** York. — But you are more inhuman, more inexorable — 
O, ten times more — than tigers of Hyrcania." 

— King Henry K/., Part Third, Act i.. Scene iv. 

*' War. — And hark ye, Sirs ; because she is a maid 
Spare for no faggots, let there be enough ; 
Place barrels of pitch upon the fatal stake." 

— King Henry VI. ^ Part First, Act v., Scene iv. 

IN that famous work of Bodin, on sorcery,* a frightful story is told 
about Catherine of Medicis. The author was a learned pubhcist, 
who, during twenty years of his life, collected authentic documents from 
the archives of nearly every important city of France, to make up a com- 
plete work on sorcery, magic, and the power of various " demons." 
To use an expression of Eliphas Levi, his book offers a most remarkable 
collection of " bloody and hideous facts; acts of revolting superstition, 
arrests, and executions of stupid ferocity." " Burn every body ! " the 
Inquisition seemed to say — God will easily sort out His own ! Poor 
fools, hysterical women, and idiots were roasted alive, without mercy, for 
the crime of " magic." But, " at the same time, how many gieat culprits 
escaped this unjust Ind sanguinary justice ! This is what Bodin makes 
us fully appreciate." 

Catherine, the pious Christian — who has so well deserved in the eyes 
of the Church of Christ for the atrocious and never-to-be-forgotten mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew' — the Queen Catherine, kept in her service an 
apostate Jacobin priest. Well versed in the " black art," so fully pat- 
ronized by the Medici family, he had won the gratitude and protection 
of his pious mistress, by his unparalleled skill in killing people at a dis- 
tance, by torturing with various incantations their wax simulacra. The 
process has been described over and over again, and we scarcely need 
repeat it. 

* "La Demonomanie, ou traite des Sorciers." Paris, 1587. 


Charles was lying sick of an incurable disease. The queen-mother, 
who had everything to lose in case of his death, resorted to necromancy, 
and consulted the oracle of the " bleeding head." This infernal opera- 
tion required the decapitation of a child who must be possessed of great 
beauty and purity. He had been prepared in secret for his first commu- 
nion, by the chaplam of the palace, who was apprised of the plot, and at 
midnight of the appointed day, in the chamber of the sick man, and in 
presence only of Catherine and a few of her confederates, the " devil's 
mass " was celebrated. Let us give the rest of the story as we find it in 
one of Levi's works : " At this mass, celebrated before the image of the 
demon, having under his feet a reversed cross, the sorcerer consecrated 
two wafers, one black and one white. The white was given to the child, 
whom they brought clothed as for baptism, and who was murdered upon 
the very steps of the altar, immediately after his communion. His head, 
separated from the trunk by a single blow, was placed, all palpitating, 
upon the great black wafer which covered the bottom of the paten, then 
placed upon a table where some mysterious lamps were burning. The 
exorcism then began, and the demon was charged to pronounce an ora- 
cle, and reply by the mouth of this head to a secret question that the 
king dared not speak aloud, and that had been confided to no one. Then 
a feeble voice, a strange voice, which had nothing of human character 
about it, made itself audible in this poor little martyr's head." The sor- 
cery availed nothing ; the king died, and — Catherine remained the faith- 
ful daughter of Rome ! 

How strange, that des Mousseaux, whx) makes such free use of Bodin's 
materials to construct his formidable indictment against Spiritualists and 
other sorcerers, should have overlooked this interesting episode ! 

It is a well-attested fact that Pope Sylvester II. was publicly accused 
by Cardinal Benno with being a sorcerer and an enchanter. The brazen 
" oracular head " made by his Holiness was of the same kind as the one 
fabricated by Albertus Magnus. The latter was smashed to pieces by 
Thomas Aquinas, not because it was the work of or inhabited by a 
"demon," but because the spook who was fixed inside, by mesmeric 
power, talked incessantly, and his verbiage prevented the eloquent saint 
from working out his mathematical problems. These heads and other 
talking statues, trophies of the magical skill of monks and bishops, were 
fac-similes of the " animated" gods of the ancient temples. The accu- 
sation against the Pope was proved at the time. It was also demonstrated 
that he was constantly attended by " demons " or spirits. In the pre- 
ceding chapter we have mentioned Benedict IX., John XX., and the 
Vlth and Vllth Gregory, who were all known as magicians. The 
latter Pope, moreover, was the famous Hildebrand, who was said to have 


been so expert at " shaking lightning out of his sleeve." An expression 
which makes the venerable spiritualistic writer, Mr. Howitt, think that 
"it was the origin of the celebrated thunder of the Vatican." 

The magical achievements of the Bishop of Ratisbon and those of the 
"angelic doctor," Thomas Aquinas, are too well known to need repe- 
tition ; but we may explain farther how the " illusions " of the former were 
produced. If the Catholic bishop was so clever in making people believe 
on a bitter winter night that they were enjoying the delights of a splendid 
summer day, and cause the icicles hanging from the boughs of the trees 
in the garden to seem like so many tropical fruits, the Hindu magicians 
also practice such biological powers unto this very day, and claim the 
assistance of neither god nor devil. Such " miracles " are all produced 
by the same human power that is inherent in every man, if he only 
knew how to develop it. 

About the time of the Reformation, the study of alchemy and magic 
had become so prevalent among the clergy as to produce great scandal. 
Cardinal Wolsey was openly accused before the court and the privy- 
council of confederacy with a man named Wood, a sorcerer, who said 
that " My Lord Cardinale had suche a rynge that what somev ere he askyd 
of the Kynges grace that he hadd yt ; " adding that "■Master Cromwell, 
when he . . . was servaunt in my lord cardynales housse . . . rede many 
hokes and specyally the boke of Salamon . . . and studied mettells and 
what vertues they had after the canon of Salamon!^ This case, with seve- 
ral others equally curious, is to be found among the Cromwell papers in 
the Record Office of the Rolls House. 

A priest named William Stapleton was arrested as a conjurer, during 
the reign of Henry VIII., and an account of his adventures is still 
preserved in the Rolls House records. The Sicilian priest whom 
Benvenuto Cellini calls a necromancer, became famous through his 
successful conjurations, and was never molested. The remarkable 
adventure of Cellini with him in the Colosseum, where the priest con- 
jured up a whole host of devils, is well known to the reading public. 
The subsequent meeting of Cellini with his mistress, as predicted and 
brought about by the conjurer, at the precise time fixed by him, is to 
be considered, as a matter of course, a " curious coincidence." In 
the latter part of the sixteenth century there was hardly a parish to 
be found in which the priests did not study magic and alchemy. The 
practice of exorcism to cast out devils "in imitation of Christ," who 
by the way never used exorcism at all, led the clergy to devote them- 
selves openly to "sacred" magic in contradistinction to black art, of 
which latter crime were accused all those who were neither priests nor 


The occult knowledge gleaned by the Roman Church from the once 
fat fields of theurgy she sedulously guarded for her own use, and sent to 
the stake only those practitioners who " poached " on her lands of the 
Scieniia Scientiarum, and those whose sins could not be concealed by the 
fiiar's frock. The proof of it lies in the records of history. "In the 
course only of fifteen years, between 1580 to 1595, and only in the single 
province of Lorraine, the President Remigius burned 900 witches," 
says Thomas Wright, in his Sorcery and Magic. It was during these 
days, prolific in ecclesiastical murder and unrivalled for cruelty and 
ferocity, that Jean Bodin wrote. 

While the orthodox clergy called forth whole legions of "demons" 
through magical incantations, unmolested by the authorities, provided 
they held fast to the established dogmas and taught no heresy, on the 
other hand, acts of unparalleled atrocity were perpetrated on poor, unfor- 
tunate fools. Gabriel Malagrida, an old man of eighty, was burnt by these 
evangelical Jack Ketches in 1761. In the Amsterdam library there is a 
copy of the report of his famous trial, translated from the Lisbon edition. 
He was accused of sorcery and illicit intercourse with the Devil, who had 
"disclosed to him futurity." ( ? ) The prophecy imparted by the Arch- 
Enemy to the poor visionary Jesuit is reported in the following terms : 
" The culprit hath confessed that the demon, under the form of the blessed 
Virgin, having commanded him to write the life of Antichrist ( ? ), told him 
that he, Malagrida, was a second John, but more clear than John the 
Evangelist; that there were to be "three Antichrists, and that the last 
should be born at Milan, of a monk and a nun, in the year 1920 ; that 
he would marry Proserpine, one of the infernal furies," etc. 

The prophecy is to be verified forty- three years hence. Even were all 
the children born of monks and nuns really to become antichrists if 
allowed to grow up to maturity, the fact would seem far less deplorable 
than the discoveries made in so many convents when the foundations 
have been removed for some reason. If the assertion of Luther is to be 
disbelieved on account of his hatred for popery, then we may name dis- 
coveries of the same character made quite recently in Austrian and 
Russian Poland. Luther speaks of a fish-pond at Rome, situated near a 
convent of nuns, which, having been cleared out by order of Pope Greg- 
ory, disclosed, at the bottom, over six thousand infant skulls ; and of a 
nunnery at Neinburg, in Austria, whose foundations, when searched, dis- 
closed the same relics of celibacy and chastity ! 

" Ecclesia non novit Sanguinem I" meekly repeated the scarlet-robed 
cardinals. And to avoid the spilling of blood which horrified them, they 
instituted the Holy Inquisition. If, as the occultists maintain, and science 
half confirms, our most trifling acts and thoughts are indelibly impressed 


upon the eternal mirror of the astral ether, there must be somewhere, in 
the boundless realm of the unseen universe, the imprint of a curious 
picture. It is that of a gorgeous standard waving in the heavenly breeze 
at the foot of the great "white throne" of the Almighty. On its crimson 
damask face a cross, symbol of " the Son of God who died for mankind," 
with an olive branch on one side, and a sword, stained to the hilt with 
human gore, on the other. A legend selected from the Psalms embla- 
zoned in golden letters, reading thus : " Exurge, Domine, et judica cau- 
sam meam." For such appears the standard of the Inquisition, on a 
photograph in our possession, from an original procured at the Escurial 
of Madrid. 

Under this Christian standard, in the brief space of fourteen years, 
Tomas de Torquemada, the confessor of Queen Isabella, burned over ten 
thousand persons, and sentenced to the torture eighty thousand more. 
Orobio, the well-known writer, who was detained so long in prison, and 
who hardly escaped the flames of the Inquisition, immortalized this insti- 
tution in his works when once at liberty in Holland. He found no better 
argument against the Holy Church than to embrace the Judaic faith and 
submit even to circumcision. " In the cathedral of Saragossa," says a 
writer on the Inquisition, "is the tomb of a famous inquisitor. Six pillars 
surround the tomb ; to each is chained a Moor, as preparatory to being 
burned." On this St. Foix ingenuously observes : " If ever the Jack 
Ketch of any country should be rich enough to have a splendid tomb, this 
might serve as an excellent model ! " To make it complete, however, 
the builders of the tomb ought not to have omitted a bas-relief of the 
famous horse which was burnt for sorcery and witchcraft. Granger tells 
the story, describing it as having occurred in his time. The poor animal 
"had been taught to tell the spots upon cards, and the hour of the day 
by the watch. Horse and owner were both indicted by the sacred office 
for dealing with the Devil, and both were burned, with a great ceremony 
o{ auto-da-fe, at Lisbon, in 1601, as wizards!" 

This immortal institution of Christianity did not remain without its 
Dante to sing its praise. " Macedo, a Portuguese Jesuit," says the author 
of Demonologia, " has discovered the origin of the Inquisition, in the 
terrestrial Paradise, and presumes to allege that God was the first who 
began the functions of an inquisitor over Cain and the workmen of 
Babel ! " 

Nowhere, during the middle ages, were the arts of magic and sorcery 
more practiced by the clergy than in Spain and Portugal. The Moors 
were profoundly versed in the occult sciences, and at Toledo, Seville, 
and Salamanca, were, once upon a time, the great schools of magic. The 
kabalists of the latter town were skilled in all the abstruse sciences ; they 


knew the virtues of precious stones and other minerals, and had extracted 
from alchemy its most profound secrets. 

The authentic documents pertaining to the great trial of the Marechale 
d'Ancre, during the regency of Marie de Medicis, disclose that the un- 
fortunate woman perished through the fault of the priests with whom, like 
a true Italian, she surrounded herself. She was accused by the people 
of Paris of sorcery, because it had been asserted that she had used, after 
the ceremony of exorcism, newly-killed white cocks. Believing herself 
constantly bewitched, and being in very delicate health, the Marechale 
had the ceremony of exorcism publicly applied to herself in the Church 
of the Augustins ; as to the birds, she used them as an application to 
the forehead on account of dreadful pains in the head, and had been ad- 
vised to do so by Montalto, the Jew physician of the queen, and the Ital- 
ian priests. 

In the sixteenth century, the Cur6 de Barjota, of the diocese of Calla- 
hora, Spain, became the world's wonder for his magical powers. His 
most extraordinary feat consisted, it was said, in transporting himself to 
any distant country, witnessing political and other events, and then 
returning home to predict them in his own country. He had a familiar 
demon, who served him faithfully for long years, says the Chronicle, but 
the cur6 turned ungrateful and cheated him. Having been apprised by 
his demon of a conspiracy against the Pope's life, in consequence of an 
intrigue of the latter with a fair lady, the cure transported himself to 
Rome (in his double, of course) and thus saved his Holiness' life. After 
which he repented, confessed his sins to the gallant Pope, and got absolu- 
tion. " On his return he was delivered, as a matter of form, into the 
custody of the inquisitors of Logroiio, but was acquitted and restored to 
his liberty very soon." 

Friar Pietro, a Dominican monk of the fourteenth century — the magi- 
cian who presented the famous Dr. Eugenic Torralva, a physician attached 
to the house of the admiral of Castile, with a demon named Zequiel — won 
his fame through the subsequent trial of Torralva. The procedure and 
circumstances attendant upon the extraordinary trial are described in 
the original papers preserved in the Archives of the Inquisition. The 
Cardinal of Volterra, and the Cardinal of Santa Cruz, both saw and com- 
municated with Zequiel, who proved, during the whole of Torralva's life, 
to be a pure, kind, elemental spirit, doing many beneficent actions, 
and remaining faithful to the physician to the last hour of his life. 
Even the Inquisition acquitted Torralva, on that account ; and, although 
an immortality of fame was insured to him by the satire of Cervantes, 
neither Torralva nor the monk Pietro are fictitious heroes, but historical 
personages, recorded in ecclesiastical documents of Rome and Cuenga, 


in which town the trial of the physician took place, Januar}' the 29th, 

The book of Dr. W. G. Soldan, of Stuttgart, has become as famous 
in Germany, as Bodin's book on Denwnomania in France. It is the 
most complete German treatise on witchcraft of the sixteenth century. 
One interested to learn the secret machinery underlying these thousands 
of legal murders, perpetrated by a clergy who pretended to believe in the 
Devil, and succeeded in making others believe in him, will find it divulged 
in the above-mentioned work.* The true origin of the daily accusations 
and death-sentences for sorcery are cleverly traced to personal and 
political enmities, and, above all, to the hatred of the Catholics toward 
the Protestants. The crafty work of the Jesuits is seen at every page of 
the bloody tragedies ; and it is in Bamberg and Wurzburg, where these 
worthy sons of Loyola were most powerful at that time, that the cases of 
witchcraft were most numerous. On the next page we give a curious list 
of some victims, many of whom were children between the ages of seven 
and eight years, and Protestants. " Of the multitudes of persons who 
perished at the stake in Germany during the first half of the seventeenth 
century for sorcery, the crjme of many was their attachment to the relig- 
ion of Luther," says T. Wright, "... and the petty princes were not 
unwilling to seize upon any pretense to fill their coffers . . . the persons 
most persecuted being those whose property was a matter of considera- 
tion. ... At Bamberg, as well as at Wurzburg, the bishop was a sover- 
eign prince in his dominions. The Prince-Bishop, John George IL, who 
ruled Bamberg . . . after several unsuccessful attempts to root out Luth- 
eranism, distinguished his reign by a series of sanguinary witch-trials, 
which disgrace the annals of that city. . . . We may form some notion 
of the proceedings of his worthy agent, f from the statement of the most 
authentic historians, that between 1625 and 1630, not less than 900 trials 
took place in the two courts of Bamberg and Zeil ; and a pamphlet pub- 
lished at Bamberg by authority, in 1659, states the number of persons 
whom Bishop John George had caused to be burned for sorcery, to have 
been 600." \ 

Regretting that space should prevent our giving one of the most 
curious lists in the world of burned witches, we will nevertheless make a 
few extracts from the original record as printed in Hauber's Bibliotheca 

* Dr. W. G. Soldan : " Geschichte der Hexen processe, aus den Quellen darges- 
tellt," Stuttgart, 1843. 

f Frederick Forner, Suffragan of Bamberg, author of a treatise against heretics 
and sorcerers, under the title of " Panoplia Armaturoe Dei." 

X " Sorcery and Magic," by T. Wright, M.A., F.S. A., etc., Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the National Institute of France, vol. ii., p. 185. 


Magica. One glance at this horrible catalogue of murders in Christ's 
name, is sufficient to discover that out of 162 persons burned, more than 
one-half of them are designated as strangers (i.e., Protestants) in this 
hospitable town ; and of the other half we find thirty-four children, the 
oldest of whom was fourteen, the youngest an infant child of Dr. Schiitz. 
To make the catalogue shorter we will present of each of the twenty-nine 
burnings, but the most remarkable.* 


Old Ancker's widow. 
The wife of Liebler. 
The wife of Gutbrodt. 
The wife of Hocker. 


Two Strange women (names unknown). 
The old wife of iBeutler. 


Tungersleber, a minstrel. 
Four wives of citizens. 


A Strange man. 


Lutz, an eminent shop-keeper. 
The -wife of Baunach, a senator. 


The fat tailor's wife. 
A strange man. 
A strange woman. 

* Besides these burnings in Germany, which amount to many thousands, we find 
some very interesting statements in Prof. Draper's " Conflict between Religion and 
Science." On page 146, he says: " The families of the convicted were plunged into 
irretrievable ruin. Llorente, the historian of the Inquisition, computes that Torque- 
mada and his collaborators, in the course of eighteen years, burned at the stake 
10,220 persons, 6,S6o in effigy, and otherwise punished 97,321 ! . . . With unutter- 
able disgust and indignation, we learn that the papal government realized much money 
by selling to the rich, dispensations to secure them from the Inquisition." 



A Strange girl of twelve years old. 
A strange man, a strange woman. 
A strange bailiff (Schultheiss). 
Three strange women. 


Baunach, a senator, the fattest citizen in Wurzburg. 
A strange man. 
Two strange women. 


A strange man. 

A mother and daughter. 


Steinacher, a very rich man. 

A strange man, a strange woman. 


Two women and two men. 


Two strange women. 


A little girl nine or ten years old. 
A younger girl, her little sister. 


The mother of the two little girls before mentioned. 
A girl twenty-four years old. 


A boy twelve years of age, in the first school. 
A woman. 


A boy of ten years of age. 


A boy eleven years old. 
A mother and daughter. 



Two boys, twelve years old. 
The daughter of Dr. Junge. 
A girl of fifteen years of age. 
A strange woman. 


A boy of ten years of age. 
Another boy, twelve years old. 


Gobel's child, the most beautiful girl in Wurzburg. 
Two boys, each twelve years old. 
Stepper's little daughter. 


A boy fourteen years old. 

The little son of Senator Stolzenberger. 

Two alumni. 


Stiirman, a rich cooper. 
A strange boy. 


David Croten's boy, nine years old. 

The two sons of the prince's cook, one fourteen, the other ten years old. 


Two boys in the hospital. 
A rich cooper. 


A strange boy. 


Weydenbush, a senator. 

The little daughter of Valkenberger. 

The little son of the town council bailiff. 


A strange boy. 
A strange woman. 
Another boy. 



The infant daughter of Dr. Schiitz. 
A bhnd girl. 


The fat noble lady (Edelfrau). 
A doctor of divinity. 


Summary : 

'"Strange" men and women, i.e., Protestants, 28 

Citizens, apparently all wealthy people, 100 
Boys, girls, and little children, 34 

In nineteen months, 162 persons. 

" There were," says Wright, " little girls of from seven to ten years 
of age among the witches, and seven and twenty of them were convicted 
and burnt," at some of the other brdnde, or burnings. " The number; 
brought to trial in these terrible proceedings were so great, and they 
were treated with so little consideration, that it was usual not even to 
take the trouble of setting down their names, but they were cited as the 
accused No. i. No. 2, No. 3, and so on.* The Jesuits took their con- 
fessions in private." 

What room is there in a theology which exacts such holocausts as these 
to appease the bloody appetites of its priests for the following gentle 
words : 

" Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not ; for 
of such is the kingdom of Heaven." " Even so it is not the will of your 
Father . . . that one of these little ones should perish." "But whoso 
shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better 
for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck and that he were 
drowned in the depths of the sea." 

We sincerely hope that the above words have proved no vain threat 
to these child-burners. 

Did this butchery in the name of their Moloch-god prevent these 
treasure-hunters from resorting to the black art themselves ? Not in the 
least ; for in no class were such consulters of " familiar " spirits more 
numerous than among the clergy during the fifteenth, sixteenth, and 
seventeenth centuries. True, there were some Catholic priests among 
the victims, but though these were generally accused of having " been 

* " Sorcery and Magic ; " " The Burnings at Wiirtzburg," p. 186. 



led into practices too dreadful to be described," it was not so. In the 
twenty-nine burnings above catalogued we find the names of twelve 
vicars, four canons, and two doctors of divinity burnt alive. But we 
have only to turn to such works as were published at the time to assure 
ourselves that each popish priest executed was accused of " damnable 
heresy," i.e., a tendency to reformation — a crime more heinous far than 

We refer those who would learn how the Catholic clergy united duty 
with pleasure in the matter of exorcisms, revenge, and treasure-hunting, 
to volume II., chapter i., of W. Howitt's History of the Supernatural. 
" In the book called Pneumatologia Occulta et Vera, all the forms of 
adjuration and conjuration were laid down," says this veteran writer. 
He then proceeds to give a long description of the favorite modus 
operandi. The Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie of the late Eliphas 
Levi, treated with so much abuse and contempt by des Mousseaux, 
tells nothing of the weird ceremonies and practices but what was prac- 
ticed legally and with the tacit if not open consent of the Church, by the 
priests of the middle ages. The exorcist-priest entered a circle at mid- 
night ; he was clad in a new surplice, and had a consecrated band hanging 
from the neck, covered with sacred characters. He wore on the head a 
tall pointed cap, on the front of which was written in Hebrew the holy 
word, Tetragrammaton — the ineffable name. It was written with a new 
pen dipped in the blood of a white dove. What the exorcists most 
yearned after, was to release miserable spirits which haunt spots where 
hidden treasures lie. The exorcist sprinkles the circle with the blood 
of a black lamb and a white pigeon. The priest had to adjure the evil 
spirits of hell — Acheront, Magoth, Asmodei, Beelzebub, Belial, and all the 
damned souls, in the mighty names of Jehovah, Adonay, Elohah, and 
Sabaioth, which latter was the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who 
dwelt in the Uiim and Thuramim. When the damned souls flung in the 
face of the exorcist that he was a sinner, and could not get the treasure 
from them, the priest-sorcerer had to reply that " all his sins were washed 
out in the blood of Christ,* and he bid them depart as cursed ghosts and 
damned flies." When the exorcist dislodged them at last, the poor soul 
was " comforted in the name of the Saviour, and consigned to the care of 
good angels" who were less powerful, we must think, than the exorcising 
Catholic worthies, " and the rescued treasure, of course, was secured for 
the Church." 

" Certain days," adds Howitt, " are laid down in the calendar of the 

* And retinted in the blood of the millions murdered in his name — in the no less 
innocent blood than his own, of the little c\iA&-witches ! 


Church as most favorable for the practice of exorcism ; and, if the devils 
are difficult to drive, a fume of sulphur, assafoetida, bear's gall, and rue is 
recommended, which, it was presumed, would outstench even devils." 

This is the Church, and this the priesthood, which, in the nineteenth 
century, pays 5,000 priests to teach the people of the United States the 
infidelity of science and the infallibility of the Bishop of Rome ! 

We have already noticed the confession of an eminent prelate 
that the elimination of Satan from theology would be fatal to the per- 
petuity of the Church. But this is only partially true. The Prince of 
Sin would be gone, but sin itself would survive. If the Devil were 
annihilated, the Articles of Faith and the Bible would remain. In short 
there would still be a pretended divine revelation, and the necessity for 
self-assumed inspired interpreters. We must, therefore, consider the 
authenticity of the Bible itself We must study its pages, and see if 
they, indeed, contain the commands of the Deity, or but a compendium 
of ancient traditions and hoary myths. We must try to interpret them 
for ourselves — if possible. As to its pretended interpreters, the only 
possible assimilation we can find for them in the Bible is to compare 
them with the man described by the wise King Solomon in his Proverbs, 
with the perpetrator of these " six things . . . yea seven . . . which 
doth the Lord hate," and which are an abomination unto Him, to wit : 
" A proud look, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent blood ; 
an heart that deviseth wicked imaginations, feet that be swift in run- 
ning to mischief; a false ivitness that speaketh lies, and he that soweth 
discord among brethren" [Proverbs y'\. 16, 17, 18, 19). 

Of which of these accusations are the long line of men who have left 
the imprint of their feet in the Vatican guiltless ? 

" When the demons," says Augustine, " insinuate themselves in the 
creatures, they begin by conforming themselves to the will of every one. 
... In order to attract men, they begin by seducing them, by simula- 
ting obedience. . . . How could one know, had he not been taught by the 
demons themselves, what they like or what they hate ; the name which at- 
tracts, or that which forces them into obedience ; all this art, in short, of 
magic, the whole science of the magicians ? " * 

To this impressive dissertation of the " saint," we will add that no 
magician has ever denied that he had' learned the art from " spirits," 
whether, being a medium, they acted independently on him, or he had 
been initiated into the science of " evocation " by his fathers who knew 
it before himself. But who was it then that taught the exorcist ? The priest 

* St. Augustine : " City of God," i, xxi., ch. vi. ; des Mousseaux : " Moeuis et Pra- 
tiques des Demons." 


who clothes himself with an authority not only over the magician, but 
even over all these " spirits," whom he calls demons and devils as soon 
as he finds them obeying any one but himself? He must have learned 
somewhere from some one that power which he pretends to possess. 
P'or, "... how could one know had he not been taught by the demons them- 
selves . . . the name which attracts, or that which forces them into obedi- 
ence 1 " asks Augustine. 

Useless to remark that we know the answer beforehand : " Revela- 
tion . . . divine gift . . . the Son of God ; nay, God Himself, through 
His direct Spirit, who descended on the apostles as the Pentecostal fire, 
and who is now alleged to overshadow every priest who sees fit to ex- 
orcise for either glory or a gift. Are we then to believe that the recent 
scandal of public exorcism, performed about the 14th of October, 1876, 
by the senior priest of the Church -of the Holy Spirit, at Barcelona, Spain, 
was also done under the direct superintendence of the Holy Ghost ? * 

* A correspondent of the London " Times" describes the Catalonian exorcist in the 
following lines : 

" About the 14th of October it was privately announced that a young woman of 
seventeen or eighteen years of age, of the lower class, having long been afflicted with 
' a hatred of holy things,' the senior priest of the Church of the Holy Spirit would cure 
her of her disease. The exhibition was to be held in a church frequented by the best 
part of the community. The church was dark, but a sickly light was shed by wax 
lights on the sable forms of some eighty or a hundred persons who clustered round the 
presbyterio, or sanctuary, in front of the altar. Within the little enclosure or sanc- 
tuary, separated from the crowd by a light railnig, lay, on a common bench, with a little 
pillow for her head to recline upon, a poorly-clad girl, probably of the peasant or ar- 
tisan class ; her brother or husband stood at her feet to restrain her (at times) frantic 
kicking by holding her legs. The door of the vestry opened ; t!ie exhibitor — I mean 
the priest — came in. The poor girl, not without just reason, 'had an aversion to holy 
things,' or. at least, the 400 devils within her distorted body had such an aversion, and 
in the confusion of the moment, thinking that the father was ' a holy thing,' she doubled 
up her legs, screamed out with twitching mouth, her whole body writhing, and threw her- 
self nearly off the bench. The male attendant seized her legs, the women supported her 
head and swept out her dishevelled hair. The priest advanced and, mingling familiarly 
with the shuddering and horror-struck crowd, said, pointing at the suffering child, 
now sobbing and twitching on the bench, ' Promise me, my children, that you will be 
prudent (priidentcs), and of a truth, sons and daughters mine, you shall see marvels.' 
The promise was given. The exhibitor went to procure stole and short surplice (esiola 
y roquete), and returned in a moment, taking his stand at the side of the ' possessed 
with the devils,' with his face toward the group of students. The order of the day's 
proceedings was a lecture to the bystanders, and the operation of exorcising the devils. 
'You know,' said the priest, ' that so great is this girl's aversion to holy things, myself 
included, that she goes into convulsions, kicks, screams, and distorts her body the mo- 
ment she arrives at the corner of this street, and her convulsive struggles reach their 
climax when she enters the sacred house of the Most High.' Turning to the prostrate 
shudderiiig, most unhappy object of his attaA, the priest commenced: ' In the name of 


It will be urged that the " bishop was not cognizant of this freak of the 
clergy ; " but even if he were, how could he have protested against a rite 
considered since the days of the apostles, one of the most hofy preroga- 
tives of the Church of Rome ? So late as in 1852, only twenty-five 
years ago, these rites received a public and solemn sanction from the 
Vatican, and a new Ritual of Exorcism was published in Rome, Paris, 
and other Catholic capitals. Des Mousseaux, writing under the imme- 
diate patronage of Father Ventura, the General of the Theatines of 
Rome, even favors us with lengthy extracts from this famous ritual, and 
explains the reason why it was enforced again. It was in consequence 
of the revival of Magic under the name of Modern Spiritualism. The 
bull of Pope Innocent VIII. is exhumed, and translated for the benefit 
of des Mousseaux's readers. "We have heard," exclaims the Sovereign 
Pontiff, " that a great number of persons of both sexes have feared not to 
enter into relations with the spirits of hell ; and that, by their practice of 
sorcery . . . they strike with sterility the conjugal bed, destroy the germs 
of humanity in the bosom of the mother, and throw spells on them, and 
set a barrier to the multiplication of animals . . . etc., etc.;" then fol- 
low curses and anathemas against the practice. 

This belief of the Sovereign Pontiffs of an enlightened Christian coun- 
try is a direct inheritance by the most ignorant multitudes from the southern 
Hindu rabble — the "heathen." The diabolical arts of certain kangalins 
(witches) and jadugar (sorcerers) are firmly believed in by these people. 
The following are among their most dreaded powers : to inspire love and 
hatred at will ; to send a devil to take possession of a person and torture 

God, of the saints, of the blessed Host, of every holy sacrament of our Church, I adjure 
thee, Rusbel, come out of her.' (N. B. ' Rusbel ' is the name of a devil, the devil having 
257 names in Catalonia.) Thus adjured, the girl threw herself — in an agony of convul- 
sion, till her distorted face, foam-bespattered lips and writhing limbs grew well-nigh 
stiff — at full length upon the floor, and, in language semi-obscene, semi-violent, screamed 
out, 'I don't choose to come out, you thieves, scamps, robbers.' At last, from the 
quivering lips of the girl, came the words, ' I will ; ' but the devil added, with tra- 
ditional perversity, ' I will cast the 100 out, but by the mouth of the girl.' The priest 
objected. The exit, he said, of ichd devils out of the small Spanisli mouth of the woman 
would Meave her suffocated.' Then the maddened girl said she must undress herself 
for the devils to escape. This petition the holy father refused, * Then I will come 
out through the right foot, but first ' — the girl had on a hempen sand-al, she was ob- 
viously of the poorest class — ' you must take off her sandal.' Tlie sandal was untied ; 
the foot gave a convulsive plunge ; the devil and his myrmidons (so the cura said, 
looking round triumphantly) had gone to their own place. And, assuied of this, the 
wretched dupe of a girl lay quite still. The bishop was not cognizant of this freak of 
the clergy, and the moment it came to the ears of the civil authorities, the sharpest 
means were taken to prevent a repetition of the scandal." 


him ; to expel him ; to cause sudden death or an incurable disease ; to 
either strike cattle with or protect them from epidemics ; to compose 
philtres that will either strike with sterility or provoke unbounded pas- 
sions iii men and women, etc., etc. The sight alone of a man said to be 
such a sorcerer excites in a Hindu profound terror. 

And now we will quote in this connection the truthful remark of a 
writer who passed years in India in the study of the origin of such super- 
stitions : " Vulgar magic in India, like a degenerated infiltration, goes 
hand-in-hand with the most ennobling beliefs of the sectarians of the 
Pit r is. It was the work of the lowest clergy, and designed to hold the 
populace in a perpetual state of fear. It is thus that in all ages and 
under every latitude, side by side with philosophical speculations of the 
highest character, one always finds the religion of the rabble." * In 
India it was the work of the lowest clergy ; in Rome, that of the highest 
Pontiffs. But then, have they not as authority their greatest saint, 
Augustine, who declares that " whoever believes not in the evil spirits, 
refuses to believe in Holy Writ ? " f 

Therefore, in the second half of the nineteenth century, we find the 
counsel for the Sacred Congregation of Rites (exorcism of demons in- 
cluded). Father Ventura de Raulica, writing thus, in a letter published 
by des Mousseaux, in 1865 : 

" We are in full magic! and under false names ; the Spirit of lies and impudicity 
goes on perpetrating his horrible deprecations. . . . The most grievous feature in this 
is that among the most serious persons they do not attach the importance to the strange 
phenomena which they deserve, these manifestations that we witness, and which become 
with every day more weird, striking, as well as most fatal. 

" I cannot sufficiently admire and praise, from this standpoint, the zeal and courage 
displayed by you in your work. The facts which you have collected are calculated to 
throw light and conviction into the most skeptical minds ; and after reading this remark- 
able work, written with so much learnedness and consciousness, blindness is no longer 

" If anything could surprise us, it would be the indifference with which these phe- 
nomena have been treated by false .Science, endeavoring, as she has, to turn into ridicule 
so grave a subject ; the childish simplicity exhibited by her in the desire to explain the 
facts by absurd and contradictory hypotheses. . . . \ 

[Signed] " The Father Ventura de Raulica, etc., etc. 

Thus encouraged by the greatest authorities of the Church of Rome, 
ancient and modern, the Chevalier argues the necessity and the efficacy of 
exorcism by the priests. He tries to demonstrate — on faith, as usual 

* Louis JacoUiot : " Le Spiritisme dans le Monde," p. 162. 

f St. Augustine ; " City of God." 

X " Moeurs et Pratiques de? Demons," p. ii. 


that the power of the spirits of hell is closely related to certain rites, 
words, and formal signs. " In the diabolical Catholicism," he says, 
"as well as in the divine Catholicism, potential grace is bound (iiee) to 
certain signs." While the power of the Catholic priest proceeds from 
God, that of the Pagan priest proceeds from the Devil. The Devil, he 
adds, "is forced to submission" before the holy minister of God — •' ke 
dares nnt i.te." * 

We beg the reader to note well the underlined sentence, as we 
mean to test its truth impartially. We are prepared to adduce proofs, 
undeniable and undenied even by the Popish Church — forced, as she 
was, into the confession — proofs of hundreds of cases in relation to the 
most solemn of her dogmas, wherein the " spirits " lied from beginning 
to end. How about certain holy relics authenticated by visions of the 
blessed Virgin, and a host of saints ? We have at hand a treatise by a 
pious Catholic, Jilbert de Nogen, on the relics of saints. With honest 
despair he acknowledges the "great number of false relics, as well as - 
false legends," and severely censures the inventors of these lying mira- 
cles. " It was on the occasion of one of our Saviour's teeth," writes the 
author of Demonologia, " that de Nogen took up his pen on this subject, 
by which the monks of St. Medard de Soissons pretended to work mira- 
cles ; a pretension which he asserted to be as chimerical as that of several 
persons who believed they possessed the navel, and other parts less 
comely, of the body of Christ." f 

"A monk of St. Antony," says Stephens, J "having been at Jerusa- 
lem, saw there several relics, among which was a bit of the finger of the 
Holy Ghost, as sound and entire as it had ever been ; the snout of the 
seraph that appeared to St. Francis ; one of the nails of a cherub ; 
one of the ribs of the Verbum caro factum (the Word made flesh) ; some 
rays of the star that appeared to the three kings of the East ; a phial of 
St. Michael's sweat, that exuded when he was fighting against the Devil, 
etc. ' All which things,' observes the monkish treasurer of relics, ' I have 
brought with me home very devoutly.' " 

And if the foregoing is set aside as the invention of a Protestant enemy, 
may we not be allowed to refer the reader to the History of England and 
authentic documents which state the existence of a relic not less extraor- 
dinary than the best of the others ? Henry III. received from the Grand 
Master of the Templars a phial containing a small portion of the sacred 
blood of Christ which he had shed upon the cross. It was attested to be 
genuine by the seals of the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and others. The 

* Des Mousseaux : "Table des Matieres." 

f "Demonologia ; " London, 1S27, J. Bumpus, 23 Skinner Street. 

\ " Traite Preparatif a I'Apologie pour Herodote," c. 39. 


procession bearing the sacred phial from St. Paul's to Westminster Abbey 
is described by the historian: "Two monks received the phial, and 
deposited it in the Abbey . . . which made all England shine with glory, 
dedicating it to God and St. Edward." 

The story of the Prince Radzivil is well known. It was the undenia- 
ble decepdon of the monks and nuns surrounding him and his own 
confessor which made the Polish nobleman become a Lutheran. He felt 
at first so indignant at the " heresy " of the Reformation spreading in 
Lithuania, that he travelled all the way to Rome to pay his homage of 
sympathy and veneration to the Pope. The latter presented him with a 
precious box of relics. On his return home, his confessor saw the Virgin, 
who descended from her glorious abode for the sole purpose of blessing 
these relics and authenticating them. The superior of the neighboring 
convent and the mother-abbess of a nunnery both saw the same vision, 
with a reenforcement of several saints and martyrs ; they prophesied and 
"felt the Holy Ghost" ascending from the box of relics and overshadow- 
ing the prince. A demoniac provided for the purpose by the clergy was 
exorcised in full ceremony, and upon being touched by the box immedi- 
ately recovered, and rendered thanks on the spot to the Pope and the 
Holy Ghost. After the ceremony was over the guardian of the treasury 
in which the relics were kept, threw himself at the feet of the prince, and 
confessed that on their way back from Rome he had lost the box of relics. 
Dreading the wrath of his master, he had procured a similar box, "which 
he had filled with the small bones of dogs and cats ;" but seeing how the 
prince was deceived, he preferred confessing his guilt to such blasphemous 
tricks. The prince said nothing, but continued for some time testing — 
not the relics, but his confessor and the vision-seers. Their mock raptures 
made him discover so thoroughly the gross impositions of the monks and 
nuns that he joined the Reformed Church. 

This is history. Bayle shows that when the Roman Church is no 
longer able to deny that there have been false rehcs, she resorts to soph- 
istry, and replies that if false rehcs have wrought miracles it is " because 
of the good intentions of the believers, who thus obtained from God a 
reward of their good faith ! " The same Bayle shows, by numerous in- 
stances, that whenever it was proved that several bodies of the same saint, 
or three heads of him, or three arms (as in the case of Augustine) were said 
to exist in different places, and that they could not well be all authentic, 
the cool and invariable answer of the Church was that they were all 
genuine ; for " God had multiplied and miraculously reproduced them 
for the greater glory of His Holy Church ! " In other words they would 
have the faithful believe that the body of a deceased saint may, through 
divine miracle, acquire the physiological peculiarities of a crawfish ! 


We fancy that it would be hard to demonstrate to satisfaction that the 
visions of Catholic saints, are, in any one particular instance, better or 
more trustworthy than the average visions and prophecies of ouf modern 
" mediums." The visions of Andrew Jackson Davis — however our critics 
may sneer at them — are by long odds more philosophical and more com- 
patible with modern science than the Augustinian speculations. When- 
ever the visions of Swedenborg, the greatest among the modern seers, 
run astray from philosophy and scientific truth^ it is when they most run 
parallel with theology. Nor are these visions any more useless to either 
science or humanity than those of the great orthodox saints. In the life 
of St. Bernard it is narrated that as he was once in church, upon a Christ- 
mas eve, he prayed that the very hour in which Christ was born might be 
revealed to him ; and when the " true and correct hour came, he saw the 
divine babe appear in his manger." What a pity that the divine babe did 
not embrace so favorable an opportunity to fix the correct day and year 
of his death, and thereby reconcile the controversies of his putative 
historians. The Tischendorfs, Lardners, and Colensos, as well as many 
a Catholic divine, who have vainly squeezed the marrow out of historical 
records and their own brains, in the useless search, would at least have 
had something for which to thank the saint. 

As it is, we are hopelessly left to infer that most of the beatific and 
divine visions of the Golden Legend, and those to be found in the more 
complete biographies of the most important " saints," as well as most 
of the visions of our own persecuted seers and seeresses, were produced 
by ignorant and undeveloped " spirits " passionately fond of personating 
great historical characters. We are quite ready to agree with the Chev- 
alier des Mousseaux, and other unrelenting persecutors of magic and spir- 
itualism in the name of the Church, that modern spirits are often " lying 
spirits ; " that they are ever on hand to humor the respective hobbies of 
the persons who communicate with them at " circles ; " that they deceive 
them and, therefore, are not always good " spirits." 

But, having conceded so much, we will now ask of any impartial 
person : is it possible to believe at the same time that the power given 
to the exorcist-priest, that supreme and divine power of which he boasts, 
has been given to him by God for the purpose of deceiving people ? 
That the prayer pronounced by him in the name of Christ, and which, 
forcing the demon into submission, makes him reveal himself, is calculated 
at the same time to make the devil confess not the truth, but that only 
which it is the interest of the church to which the exorcist belongs, should 
pass for truth 1 And this is what invariably happens. Compare, for 
instance, the responses given by the demon to Luther, with those 
obtained from the devils by St. Dominick. The one argues against the 


private mass, and upbraids Luther with placing the Virgin Mary and 
saints before Christ, and thus dishonoring the Son of God ; * wiiile the 
demons exorcised by St. Dominick, upon seeing the Virgin whom the 
holy father had also evoked to help him, roar out : " Oh ! our enemy ! 
oh ! our damner ! . . . why didst thou descend from heaven to torment us ? 
Why art thou so powerful an intercessor for sinners ! Oh ! thou most 
certain and secure way to heaven . . . thou commandest us and we are 
forced to confess that nobody is damned 'who only perseveres in thy holy 
worship, etc., etc."f Luther's " Saint Satan " assures him that while 
believing in the transubstantiation of Christ's body and blood he had 
been worshipping merely bread and wine ; and the devils of all the 
Catholic saints promise eternal damnation to whomsoever disbelieves or 
even so much as doubts the dogma ! 

Before leaving the subject, let us give one or two more instances from 
the Chronicles of the Lives of the Saints, selected from such narratives 
as are fully accepted by the Church. We might fill volumes with proofs 
of undeniable confederacy between the exorcisers and the demons. Their 
very nature betrays them. Instead of being independent, crafty entities, 
bent on the destruction of men's souls and spirits, the majority of them 
are simply the elementals of the kabalists ; creatures with no intellect 
of their own, but faithful mirrors of the will which evokes, controls, and 
guides them. We will not waste our time in drawing the reader's atten- 
tion to doubtful or obscure thaumaturgists and exorcisers, but take as 
our standard one of the greatest saints of Catholicism, and select a bou- 
quet from that same prolific conservatory of pious lies, The Golden 
Legend, of James de Veragine. J 

St. Dominick, the founder of the famous order of that name, is one of 
the mightiest saints on the calendar. His order was the first that received 
a solemn confirmation from the Pope,§ and he is well known in history 
as the associate and counsellor of the infamous Simon de Montford, the 
papal general, whom he helped to butcher the unfortunate Albigenses in 
and near Toulouse. The story goes that this saint and the Church after 
him, claim that he received from the Virgin, in propria persona, a rosary, 
whose virtues produced such stupendous miracles that they throw entirely 
into the shade those of the apostles, and even of Jesus himself. A man, 
says the biographer, an abandoned sinner, was bold enough to doubt the 

* De Missa Privata et Unctione Sacerdotum. 

f See the "Life of St. Dominick " and the story about the miraculous Rosary; 
also the " Golden Legend." 

% James de Varasse, known by the Latin name of James de Veragine, was Vicar- 
General of the Dominicans and Bishop of Genoa in 1290. 

g Thirteenth century. 

dominick's dialogue with the devils. 75 

virtue of the Dominican rosary ; and for this unparalleled blasphemy was 
punished on the spot by having 15,000 devils take possession of him. 
Seeing the great suffering of the tortured demoniac, St. Dominifck forgot 
the insult and called the devils to account. 

Following is the colloquy between the " blessed exorcist " and the 
demons : 

Question. — How did you take possession of this man, and how many 
are you ? 

Annc'cr of the Devils. — We came into luui for having spoken disre- 
spectfully of the rosary. We are 15,000. 

Question. — Why did so many as 15,000 enter him ? 

Answer. — Because there are fifteen decades in the rosary which he 
derided, etc. 

Dominick. — Is not all true I have said of the virtues of the rosary ? 

Devils. — Yes ! Yes ! (they emit flames through the nostrils of the 
demoniac). Know all ye Christians that Dominick never said one word 
concerning the rosary that is not most true ; and know ye further, that 
if you do not believe him, great calamities will befall you. 

Dominick. — Who is the man in the world the Devil hates the most ? 

Devils. — (//z chorus.) Thou art the very man (here follow verbose 

Dominick. — Of which state of Christians are there the most damned? 

Devils. — In hell we have merchants, pawnbrokers, fraudulent bankers, 
grocers, Jews, apothecaries, etc., etc. 

Dominick. — Are there any priests or monks in hell ? 

Devils. — There are a great number of priests, but no monks, with the 
exception of such as have transgressed the rule of their order. 

Dominick. — Have you any Dominicans ? 

Devils. — Alas ! alas ! we have not one yet, but we expect a great 
number of them after their devotion is a little cooled. 

We do not pretend to give the questions and answers literally, for 
they occupy twenty-three pages ; but the substance is here, as may be 
seen by any one who cares to read the Golden Legend. The full descrip- 
tion of the hideous bellowings of the demons, their enforced glorification 
of the saint, and so on, is too long for this chapter. Suffice it to say 
that as we read the numerous questions offered by Dominick and the 
answers of the demons, we become fully convinced that they corroborate 
in every detail the unwarranted assertions and support the interests of 
the Church. The narrative is suggestive. The legend graphically 
describes the battle of the exorcist with the legion from the bottomless 
pit. The sulphurous flames which burst forth from the nose, mouth, 
eyes, and ears, of the demoniac ; the sudden appearance of over a hun- 


dred angels, clad in golden armor ; and, finally, the descent of the blessed 
Virgin herself, in person, bearing a golden rod, with which she adminis- 
ters a sound thrashing to the demoniac, to force the devils to confess that 
of herself which we s-carcely need repeat. The whole catalogue of theo- 
logical' truths uttered by Dominick's devils were embodied in so many 
articles of faith by his Holiness, the present Pope, in 1870, at the last 
CEcumenical Council. 

From the foregoing it is easy to see that the only substantial differ- 
ence between infidel "mediums" and orthodox saints lies in the relative 
usefulness of the demons, if demons we must call them. While the Devil 
faithfully supports the Christian exorcist in his orthodox (?) views, the 
modern spook generally leaves his medium in the lurch. For, by lying, 
he acts against his or her interests rather than otherwise, and thereby 
too often casts foul suspicion on the genuineness of the mediumship. 
Were niodern " spirits" devils, they would evidently display a little more 
discrimination and cunning than they do. They would act as the demons 
of the saint which, compelled by the ecclesiastical magician and by the 
power of " the name . . . which forces them into submission," lie in 
accordance with the direct interest of the exorcist and his church. The 
moral of the parallel we leave to the sagacity of the reader. 

" Observe well," exclaims des Mousseaux, " that there are demons 
which sometimes will speak the truth." " The exorcist," he adds, quoting 
the 7?z/«t7/, "must command the demon to tell him whether he is de- 
tained in the body of the demoniac through some magic art, or by signs, 
or any objects which usually serve for this evil practice. In case the 
exorcised person has swallowed the latter, he must vomit them back ; 
and if they are not in his body, the demon must indicate the proper place 
where they are to be found ; and having found them they must be 
burned." * Thus some demons reveal the existence of the bewitchment, 
tell who is its author, and indicate the means to destroy the malefice. 
But beware to ever resort, in such a case, to magicians, sorcerers, or 
mediums. You must call to help you but the minister of your Church !" 
"The Church beheves in magic, as you well see," he adds, " since she 
expresses it so formally. And those who disbelieve in magic, can they 
still hope to share the faith of their own Church ? And who can teach 
them better? To whom did Christ say : ' Go ye therefore, and teach all 
nations . . . and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the 
world ? ' " t 

Are we to believe that he said this but to those who wear these black 

* "Rituale Romanum," pp. 475-478. Parisiis, 1852. 
f " Moeurs et Pratiques des Demons," p. 177. 


or scarlet liveries of Rome ? Must we then credit the story that this 
power was given by Christ to Simon Stylites, the saint who sanctified 
himself by jjerching on a pillar {stylos) sixty feet high, for thirty-six years 
of his life, without ever descending from it, in order that, among other 
miracles stated in the Golden Legend, he might cure a dragon of a sore 
eye ? " Near Simon's pillar was the dwelling of a dragon, so very 
venomous that the stench was spread for miles round his cave." This 
ophidian-hermit met with an accident ; he got a thorn in his eye, and, 
hecoming blind, crept to the saint's pillar, and pressed his eye against it 
for three days, without touching any one. Then the blessed saint, from 
his aerial seat, " three feet in diameter," ordered earth and water to be 
placed on the dragon's eye, out of which suddenly emerged a thorn (or 
stake), a cubit in length ; when the people saw the " miracle " they glori- 
fied the Creator. As to the grateful dragon, he arose and, " having adored 
God for two hours, returned to his cave " * — a half-converted ophidian, 
we must suppose. 

And what are we to think of that other narrative, to disbelieve in 
which is "to risk on^s salvation," as we were informed by a Pope's 
missionary, of the Order of the P'ranciscans ? When St. Francis preached 
a sermon in the wilderness, the birds assembled from the four cardinal 
points of the world. They warbled and api)lauded every sentence ; they 
sang a holy mass in chorus ; finally they dispersed to carry the glad 
tidings all over the universe. A grasshopper, profiting by the absence 
of the Holy Virgin, who generally kept company with the saint, remained 
perched on the head of the " blessed one " for a whole week. Attacked 
by a ferocious wolf, the saint, who had no other weapon but the sign 
of the cross which he made upon himself, instead of running away from 
his rabid assailant, began arguing with the beast. Having imparted to 
him the benefit to be derived from the holy religion, St. Francis never 
ceased talking until the wolf became as meek as a lamb, and even 
shed tears of repentance over his past sins. Finally, he " stretched his 
paws in the hands of the saint, followed him like a dog through all the 
towns in which he preached, and became half a Christian ! "f Wonders 
of zoology ! a horse turned sorcerer, a wolf and a dragori turned Chris- 
tians ! 

These two anecdotes, chosen at random from among hundreds, if 
rivalled are not surpassed by the wildest romances of the Pagan thau- 
maturgists, magicians, and spiritualists ! And yet, when Pythagoras is 
said to have subdued animals, even wild beasts, merely through a power- 

* See the narrative selected from the " Golden Legend," by Alban Butler, 
f See the " Golden Legend ; " " Life of St. Francis;" "Deraonologia." 


fill mesmeric influence, he is pronounced by one-half of the Catholics a 
bare-faced impostor, and by the rest a sorcerer, who worked magic in 
confederacy with the Devil ! Neither the she-bear, nor the eagle, nor 
yet the bull that Pythagoras is said to have persuaded to give up eating 
beans, were alleged to have answered with human voices ; while St. Ben- 
edict's "black raven," whom he called "brother," argues with him, and 
croaks his answers like a born casuist. When the saint offers him one- 
half of a poisoned loaf, the raven grows indignant and reproaches him in 
Latin as though he had just graduated at the Propaganda ! 

If it be objected that the Golden Legend is now but half supported 
by the Church ; and that it is known to have been compiled by the writer 
from a collection of the lives of the saints, for the most part unauthenti- 
cated, we can show that, at least in one instance, the biography is no 
legendary compilation, but the history of one man, by another one who 
was his contemporary. Jortin and Gibbons demonstrated years ago, that 
the early fathers used to select narratives, wherewith to ornament the 
lives of their apocryphal saints, from Ovid, Homer, Livy, and even from 
the unwritten popular legends of Pagan nations. But such is not the case 
in the above instances. St. Bernard lived in the twelfth century, a'nd St. 
Dominick was nearly contemporaneous with the author of the Golden 
Legend. De Veragine died in 1298, and Dominick, whose exorcisms 
and life he describes so minutely, instituted his order in the first quarter 
of the thirteenth century. Moreover, de Veragine was Vicar-General of 
the Dominicans himself, in the middle of the same century, and therefore 
described the miracles wrought by his hero and patron but a few years 
after they were alleged to have happened. He wrote them in the same 
convent ; and while narrating these wonders he had probably fifty persons 
at hand who had been eye-witnesses to the saint's mode of living. What 
must we think, in such a case, of a biographer who seriously describes the 
following : One day, as the blessed saint was occupied in his study, the 
Devil began pestering him, in the shape of a flea. He frisked and jumped 
about the pages of his book until the harassed saint, unwilling as he was 
to act unkindly, even toward a devil, felt compelled to punish him by 
fixing the troublesome devil on the very sentence on which he stopped, 
by clasping the book. At another time the same devil appeared under 
the shape of a monkey. He grinned so horribly that Dominick, in order 
to get rid of him, ordered the devil-monkey to take the candle and hold 
it for him until he had done reading. The poor imp did so, and held it 
until it was consumed to the very end of the wick ; and, notwithstanding 
his pitiful cries for mercy, the saint compelled him to hold it till his fin- 
gers were burned to the bones ! 

Enough ! The approbation with which this book was received by the 


Church, and the pecuhar sanctity attributed to it, is sufficient to show the 
estimation in which veracity was held by its patrons. We may add, in 
conclusion, that the finest quintessence of Boccaccio's Decameron, appears 
prudery itself by comparison with the filthy realism of the Golden Legend. 

We cannot regard with too much astonishment the pretensions of the 
Catholic Church in seeking to convert Hindus and Buddhists to Chris- 
tianity. While the " heathen" keeps to the faith of his fathers, he has at 
least the one redeeming quality— that of not having apostatized for the 
mere pleasure of exchanging one set of idols for another. There may be 
for him some novelty in his embracing Protestantism ; for in that he gains 
the advantage, at least, of Hmiting his reUgious views to their simplest 
expression. But when a Buddhist has been enticed into exchanging his 
Shoe Dagoon for the Slipper of the Vatican, or the eight hairs from the 
head of Gautama and Buddha's tooth, which work miracles, for the locks 
of a Christian saint, and a tooth of Jesus, which work far less clever 
miracles, he has no cause to boast of his choice. In his address to the 
Literary Society of Java, Sir T. S. Raffles is said to have narrated the fol- 
lowing characteristic anecdote : " On visiting the great temple on the 
hills of Nangasaki, the English commissioner was received with marked 
regard and respect by the venerable patriarch of the northern provinces, 
a man eighty years of age, who entertained him most sumptuously. On 
showing him round the courts of the temple, one of the English officers 
present heedlessly exclaimed, in surprise, ' Jesus Christus ! ' The patriarch 
turning half round, with a placid smile, bowed significantly, with the 
expression: ' We know your Jasus Christus ! Well, don't obtrude him 
upon us in our temples, and we remain friends.' And so, with a hearty 
shake of the hands, these two opposites parted." * 

There is scarcely a report sent by the missionaries from India, Thibet, 
and China, but laments the diabolical "obscenity" of the heathen rites, 
their lamentable irapudicity ; all of which " are so strongly suggestive of 
devil-worship," as des Mousseaux tells us. We can scarcely be assured 
that the morality of the Pagans would be in the least improved were they 
allowed a free inquiry into the life of say the psalmist-king, the author 
of those sweet Psalms which are so rapturously repeated by Christians. 
The. difference between David performing a phallic dance before the holy 
ark — emblem of the female principle — and a Hindu Vishnavite bearing 
the same emblem on his forehead, favors the former only in the eyes of 
those who have studied neither the ancient faith nor their own. When a 
religion which compelled David to cut off and deliver two hundred fore- 
skins of his enemies before he could become the king's son-in-law (i Sam. 

* '' The Mythology of the Hindus," by Charles Coleman. Japan. 


xviii.) is accepted as a standard by Christians, they would do well not to 
cast into the teeth of heathen the impudicities of their faiths. Remem- 
bering the suggestive parable of Jesus, they ought to cast the beam out of 
tlieir own eye before plucking at the mote in their neighbor's. The sexual 
element is as marked in Christianity as in any one of the "heathen reli- 
gions." Certainly, nowhere in the Vedas can be found the coarseness and 
downright immodesty of language, that Hebraists now discover through- 
out the Mosaic Bible. 

It would profit little were we to dwell much upon subjects which have 
been disposed of in such a masterly way by an anonymous author whose 
work electrified England and Germany last year ; * while as regards the 
particular topic under notice, we cannot do better than recommend the 
scholarly writings of Dr. Inman. Albeit one-sided, and in many instan- 
ces unjust to the ancient heathen. Pagan, and Jewish religions, the fads 
treated in the A?icient and Pagan Christian Symbolisrn, are unimpeach- 
able. Neither can we agree with some English critics who charge him 
with an intent to destroy Christianity. If by Christianity is meant the ex- 
ternal religious forms of worshi[), then he certainly seeks to destroy it, for in 
his eyes, as well as in those of every truly religious man, who has studied 
ancient exoteric faiths, and their symbology, Christianity is pure heath- 
enism, and Catholicism, with its fetish-worshipping, is far worse and more 
pernicious than Hinduism in its most idolatrous aspect. But while 
denouncing the exoteric forms and unmasking the symbols, it is not the 
religion of Christ that the author attacks, but the artificial system of the- 
ology. We will allow him to illustrate the position in his own language, 
and quote from his preface : 

" When vampires were discovered by the acumen of any observer," 
he says, " they were, we are told, ignominiously killed, by a stake being 
driven through the body ; but experience showed them to have such 
tenacity of life that they rose, again and again, notwithstanding renewed 
impalement, and vi<irt not ultimately laid to rest till wholly burned. In 
like manner, the regenerated heathendom, which dominates over the 
followers of Jesus of Nazareth, has risen again and again, after being 
transfixed. Still cherished by the many, it is denounced by the few. 
Amongst other accusers, I raise my voice against the Paganism which 
exists so extensively in ecclesiastical Christianity, and will do my utmost 
to expose the imposture. ... In a vampire story told in Thalaba, by 
Southey, the resuscitated being takes the form of a dearly-beloved maiden, 
and the hero is obliged to kill her with his own hand. He does so ; but, 
whilst he strikes the form of the loved one, he feels sure that he slays 

* "Supernatural Religion." 


only a demon. In like manner, when I endeavor to destroy the current 
heathenism, which has assumed the garb of Christianity, / do not attack 
real religion* Few would accuse a workman of malignancy, who 
cleanses from filth the surface of a noble statue. There may be some 
who are too nice to touch a nasty subject, yet even they will rejoice when 
some one else removes the dirt. Such a scavenger is wanted." f 

But is it merely Pagans and heathen that the Catholics persecute, 
and about whom, like Augustine, they cry to the Deity, " Oh, my God ! 
so do I wish Thy enemies to be slaijil" Oh, no ! their aspirations are 
more ISIosaic and Cain-like than that. It is against their next of kin in 
faith, against their schismatic brothers that they are now intriguing within 
the walls which sheltered the murderous Borgias. The larva of the 
infanticidal, parricidal, and fratricidal Popes have proved themselves fit 
counsellors for the Cains of Castelfidardo and Mentana. It is now the 
turn of the Slavonian Christians, the Oriental Schismatics — the Philis- 
tines of the Greek Church ! 

His Holiness the Pope, after exhausting, in a metaphor of self-lauda- 
tion, every point of assimilation between the great biblical prophets and 
himself, has finally and truly compared himself with the Patriarch Jacob 
"wrestling against his God." He now crowns the edifice of Catholic 
piety by openly sympathizing with the Turks ! The vicegerent of God 
inaugurates his infallibility by encouraging, in a true Christian spirit, the 
acts of that Moslem David, the modern Bashi-Bazuk ; and it seems as 
if nothing would more please his Holiness than to be presented by the 
latter with several thousands of the Bulgarian or Servian " foreskins." 
True to her policy to be all things to all men to promote her own inter- 
ests, the Romish Church is, at this writing (1876), benevolently viewing 
the Bulgarian and Servian atrocities, and, probably, manoeuvring with 
Turkey against Russia. Better Islam, and the hitherto -hated Crescent 
over the sepulchre of the Christian god, than the Greek Church estab- 
lished at Constantinople and Jerusalem as the state religion. Like a 
decrepit and toothless ex-tyrant in exile, the Vatican is eager for any 
alliance that promises, if not a restoration of its own power, at least the 
weakening of its rival. The axe its inquisitors once swung, it now toys 

* Neither do we, if by true religion the woi'Id shall at last understand the adoration of 
one Supreme, Invisible, and Unknown Deity, by works and acts, not by the profession 
of vain human dogmas. But our intention is to go farther. We desire to demonstrate 
that if we exclude ceremonial and fetish worship from being regarded as essential parts 
of religion, then the true Christ-like principles have been exemplified, and true Chris- 
tianity practiced since the days of the apostles, exclusively among Buddhists and 

\ "Ancient Pagan and Modem Christian Symbolism," p. xvi. 



with in secret, feeling its edge, and waiting, and hoping against hope. In 
her time, the Popish Church has lain with strange bedfellows, but never 
before now sunk to the degradation of giving her moral support to those 
who for over 1200 years spat in her face, called her adherents "infidel 
dogs," repudiated her teachings, and denied godhood to her God ! 

The press of even Catholic France is fairly aroused at this indignity, 
and openly accuses the Ultramontane portion of the Catholic Church 
and the Vatican of siding, during the present Eastern struggle, with the 
Mahometan against the Christian. "When the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs in the French Legislature spoke some mild words in favor of the 
Greek Christians, he was only applauded by the liberal Catholics, and 
received coldly by the Ultramontane party," says the French correspon- 
dent of a New York paper. 

" So pronounced was this, that M. Lemoinne, the well-known editor 
of the great liberal Catholic journal, the Debats, was moved to say that 
the Roman Church felt more sympathy for the Moslem than the schis- 
matic, just as they preferred an infidel to the Protestant. ' There is at 
bottom,' says this writer, ' a great affinity between the Syllabus and the 
Koran, and between the two heads of the faithful. The two systems are 
of the same nature, and are united on the common ground of a one and- 
unchangeable theory.' In Italy, in like manner, the King and Liberal 
Catholics are in warm sympathy with the unfortunate Christians, while 
the Pope and Ultramontane faction are believed to be inclining to the 

The civilized world may yet expect the apparition of the materialized 
Virgin Mary within the walls of the Vatican. The so often-repeated 
" miracle " of Ihe Immaculate Visitor in the mediaeval ages has recently 
been enacted at Lourdes, and why not once more, as a coup de grace to 
all heretics, schismatics, and infidels ? The miraculous wax taper is yet 
seen at Arras, the chief city of Artois ; and at every new calamity threat- 
ening her beloved Church, the " Blessed Lady " appears personally, and 
lights it with her own fair hands, in view of a whole " biologized " con- 
gregation. This sort of "miracle," says E. Worsley, wrought by the 
Roman Catholic Church, " being most certain, and never doubted of by 
any." * Neither has the private correspondence with which the most 
" Gracious Lady " honors her friends been doubted. There are two 
precious missives from her in the archives of the Church. The first pur- 
ports to be a letter in answer to one addressed to her by Ignatius. She 
confirms all things learned by her correspondent from "her friend" — 

* ' ' Discourses of Miracles wrought in the Roman Catholic Church ; or a full Refu- 
tation of Dr. Stillingfleet's unjust Exceptions against Miracles." Octavo, 1676, 
p. 64. 


meaning the Apostle John. She bids him hold fast to his vows, and adds 
as an inducement : " I and John will come together and pay you a 
viiitr * 

Nothing was known of this unblushing fraud till the letters were pub- 
lished at Pans, in 1495. By a curious accident it appeared at a time 
when threatening inquiries began to be made as to the genuineness of 
the fourth Synoptic. Who could doubt, after such a confirmation from 
headquarters ! But the climax of effrontery was capped in 1534, when 
another letter was received from the " Mediatrix," which sounds more like 
the report of a lobby-agent to a brother-politician. It was written in excel- 
lent Latin, and was found in the Cathedral of Messina, together with the 
image to which it alludes. Its contents run as follows : 

"Mary Virgin, Mother of the Redeemer of the world, to the Bishop, Clergy, and 
the other faithful of Jlessuia, sendeth health and benediction from herself and son :f 

"Whereas ye have been mindful of establishing the worship of me; now this is to 
let you know that by so doing ye have found great favor in my sight. I have a long 
time reflected with pain upon your city, which is exposed to much danger from its con- 
tiguity to the fire of Etna, and I have often had words about it with my son, for he 
was vexed with you because of your guilty neglect of my worship, so that he would 
cot care a pin about my intercession. Now, however, that you have come to your 
senses, and have happily begun to worship me, he has conferred upon me the right to 
become your everlasting protectress ; but, at the same time, I warn you to mind what 
you are about, and give me no cause of repenting of my kindness to you. The prayers 
and festivals instituted in my honor please me tremendously {vehemetiter), and if you 
faithfully persevere in these things, and provided you oppose to the utmost of your 
power, the heretics which now-a-days are spreading through the world, by which both 
my worship and that of the other saints, male and female, are so endangered, you shall 
enjoy my perpetual protection. 

" In sign of this compact, I send you down from Heaven the image of myself, cast 
by celestial hands, and if ye hold it in the honor to which it is entitled, it will be an 
evidence to me of your obedience and your faith. Farewell. Dated in Heaven, 
whilst sitting near the throne of my son, in the month of December, of the 1534th 
year from his incarnation. 

"Mary Virgin." 

The reader should understand that this document is no anti-Catholic 
forgery. The author from whom it is taken, J says that the authenticity 
of the missive "is attested by the Bishop himself, his Vicar-General, 

* After this, why should the Roman Catholics object to the claims of the Spiritual- 
ists? If, without proof, they believe in the " materialization " of Mary and John, for 
Ignatius, how can they logically deny the materialization of Katie and John (King), 
when it is attested by the careful experiments of Mr. Crookes, the English chemist, and 
the cumulative testimony of a large number of witnesses? 

f The " Mother of God " takes precedence therefore of God? 

X See the " New Era " for July, 1875. N. Y. 


Secretary, and six Canons of the Cathedral Church of Messina, all of 
whom have signe'd that attestation with their names, and confirmed it 
upon oath. 

" Both the epistle and image were found upon the high altar, where 
they had been placed by angels from heaven." 

A Church must have reached the last stages of degradation, when 
such sacrilegious trickery as this could be resorted to by its clergy, and 
accepted with or without question by the people. 

No ! far from the man who feels the workings of an immortal spirit 
within him, be such a religion ! There never was nor ever will be a truly 
philosophical mind, whether of Pagan, heathen, Jew, or Christian, but has 
followed the same path of thought. Gautama-Buddha is mirrored in the 
precepts of Christ ; Paul and Philo Judasus are faithful echoes of Plato ; 
and Ammonias Saccas and Plotinus won their immortal fame by combin- 
ing the teachings of all these grand masters of true philosophy. " Prove 
all things ; hold fast that which is good," ought to be the motto of all 
brothers on earth. Not so is it with the interpreters of the Bible. The 
seed of the Reformation was sown on the day that, the second chapter of 
The Catholic Epistle of James, jostled the eleventh chapter of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews in the same New Testament. One who believes in Paul 
cannot believe in James, Peter, and John. The Paulists, to remain Chris- 
tians with their apostle, must withstand Peter " to the face ; " and if 
Peter "was to be blamed" and was wrong, then he was not infallible. 
How then can his successor (?) boast of his infallibility ? Every kingdom 
divided against itself is brought to desolation ; and every house divided 
against itself must fall. A plurality of masters has proved as fatal in reli- 
gions as in politics. What Paul preached, was preached by every other 
mystic philosopher. " Stand /aj/ therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ 
hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage!" 
exclaims the honest apostle-philosopher ; and adds, as if prophetically 
inspired : " But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye 
be not consumed one of another." 

That the Neo-platonists were not always despised or accused of 
demonolatry is evidenced in the adoption by the Roman Church of their 
very rites and theurgy. The identical evocations and incantations of the 
Pagan and Jewish Kabalist, are now repeated by the Christian exorcist, 
and the theurgy of lamblichus was adopted word for word. " Distinct 
as were the Platonists and Pauline Christians of the earlier centuries," 
writes Professor A. Wilder, "many of the more distinguished teachers 
of the new faith were deeply tinctured with the philosophical leaven. 
Synesius, the Bishop of Cyrene, was the disciple of Hypatia. St. Anthony 
reiterated the theurgy of lamblichus. The Logos, or word of the Gospd 


according to John, was a Gnostic personification. Clement of Alexandria, 
Origen, and others of the fathers drank deeply from the fomitains of 
philosophy. The ascetic idea which carried away the Church was like 
that which was practiced by Plotinus ... all through the middle ages 
there rose up men who accepted the interior doctrines which were pro- 
mulgated by the renowned teacher of the Academy." * 

To substantiate our accusation that the Latin Church first despoiled 
the kabalists and theurgists of their magical rites and ceremonies, before 
hurling anathemas upon their devoted heads, we will now translate for 
the reader fragments from the forms of exorcism employed by kabalists 
and Christians. The identity in phraseology, may, perhaps, disclose one 
of the reasons why the Romish Church has always desired to keep the 
faithful in ignorance of the meaning of her Latin prayers and ritual. Only 
those directly interested in the deception have had the opportunity to 
compare the rituals of the Church and the magicians. Tlie best Latin 
scholars were, until a comparatively recent date, either churchmen, or 
dependent upon the Church. Common people could not read Latin, and 
even if they could, the reading of the books on magic was prohibited, 
under the penalty of anathema and excommunication. The cunning 
device of the confessional made it almost impossible to consult, even 
surreptitiously, what the priests call 3. grimoire (a devil's scrawl), or Ritual 
of Magic. To make assurance doubly sure, the Church began destroying 
or concealing everything of the kind she could lay her hands upon. 

The following are translated from the Kabalistic Ritual, and that gen- 
erally known as the' Roman Ritual. The latter was promulgated in 
1851 and 1852, under the sanction of Cardinal Engelbert, Archbishop of 
Malines, and of the Archbishop of Paris. Speaking of it, the demonolo- 
gist des Mousseaux says : "It is the ritual of Paul V., revised by the 
most learned of modern Popes, by the contemporary of Voltaire, Benedict 
XIV." f 

Kabalistic. (Jewish and Pagan.) Roman Catholic 

Exorcism of Salt. Exorcism of Salt. § 

The Priest-Magician blesses the Salt, and The Priest blesses the Salt and says : 

says; " Creature of Salt, \ in thee may ** Creature of Salt, I exorcise thee in the 

remain the wisdom (of God) ; and may it name of the living God . , . become the 

preserve from all corruption our minds and health of the soul and of the body ! Every- 

* "Paul and Plato." 

t See " La Magie au XlXme SiWe," p. 168. 

% Creature of salt, air, water, or of any object to be enchanted or blessed, is a tech 
nical word in magic, adopted by the Christian clergy. 
§ "Rom. Rit.," edit, of 1851, pp. 291-296, etc., etc. 



bodies. Through Hochmael (i^XD^n, God 
of wisdom), and the power of Ruach Hoch- 
mael (Spirit of the Holy Ghost) may the 
Spirits of matter (bad spirits) before it 
recede. . . . Amen." 

Exorcism of Water {and Ashes'). 
" Creature of the Water, I exorcise thee 
... by the three names which are Netsah, 
Hod, and Jerod (kabalistic trinity), in the 
beginning and in the end, by Alpha and 
Omega, which are in the Spirit Azoth 
(Holy Ghost, or the 'Universal Soul'), I 
exorcise and adjure thee. . . . Wandering 
eagle, may the Lord command thee by the 
wings of the bull and his flaming sword." 
(The cherub placed at the east gate of 

Exorcism of an Elemental Spirit. 

" Serpent, in the name of the Tetragram- 
maton, the Lord; He commands thee, by 
the angel and the lion. 

"Angel of darkness, obey, and run away 
with this holy (exorcised) water. Eagle in 
chains, obey this sign, and retreat before 
the breath. Moving serpent, crawl at my 
feet, or be tortured by this sacred fire, and 
evaporate before this holy incense. Let 
water return to water (the elemental spirit 
of water) ; let the fire burn, and the air 
circulate ; let the earth return to earth by 
the virtue of the Pentagi-am, which is the 
Morning Star, and in the name of the 
tetragrammaton which is traced in the cen- 
tre of the Cross of Light. Amen." 

where where thou art thrown may the un- 
clean spirit be put to flight. . . . Amen.'" 

Exorcism of Water. 
"Creature of the water, in the name of 
the Almighty God, the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost . . . be exorcised. 
... I adjure thee in the name of the Lamb 
. . . (the magician says bull ox ox — per 
alas Tauri) of the Lamb that trod upon the 
basilisk and the aspic, and who crushes 
under his foot the lion and the dragon." 

Exorcism of the Devil. 

" O Lord, let him who carries along 
with him the terror, fiee, struck in his turn 
by terror and defeated. O thou, who art 
the Ancient Serpent . . . tremble before 
the hand of him who, having triumphed of 
the tortures of hell (?) devictis geniitibus 
inferni, recalled the souls to light. . . . 
The more whilst (hou decay, the more terri- 
ble will be thy torture ... by Him who 
reigns over the living and the dead . . . 
and who will judge the century by fire, 
sacuhtm per ignem, etc. In the name of 
the Father, Son, and the Holy Ghost. 
Amen." * 

It is unnecessary to try the patience of the reader any longer, although 
we might multiply examples. It must not be forgotten that we have 
quoted from the latest revision of the Ritual, that of 1851-2. If we were 
to go back to the former one we would find a far more striking identity, 
not merely of phraseology but of ceremonial form. For the purpose of 
comparison we have not even availed ourselves of the ritual of ceremo- 
nial magic of the Christian kabalists of the middle ages, wherein the 
language modelled upon a belief in the divinity of Christ is, with the 
exception of a stray expression here and there, identical with the Catholic 

"Rom. Rit.," pp. 421-435. 


Ritual. * The latter, however, makes one improvement, for the originality 
of which the Church should be allowed all credit. Certainly nothing so 
fantastical could be found in a ritual of magic. " Give place," apostro- 
phizing the " Demon," it says, " give place to Jesus Christ . . . 'CaowfiUhy, 
stinking, and ferocious beast . . . dost thou rebel ? Listen and tremble, 
Satan ; enemy of the faith, enemy of the human race, introducer of death 
. . . root of all evil, promoter of vice, soul of envy, origin of avarice, 
cause of discord, prince of homicide, whom God curses ; author of incest 
and sacrilege, inventor of all obscenity, professor of the most detestable 
actions, a7id Grand Master of Heretics ( / / ) {Doctor Hmreticorum ! ) 
What ! .' . . dost thou still stand ? Dost dare to resist, and thou knowest 
that Christ, our Lord, is coming ? . . . Give place to Jesus Christ, give 
place to the Holy Ghost, which, by His blessed Apostle Peter, has flung 
thee down before the public, in the person of* Simon the Magician " 
(te manifeste stravit in Simone mago).\ 

After such a shower of abuse, no devil having the shghtest feeling 
of self-respect could remain in such company ; unless, indeed, he should 
chance to be an Italian Liberal, or King Victor Emmanuel himself; 
both of whom, thanks to Pius IX., have become anathema-proof 

It really seems too bad to strip Rome of all her symbols at once ; but 
justice must be done to the despoiled hierophants. Long before the 
sign of the Cross was adopted as a Christian symbol, it was employed as 
a secret sign of recognition among neophytes and adepts. Says Levi : 
"The sign of the Cross adopted by the Christians does not belong exclu- 
sively to them. It is kabalistic, and represents the oppositions and 
quaternary equilibrium of the elements. We see by the occult verse of 
the Pater, to which we have called attention in another work, that there 
were originally two ways of making it, or, at least, two very different 
formulas to express its meaning — one reserved for priests and" initiates ; 
the other given to neophytes and the profane. Thus, for example, the 
initiate, carrying his hand to his forehead, said : To thee ; then he added, 
belong ; and continued, while carrying his hand to the breast — the king- 
dom ; then, to the left shoulder — -justice ; to the right shoulder — and 
mercy. Then he joined the two hands, adding : throughout the genera- 
ting cycles : ' Tibi sunt Malchut, et Geburah et Chassed per ALonas' — a 
sign of the Cross, absolutely and magnificently kabalistic, which the pro- 
fanations of Gnosticism made the mihtant and official Church completely 
lose." I 

• See "Art-Magic," art. Peter d'Abano. 

f "Ritual," pp. 429-433 ; see "La Magie au XlXme Siecle," pp. 171, 172. 

X "Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie," vol. ii., p. 88. 


How fantastical, therefore, is the assertion of Father Ventura, that, 
while Augustine was a Manichean, a philosopher, ignorant of and refu- 
sing to humble himself before the sublimity of the " grand Christian rev- 
elation," he knew nothing, understood naught of God, man, or universe; 
" . . .he remained poor, small, obscure, sterile, and wrote nothing, did 
nothing really grand or useful." But, hardly had he become a Chris- 
tian "... when his reasoning powers and intellect, enlightened at the 
luminary of faith, elevated him to the most sublime heights of philosophy 
and theology." And his other proposition that Augustine's genius, as a 
consequence, " developed itself in all its grandeur and prodigious fecundity 
... his intellect radiated with that immense splendor which, reflecting 
itself in his immortal writings, has never ceased for one moment during 
fourteen centuries to illuminate the Church and the world ! " * 

Whatever Augustine was as a Manichean, we leave Father Ventura 
to discover ; but that his accession to Christianity established an everlast- 
ing enmity between theology and science is beyond doubt. While forced 
to confess that " the Gentiles had possibly something divine and true in 
their doctrines," he, nevertheless, declared that for their superstition, 
idolatry, and pride, they had " to be detested, and, unless they improved, 
to be punished by divine judgment." This furnishes the clew to the sub- 
sequent policy of the Christian Church, even to our day. If the Gentiles 
did not choose to come into the Church, all that was divine in their phil- 
osophy should go for naught, and the divine wrath of God should be vis- 
ited upon their heads. What effect this produced is succinctly stated by 
Draper : " No one did more than this Father to bring science and 
religion into antagonism ; it was mainly he who diverted the Bible from 
its true office — a guide to purity of life — and placed it in the perilous 
position of being the arbiter of human knowledge, an audacious tyranny 
over the mind of man. The example once set, there was no want of 
followers ; the works of the Greek philosophers were stigmatized as pro- 
fane ; the transcendently glorious achievements of the Museum of Alex- 
andria were hidden from sight by a cloud of ignorance, mysticism, and 
unintelligible jargon, out of which there too often flashed the destroying 
lightnings of ecclesiastical vengeance." f 

Augustine and Cyprian \ admit that Hermes and Hostanes believed 
in one true god ; the first two maintaining, as well as the two Pagans, 
that he is invisible and incomprehensible, except spiritually. Moreover 
we invite any man of intelligence — provided he be not a religious fanatic 
— after reading fragments chosen at random from the works of Hermes 

* " Conferences," by Le P^re Ventura, vol. ii., part i., p. Ivi., Preface. 
\ " Conflict between Religion and Science," p. 62. 
^ " De Baptismo Contra Donatistas," lib. vi., ch. xliv. 


and Augustine on the Deity, to decide which of the two gives a more 
philosophical definition of the " unseen Father." We have at least one 
writer of fame who is of our opinion. Draper calls the Augustinian 
productions a " rhapsodical conversation" with God; an "incoherent 

Father Ventura depicts the saint as attitudinizing before an astonished 
world upon " the most sublime heights of philosophy." But here steps 
in again the same unprejudiced critic, who passes the following remarks 
on this colossus of Patristic philosophy. "Was it for this preposterous 
scheme," he asks, " this product of ignorance and audacity, that the 
works of the Greek philosophers were to be given up ? It was none too 
soon that the great critics who appeared at the Reformation, by compar- 
ing the works of these writers with one another, brought them to their 
proper level, and taught us to look upon them all with contempt." f 

For such men as Plotinus, Porphyry, lambhchus, ApoUonius, and 
even Simon Magus, to be accused of having formed a pact with the 
Devil, whether the latter personage exist or not, is so absurd as to need 
but little refutation. If Simon Magus — the most problematical of all in 
an historical sense — ever existed otherwise than in the overheated fancy 
of Peter and the other apostles, he was evidently no worse than any of 
his adversaries. A difference in religious views, however great, is insuf- 
ficient /^r se to send one person to heaven and the other to hell. Such 
uncharitable and peremptory doctrines might have been taught in the 
middle ages ; but it is too late now for even the Church to put forward 
this traditional scarecrow. Research begins to suggest that which, if 
ever verified, will bring eternal disgrace on the Church of the Apostle 
Peter, whose very imposition of herself upon that disciple must be re- 
garded as the most unverified and unverifiable of the assumptions of the 
Catholic clergy. 

The erudite author of Supernatural Religion assiduously endeavors 
to prove that by Simon Magus we must understand the apostle Paul, 
whose Epistles were secretly as well as openly calumniated by Peter, 
and charged with containing " dysnoetic learning." The Apostle of the 
Gentiles was brave, outspoken, sincere, and very learned ; the Apostle 
of Circumcision, cowardly, cautious, insincere, and very ignorant. That 
Paul had been, partially, at least, if not completely, initiated into the 
theurgic mysteries, admits of little doubt. His language, the phraseology 
so peculiar to the Greek philosophers, certain expressions used but by the 
initiates, are so many sure ear-marks to that supposition. Our suspicion 
has been strengthened by an able article in one of the New York peri- 

* "Conflict, etc.," p. 37. \ Ibid. 


odicals, entitled Paul and Plato* in which the author puts forward one 
remarkable and, for us, very precious observation. In his Epistles to the 
Corinthians he shows Paul abounding with "expressions suggested by 
the initiations of Sabazius and Eleusis, and the lectures of the (Greek) 
philosophers. He (Paul) designates himself an idiotes — a person unskil- 
ful in the Word, but not in the gnosis or philosophical learning. ' We 
speak wisdom among the perfect or initiated,' he writes ; ' not the wis- 
dom of this world, nor of the archons of this world, but divine wisdom 
in a mystery, secret — which none of the Archons of this world knew.' " \ 

What else can the apostle mean by these unequivocal words, but 
that he himself, as belonging to the mystcs (initiated), spoke of things 
shown and explained only in the Mysteries ? The " divine wisdom in a 
mystery which none of the archons of this world knew," has evidendy 
some direct reference to the basileus of the Eleusinian initiation who 
did know. The basileus belonged to the staff of the great hierophant, 
and was an archon of Athens ; and as such was one of the chief mystce, 
belonging to the interior Mysteries, to which a very select and small 
number obtained an entrance. J The magistrates supervising the Eleu- 
sinians were called archons. 

Another proof that Paul belonged to the circle of the " Initiates" lies 
in the following fact. The apostle had his head shorn at Cenchrea 
(where Lucius, Afuleius, was initiated) because " he had a vow." The 
fiazars — or set apart — as we see in the Jewish Scriptures, had to cut 
their hair which they wore long, and which " no razor touched " at any 
other time, and sacrifice it on the altar of initiation. And the nazars 
were a class of Chaldean theurgists. We will show further that Jesus 
belonged to this class. 

Paul declares that : " According to the grace of God which is given 
unto me, as a wise master-builder, I have laid the foundation." § 

This expression, master-builder, used only ofice in the whole Bible, 
and by Paul, may be considered as a whole revelation. In the Mysteries, 
the third part of the sacred rites was called Epopteia, or revelation, recep- 
tion into the secrets. In substance it means that stage of divine clairvoy- 
ance when everything pertaining to this earth disappears, and earthly sight 
is paralyzed, and the soul is united free and pure with its Spirit, or God. 
But the real significance of the word is " overseeing," from o7rro/xai— 
I see myself. In Sanscrit the word evdpto has the same meaning, 

* " Paul and Plato," by A. Wilder, editor of " The Eleusinian and Bacchic Mys" 
teries," of Thomas Taylor. 

\ " Paul and Plato." % See Taylor's " Eleus. and Bacchic Myst." 
§ I Corin., iii. lo. 


as well as to obtain. * The word epopteia is a compound one, from E;ri 
— upon, and 0-wTOfx.a.i — to look, or an overseer, an inspector — also used 
for a master-builder. The title of master-mason, in Freemasonry, is 
derived from this, in the sense used in the Mysteries. Therefore, when 
Paul entitles himself a " master-builder," he is using a word pre-eminently 
kabalistic, theurgic, and masonic, and one which no other apostle uses. 
He thus declares himself an adept, having the right to initiate others. 

If we search in this direction, with those sure guides, the Grecian 
Mysteries and the Kabala, before us, it will be easy to find the secret reason 
why Paul was so persecuted and hated by Peter, John, and James. The 
author of the Revelation was a Jewish kabalist pur sang, with all the 
hatred inherited by him from his forefathers toward the Mysteries, f His 
jealousy during the life of Jesus extended even to Peter ; and it is but 
after the death of their common master that we see the two apostles — 
the former of whom wore the Mitre and the Petaloon of the Jewish 
Rabbis — preach so zealously the rite of circumcision. In the eyes of 
Peter, Paul, who had humiliated him, and whom he felt so much his 
superior in "Greek learning" and philosophy, must have naturally 
appeared as a magician, a man polluted with the " Gnosis" with the 
" wisdom " of the Greek Mysteries — hence, perhaps, " Simon \ the Ma- 

As to Peter, biblical criticism has shown before now that he had 
probably no more to do with the foundation of the Latin Church at 
Rome, than to furnish the pretext so readily seized upon by the cunning 
Irenasus to benefit this Church with the new name of the apostle — 
Petra or Kiffa, a name which allowed so readily, by an easy play upon 
words, to connect it with Petroma, the double set of stone tablets used 

* In its most extensive meaning, the Sanscrit word has the same literal sense as the 
Greek term ; both imply " revelation," by no human agent, but through the " receiving 
of the sacred drink." In India the initiated received the " Soma," sacred drink, which 
helped to liberate his soul from the body ; and in the Eleusinian Mysteries it was the 
sacred drink offered at the Epopteia. The Grecian Mysteries are wholly derived from 
the Brahmanical Vedic rites, and the latter from the ante-vedic religious Mysteries — 
primitive Buddhist philosophy. 

f It is needless to state that the Gospel according to John was not written by John 
but by a Platonist or a Gnostic belonging to the Neo-platonic school. 

:j; The fact that Peter persecuted the -'Apostle to the Gentiles," under that name, 
does not necessarily imply that there was no Simon Magus individually distinct from 
Paul. It may have become a generic name of abuse. Theodoret and Chrysostom, the 
earliest and most prolific commentators on the Gnosticism of those days, seem actually 
to make of Simon a rival of Paul, and to state that between them passed frequent mes- 
sages. The former, as a diligent propagandist of what Paul terms the " antitheses of 
the Gnosis" (ist Epistle to Timothy), must have been a sore thorn in the side of the 
apostle. There are sufficient proofs of the actual existence of Simon Magus. 


by the hierophant at the initiations, during the final Mystery. In this, 
perhaps, hes concealed the whole secret of the claims of the Vatican. 
As Professor Wilder happily suggests : "In the Oriental countries the 
designation ins, Peter (in Phoenician and Chaldaic, an interpreter) 
appears to have been the title of this personage (the hierophant). . . . 
There is in these facts some reminder of the peculiar ciixumstances of the 
Mosaic Law . . . and also of the claim of the Pope to be the successor 
of Peter, the hierophant or interpreter of the Christian religion." * 

As such, we must concede to him, to some extent, the right to be 
such an interpreter. The Latin Church has faithfully preserved in 
symbols, rites, ceremonies, architecture, and even in the very dress of her 
clergy, the tradition of the Pagan worship — of the public or exoteric 
ceremonies, we should add ; otherwise her dogmas would embody more 
sense and contain less blasphemy against the majesty of the Supreme 
and Invisible God. 

An inscription found on the coffin of Queen Mentuhept, of the elev- 
enth dynasty (2250 B.C.), now proved to have been transcribed from the 
seventeenth chapter of the Book of the Dead (dating not later than 
4500 B.C.), is more than suggestive. This monumental text contains a 
group of hieroglyphics, which, when interpreted, read thus : 


Peter- ref- su. 

Baron Bunsen shows this sacred formulary mixed up with a whole 
series of glosses and various interpretations on a monument forty cen- 
turies old. " This is identical with saying that the record (the true inter- 
pretation) was at that time no longer intelligible. . . . We beg our 
readers to understand," he adds, " that a sacred text, a hymn, containing 
the words of a departed spirit, existed in such a state about 4,000 
years ago ... as to be all but unintelligible to royal scribes." f 

That it was unintelligible to the unitiated among the latter is as well 
proved by the confused and contradictory glossaries, as that it- was a 
" mystery "-word, known to the hierophants of the sanctuaries, and, more- 
over, a word chosen by Jesus, to designate the office assigned by him to 
one of his apostles. This word, PTR, was partially interpreted, owing 
to another word similarly written in another group of hieroglyphics, on a 

* " Introd. to Eleus. and Bacchic Mysteries," p. x. Had we not trustworthy kabal- 
istic tradition to rely upon, we might be, perhaps, forced to question whether the author- 
ship of the Revelation is to be ascribed to the apostle of tliat name. He seems to 
be termed John tlie Theologist. 

\ Bunsen : " Egypt's Place in Universal History," vol. v., p. 90. 


Stele, the sign used for it being an opened eye. * Bimsen mentions as 
another explanation of PTR — " to show." " It appears to me," he re- 
marks, " that oiir PTR is literally the old Aramaic and Hebrtw ' Patar,' 
which occurs in the history of Joseph as the specific word for interpre- 
ting ; whence also Pitriim is the term for interpretation of a text, a 
dream." f In a manuscript of the first century, a combination of the 
Demotic and Greek texts, J and most probably one of the few which 
miraculously escaped the Christian vandalism of the second and third 
centuries, when all such precious manuscripts were burned as magical, 
we find occurring in several places a phrase, which, perhaps, may throw 
some light upon this question. One of the principal heroes of the manu- 
script, who is constantly referred to as " the Judean Illmninator " or 
Initiate, TeXeiior^s, is made to communicate but with his Patar ; the 
latter being written in Chaldaic characters. Once the latter word is 
coupled with the name Shimeon. Several times, the " Illuminator," who 
rarely breaks his contemplative solitude, is shown inhabiting a KpjW?? 
(cave), and teaching the multitudes of eager scholars standing outside, not 
orally, but through this Patar. The latter receives the words of wisdom 
by applying his ear to a circular hole in a partition which conceals the 
teacher from the listeners, and then conveys them, with explanations and 
glossaries, to the crowd. This, with a slight change, was the method 
used by Pythagoras, who, as we know, never allowed his neophytes to 
see him during the years of probation, but instructed them from behind 
a curtain in his cave. 

But, whether the " Illuminator " of the GrEeco-Deraotic manuscript 
is identical with Jesus or not, the fact remains, that we find him selecting 
a " mystery "-appellation for one who is made to appear later by the 
Catholic Church as the janitor of the Kingdom of Heaven and the inter- 
preter of Christ's will. The word Patar or Peter locates both master and 
disciple in the circle of initiation, and connects them with the " Secret 
Doctrine." The great hierophant of the ancient Mysteries never allowed 
the candidates to see or hear him personally. He was the Deus-ex-Ma- 
china, the presiding but invisible Deity, uttering his will and instructions 
through a second party ; and 2,000 years later, we discover that the 
Dalai-Lamas of Thibet had been following for centuries the same tradition- 
al programme during the most important religious mysteries of lamaism. 

* See de Rouge : " Stele," p. 44 ; Ptar (videus) is interpreted on it " to appear," 
with a sign of interrogation after it — tlie usual mark of scientific perplexity. In Bunsen's 
fifth volume of "' Egypte," the interpretation following is " Illuminator," which is more 

f Bunsen's " Egypt," vol. v., p. 90. 

\ It is the property of a mystic whom we met in Syria. 


If Jesus knew the secret meaning of the title bestowed by him on Simon, 
then he must have been initiated ; otherwise he could not have learned 
it ; and if he was an initiate of either the Pythagorean Essenes, the Chal- 
dean Magi, or the Egyptian Priests, then the doctrine taught by him was 
but a portion of the ' Secret Doctrine " taught by the Pagan hierophants 
to the few select adepts admitted within the sacred adyta. 

But we will discuss this question further on. For the present we will 
endeavor to briefly indicate the extraordinary similarity — or rather iden- 
tity, we should say — of rites and ceremonial dress of the Christian clergy 
with that of the old Babylonians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Egyptians, and 
other Pagans of the hoary antiquity. 

If we would find the model of the Papal tiara, we must search the 
annals of the ancient Assyrian tablets. We invite the reader to give his 
attention to Dr. Inman's illustrated work. Ancient Faga?i and Modern 
Christian Symbolism. On page sixty-four, he will readily recognize the 
head-gear of the successor of St. Peter in the coiffure worn by gods or 
angels in ancient Assyria, " where it appears crowned by an emblem of 
the male trinity " (the Christian Cross). " We may mention, in passing," 
adds Dr. Inman, " that, as the Romanists adopted the mitre and the 
tiara from ' the cursed brood of Ham,' so they adopted the Episcopalian 
crook from the augurs of Etruria, and the artistic form with which they 
clothe their angels from the painters and urn-makers of Magna Grecia and 
Central Italy." 

Would we push our inquiries farther, and seek to ascertain as much 
in relation to the nimbus and the tonsure of the Catholic priest and 
monk ? * We shall find undeniable proofs that they are solar emblems. 
Knight, in his Old England Pictorially Illustrated, gives a drawing by 
St. Augustine, representing an ancient Christian bishop, in a dress prob- 
ably identical with that worn by the great " saint " himself 'Y'he pallium, 
or the ancient stole of the bishop, is the feminine sign when worn by a 
priest in worship. On St. Augustine's picture it is bedecked with Bud- 
dhistic crosses, and in its whole appearance it is a representation of the 
Egyptian X (^au), assuming slightly the figure of the letter Y- "jf^^s 
lower end is the mark of the masculine triad," says Inman; "the right 
hand (of the figure) has the forefinger extended, like the Assyrian priests 
while doing homage to the grove. . . . When a male dons the pallium in 
worship, he becomes the representative of the trinity in the unity, the 
arba, or mystic four." f 

"Immaculate is our Lady Isis, " is the legend around an engraving 

* The Priests of Isis were tonsured. 

f See " Ancient Faiths," vol. ii., pp. 915-918. 


of Serapis and Isis, described by King, in The Gnostics and their Re- 
mains, 'H KYPIA ICIC ArNH "... the very terms applied afterwards to 
that personage (the Virgin Mary) who succeeded to her form, tftles, sym- 
bols, rites, and ceremonies. . . . Thus, her devotees carried into the new 
priesthood the former badges of their profession, the obligation to celi- 
bacy, the tonsure, and the surplice, omitting, unfortunately, the frequent 
ablutions prescribed by the ancient creed." "The 'Black Virgins,' so 
highly reverenced in certain French cathedrals . . . proved, when at last 
critically examined, basalt figures of Isis ! " * 

Before the shrine of Jupiter Amnion were suspended tinkling bells, 
from the sound of whose chiming the priests gathered the auguries ; "A 
golden bell and a pomegranate . . . round about the hem of the robe," 
was the result with the Mosaic Jews. But in the Buddhistic system, dur- 
ing the religious services, the gods of the Deva Loka are always invoked, 
and invited to descend upon the altars by the ringing of bells suspend- 
ed in the pagodas. The bell of the sacred table of Siva at Kuhama is 
described in Kailasa, and every Buddhist vihara and lamasery has its 

We thus see that the bells used by Christians come to them directly 
from the Buddhist Thibetans and Chinese. The beads and rosaries have 
the same origin, and have been used by Buddhist monks for over 2,300 
years. The Linghams in the Hindu temples are ornamented upon certain 
days with large berries, from a tree sacred to Mahadeva, which are strung 
into rosaries. The title of " nun " is an Egyptian word, and had with them 
the actual meaning ; the Christians did not even take the trouble of trans- 
lating the word Nonna. The aureole of the saints was used by the ante- 
diluvian artists of Babylonia, whenever they desired to honor or deify a 
mortal's head. In a celebrated picture in Moore's Hindoo Pantheon, en- 
tided, " Christna nursed by Devaki, from a highly-finished picture," the 
Hindu Virgin is represented as seated on a lounge and nursing Christna. 
The hair brushed back, the long veil, and the golden aureole around the 
Virgin's head, as well as around that of the Hindu Saviour, are striking. 
No Catholic, well versed as he might be in the mysterious symbolism 
of iconology, would hesitate for a moment to worship at that shrine the 
Virgin JMary, the mother of his God ! " f In Indur Subba, the south 
entrance of the Caves of Ellora, may be seen to this day the figure of 
Indra's wife, Indranee, sitting with her infant son-god, pointing the finger 
to heaven with the same gesture as the Italian Madonna and child. 
In Pagan and Christian Symbolism, the author gives a figure from a 

* " The Gnostics and their Remains,'' p. 71. 

f See illustration in Inman's "Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism," 
p. 27. 


mediasval woodcut — the like of which we have seen by dozens in old 
psalters— in which the Virgin Mary, with her infant, is represented as 
the Queen of Heaven, on the crescent moon, emblem of virginity. 
'• Being before the sun, she almost eclipses its light. Than this, nothing 
could more completely identify the Christian mother and child with Isis 
and Horus, Ishtar, Venus, Juno, and a host of other Pagan goddesses, 
who have been called 'Queen of Heaven,' 'Queen of the Universe,' 
' Mother of God, ' Spouse of God,' ' the Celestial Virgin,' ' the Heavenly 
Peace-Maker,' etc." * 

Such pictures are not purely astronomical. They represent the male 
god and the female goddess, as the sun and moon in conjunction, "the 
union of the triad with the unit." The horns of the cow on the head of 
Isis have the same significance. 

And so above, below, outside, and inside, the Christian Church, in 
the priestly garments, and the religious rites, we recognize the stamp of 
exoteric heathenism. On no subject within the wide range of human 
knowledge, has the world been more blinded or deceived with such per- 
sistent misrepresentation as on that of antiquity. Its hoary past and its 
religious faiths have been misrepresented and trampled under the feet of 
its successors. Its hierophants and prophets, mystae and epoptae, f of the 
once sacred adyta of the temple shown as demoniacs and devil-worshippers. 
Donned in the despoiled garments of the victim, the Christian priest now 
anathematizes the latter with rites and ceremonies which he has learned 
from the theurgists themselves. The Mosaic Bible is used as a weapon 
against the people who furnished it. The heathen philosopher is cursed 
under the very roof which has witnessed his initiation ; and the " monkey 
of God" (i. e., the devil of Tertullian), "the originator and founder of 
magical theurgy, the science of illusions and lies, whose father and author 
is the demon," is exorcised with holy water by the hand which holds the 
identical lituus\ with which the ancient augur, after a solemn prayer, 
used to determine the regions of heaven, and evoke, in the name of the 
HIGHEST, the minor god (now termed the Devil), who unveiled to his eyes 
futurity, and enabled him to prophesy ! On the part of the Christians 
and the clergy it is nothing but shameful ignorance, prejudice, and that 
contemptible pride so boldly denounced by one of their own reverend 
ministers, T. Gross, § which rails against all investigation " as a useless 
or a criminal labor, when it must be feared that they will result in die 
overthrow of preestablished systems of faith." On the part of the schol- 
ars it is the same apprehension of the possible necessity of having to 

* Ibid., p. 76. f Initiates and seers. 

X The augur's, and now bishop's, pastoral crook. § " Tlie Heathen Religion." 

JUSTIN martyr's confession ABOUT THEURGIC AMULETS. 9/ 

modify some of their erroneously-established theories of science. " Noth- 
ing but such pitiable prejudice," says Gross, " can have thus misrepre- 
sented the theology of heathenism, and distorted — nay, caricatured — its 
forms of religious worship. It is time that posterity should raise its voice 
in vindication of violated truth, and that the present age should learn a 
little of that common sense of which it boasts with as much self-compla- 
cency as if the prerogative of reason was the birthright only of modern 

All this gives a sure clew to the real cause of the hatred felt by the 
early and mediaeval Christian toward his Pagan brother and dangerous 
rival. We hate but what we fear. The Christian thaumaturgist once 
having broken all association with the Mysteries of the temples and with 
" these schools so renowned for magic," described by St. Hilarion,* could 
certainly expect but little to rival the Pagan wonder-workers. No 
apostle, with the exception perhaps of healing by mesmeric power, has 
ever equalled Apollonius of Tyana ; and the scandal created among the 
apostles by the miracle-doing Simon Magus, is too notorious to be re- 
peated here again. " How is it," asks Justin Martyr, in evident dismay, 
"how is it that the talismans of Apollonius (the reXecr/xaTa) have power 
in certain members of creation, for they prevent, as we see, the fury of 
the waves, and the violence of the winds, and the attacks of wild beasts ; 
and whilst our Lord's miracles are preserved by tradition alone, those of 
Apollonius are most numerous, and actually manifested in present facts, 
so as to lead astray all beholders ? " f This perplexed martyr solves the 
problem by attributing very correctly the efficacy and potency of the 
charms used by Apollonius to his profound knowledge of the sympathies 
and antipathies (or repugnances) of nature. 

Unable to deny the evident superiority of their enemies' powers, the 
fathers had recourse to the old but ever successful method — that of 
slander. They honored the theurgists with the same insinuating calumny 
that had been resorted to by the Pharisees against Jesus. "Thou hast a 
daemon," the elders of the Jewish Synagogue had said to him. " Thou 
hast the Devil," repeated the cunning fathers, with equal truth, ad- 
dressing the Pagan thaumaturgist ; and the widely-bruited charge, erected 
later into an article of faith, won the day. 

But the modern heirs of these ecclesiastical falsifiers, who charge 
magic, spiritualism, and even magnetism with being produced by a demon, 
forget or perhaps never read the classics. None of our bigots has ever 
looked with more scorn on the abuses of magic than did the true initiate 

* " Pferes du Desert d'Orient," vol. ii., p. 283. 
f Justin Martyr : "Quaest.," xxiv. 



of old. No modern or even medieval law could be more severe than 
that of the hierophant. True, he had more discrimination, charity, and 
justice, than the Christian clergy ; for while banishing the "unconscious" 
sorcerer, the person troubled with a demon, from within the sacred pre- 
cincts of the adyta, the priests, instead of mercilessly burning him, took 
care of the unfortunate "possessed one." Having hospitals expressly 
for that purpose in the neighborhood of temples, the ancient " medium," 
if obsessed, was taken care of and restored to health. But with one 
who had, by conscious witchcraft, acquired powers dangerous to his fellow- 
creatures, the priests of old were as severe as justice herself. " Any per- 
son accidentally guilty of homicide, or of any crime, or convicted of 
'untchcraft, was excluded from the Eleusinian Mysteries."* And so were 
they from all others. This law, mentioned by all writers on the ancient 
initiation, speaks for itself. The claim of Augustine, that all the expla- 
nations given by the Neo-platonists were invented by themselves is absurd. 
For nearly every ceremony in their true and successive order is given by 
Plato himself, in a more or less covered way. The Mysteries are as old 
as the world, and one well versed in the esoteric mythologies of various 
nations can trace them back to the days of the ante-Vedic period in 
India. A condition of the strictest virtue and purity is required from the 
Vatou, or candidate in India before he can become an initiate, whether 
he aims to be a simple fakir, a Purohita (public priest) or a Sannyasi, 
a saint of the second degree of initiation, the most holy as the most 
revered of them all. After having conquered, in the terrible trials pre- 
hminary to admittance to the inner temple in the subterranean crypts of 
his pagoda, the sannyasi passes the rest of his life in the temple, prac- 
ticing the eighty-four rules and ten virtues prescribed to the Yogis. 

" No one who has not practiced, during his whole life, the ten virtues 
which the divine Manu makes incumbent as a duty, can be initiated into 
the Mysteries of the council," say the Hindu books of initiation. 

These virtues are : " Resignation ; the act of rendering good for evil ; 
temperance ; probity ; purity ; chastity ; repression of the physical 
senses ; the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures ; that of the Superior 
soul (spirit) ; worship of truth ; abstinence from anger." These virtues 
must alone direct the life of a true Yogi. " No unworthy adept ought 
to defile the ranks of the holy initiates by his presence for twenty-four 
hours." The adept becomes guilty after having once broken any one 
of these vows. Surely the exercise of such virtues is inconsistent with 
the idea one has of ^«'//-worship and lasciviousness of purpose ! 

And now we will try to give a clear insight into one of the chief ob- 

* See Taylor's " Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries ;" Porphyry and others. 


jccts of this work. What we desire to prove is, that underlying every 
ancient popular religion was the same ancient wisdom-doctrine, one and 
identical, professed and practiced by the initiates of every country, 
who alone were aware of its existence and importance. To ascertain 
its origin, and the precise age in which it was matured, is now beyond 
human possibility. A single glance, however, is enough to assure one 
that it could not have attained the marvellous perfection in which we 
find it pictured to us in the relics of- the various esoteric systems, except 
after a succession of ages. A philosophy so profound, a moral code so 
ennobling, and practical results so conclusive and so uniformly demon- 
strable is not the growth of a generation, or even a single epoch. Fact 
must have been piled upon fact, deduction upon deduction, science have 
begotten science, and myriads of the brightest human intellects have re- 
flected upon the laws of nature, before this ancient doctrine had taken con- 
crete shape. The proofs of this identity of fundamental doctrine in the 
old religions are found in the prevalence of a system of initiation ; in 
the secret sacerdotal castes who had the guardianship of mystical words 
of power, and a public display of a phenomenal control over natural 
forces, indicating association with preterhuman beings. Every approach 
to the Mysteries of all these nations was guarded with the same jealous 
care, and in all, the penalty of death was inflicted upon initiates of any 
degree who divulged the secrets entrusted to them. We have seen that 
such was the case in the Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries, among the 
Chaldean Magi, and the Egyptian hierophants ; while with the Hindus, 
from whom they were all derived, the same rule has prevailed from time im- 
memorial. We are left in no doubt upon this point ; for the Agrushada 
Parikshai says explicitly, " Every initiate, to whatever degree he may 
belong, who reveals the great sacred formula, must be put to death." 

Naturally enough, this same extreme penalty was prescribed in all the 
multifarious sects and brotherhoods which at different periods have sprung 
from the ancient stock. We find it with the early Essenes, Gnostics, 
theurgic Neo-platonists, and medieval philosophers ; and in our day, even 
ihe Masons perpetuate the memory of the old obligations in the penalties 
of throat-cutting, dismemberment, and disemboweling, with which the 
candidate is threatened. As the Masonic "master's word" is communi- 
cated only at " low breath," so the selfsame precaution is prescribed in 
the Chaldean Book of Numbers and the Jewish Mercaba. When initiated, 
the neophyte was led by an ancient to a secluded spot, and there the 
latter whispered in his ear the great secret.* The .A-Eason swears, under 
the most fricrhtful penalties, that he will not communicate the secrets of 

* Franck : " Die Kabbala." 


any degree " to a brother of an inferior degree ; " and the Agrushada 
Parikshai says : " Any initiate of the third degree who reveals before 
the prescribed time, to the initiates of the second degree, the superior 
truths, must be put to death." Again, the Masonic apprentice consents 
to have his " tongue torn out by the roots " if he divulge anything to a 
profane ; and in the Hindu books of initiation, the same Agrushada 
Parikshai, we find that any initiate of the first degree (the lowest) who 
betrays the secrets of his initiation, to members of other castes, for whom 
the science should be a closed book, must have " \i\% tongue cut out " and 
■juffer other mutilations. 

As we proceed, we will point out the evidences of this identity of 
vows, formulas, rites, and doctrines, between the ancient faiths. We will 
also show that not only their memory is still preserved in India, but also 
that the Secret Association is still alive and as active as ever. That, after 
reading what we have to say, it may be inferred that the chief pontiff and 
hierophant, the Brahmdtma, is still accessible to those " who know," 
though perhaps recognized by another name ; and that the ramifications 
of his influence extend throughout the world. But we will now return 
again to the early Christian period. 

As though he were not aware that there was any esoteric significance 
to the exoteric symbols, and that the Mysteries themselves were composed 
of two parts, the lesser at Agrse, and the higher ones at Eleusinia, Cle- 
mens Alexandrinus, with a rancorous bigotry that one might expect from 
a renegade Neo-platonist, but is astonished to find in this generally honest 
and learned Father, stigmatized the Mysteries as indecent and diabolical. 
Whatever were the rites enacted among the neophytes before they passed 
to a higher form of instruction ; however misunderstood were the trials 
of Katliarsis or purification, during which they were submitted to every 
kind of probation ; and however much the immaterial or physical aspect 
night have led to calumny, it is but wicked prejudice which can compel 
a person to say that under this external meaning there was not a far 
deeper and spiritual significance. 

It is positively absurd to judge the ancients from our own stand- 
point of propriety and virtue. And most assuredly it is not for the Church 
— which now stands accused by all the modern symbologists of having 
adopted precisely these same emblems in their coarsest aspect, and feels 
lierself powerless to refute the accusations — to throw the stone at those 
who were her models. When men like Pythagoras, Plato, and lambli- 
chus, renowned for their severe morality, took part in the Mysteries, and 
spoke of them with veneration, it ill behooves our modern critics to judge 
them so rashly upon their merely external aspect. laniblichus explains 
the worst ; and his explanation, for an unprejudiced mind, ought to be 


perfectly plausible. " Exhibitions of this kind," he says, "in the Myste- 
ries were designed to free us from licentious passions, by gratifying the 
sight, and at the same time vanquishing all evil thought, through the awfiu 
ja/zrfZ/y with which these rites were accompanied."* "The wisest and 
best men in the Pagan world," adds Dr. Warburton, " are unanimous in 
this, that the Mysteries were instituted pure, and proposed the noblest 
ends by the worthiest means." f 

In these celebrated rites, although persons of both sexes and all 
classes were allowed to take a part, and a participation in them was even 
obligatory, very few indeed attained the higher and final initiation. The 
gradation of the Mysteries is given us by Proclus in the fourth book of his 
Theology of Plato. " The perfective rite T^ken), precedes in order the - 
initiation — -Mtiesis — and the initiation, Epopteia, or the final apocal3'pse 
(revelation)." Theon of Smyrna, in Mathematica, also divides the mys- 
tic rites into five parts : " the first of which is the previous purification ; 
for neither are the Mysteries communicated to all who are willing to re- 
ceive them ; . . . there are certain persons who are prevented by the 
voice of the crier (lojpvf) . . . since it is necessary that such as are not 
expelled from the Mysteries should first be refined by certain purifications 
which the reception of the sacred rites succeeds. The third part is de- 
nominated epopteia or reception. And the fourth, which is the end and 
design of the revelation, is the binding of the head and fixing of the 
crowns \ . . . whether after this he (the initiated person) becomes . . . 
an hierophant or sustains some other ])art of the sacerdotal office. But 
the fifth, which is produced from all these, is friendship and interior 
communion with God." And this was the last and most awful of all the 

There are writers who have often wondered at the meaning of tliis 
claim to a " friendship and. interior communion with God." Christian 
authors have denied the pretensions of the " Pagans" to such " commu- 
nion," affirming that only Christian saints were and are capable of enjoy- 
ing it ; materialistic skeptics have altogether scoffed at the idea of both. 
After long ages of religious materialism and spiritual stagnation, it has 
most certainly become difficult if not altogether impossible to substantiate 
the claims of either party. The old Greeks, who had once crowded 

* "Mysteries of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and Assyrians." 

f " Divine Legation of Moses ; " The " Eleusinian Mysteries " as quoted by Thos. 

\ This expression must not be understood literally ; for as in the initiation of certain 
Brotherhoods it has a secret meaning, hinted at by Pythagoras, when he describes his 
feelings after the initiation and tells that he was crowned by the gods in whose pres- 
ence he had drunk "the waters of life " — in Hindu, d-bi-hay&t, fount of life. 


around the Agora of Athens, with its altar to the " Unknown God," are 
no more ; and their descendants firmly beheve that they have found the 
" Unknown " in the Jewish Jehova. The divine ecstasies of the early 
Christians have made room for visions of a more modern character, in 
perfect keeping with progress and civilization. The " Son of man " ap- 
pearing to the rapt vision of the ancient Christian as coming from the 
seventh heaven, in a cloud of glory, and surrounded with angels and 
winged seraphim, has made room for a more prosaic and at the same 
time more business-like Jesus. The latter is now shown as making morn- 
ing calls upon Mary and Martha in Bethany ; as seating himself on " the 
ottomaii" with the younger sister, a lover of "ethics," while Martha goes 
off to the kitchen to cook. Anon the heated fancy of a blasphemous 
Brooklyn preacher and harlequin, the Reverend Dr. Talmage, makes us 
see her rushing back " with besweated brow, a pitcher in one hand and 
the tongs in the other . . . into the presence of Christ," and blowing him 
up for not caring that her sister hath left her " to serve alone."* 

From the birth of the solemn and majestic conception of the unre- 
vealed Deity of the ancient adepts to such caricatured descriptions of 
him who died an the Cross for his philanthropic devotion to humanity, 
long centuries have intervened, and their heavy tread seems to have 
almost entirely obliterated all sense of a spiritual religion from the hearts 
of his professed followers. No wonder then, that the sentence of Proclus 
is no longer understood by the Christians, and is rejected as a "vagary" 
by the materialists, who, in their negation, are less blasphemous and 
atheistical than many of the reverends and members of the churches. 
But, although the Greek epopiai are no more, we have now, in our own 
age, a people far more ancient than the oldest Hellenes, who practice 
the so-called " preterhuman " gifts to the same extent as did their ances- 
tors far earlier than the days of Troy. It is to this people that we draw 
the attention of the psychologist and philosopher. 

One need not go very deep into the literature of the Orientalists to 
become convinced that in most cases they do not even suspect that in 

* This original and very long sermon was preached in a church at Brooklyn, N. Y. , 
on the 15th day of April, 1877. On the following morning, the reverend orator was 
called in the " Sun" a gibbering charlatan ; but this deserved epithet will not prevent 
other reverend buffoons doing the same and everi worse. And this is the religion of 
Christ ! Far better disbelieve in him altogether than caricature one's God in such a 
manner. We heartily applaud the " Sun" for the following views : "And then when 
Talmage makes Christ say to Martha in the tantrums : ' Don't worry, but sit down on 
this ottoman,' he adds the climax to a scene that the inspired writers had nothing to 
say about. Talmage's buffoonery is going too far. If he were the worst heretic in 
the land, instead of being straight in his orthodoxy, he would not do so much evil to 
religion as he does by his familiar blasphemies." 


the arcane philosophy of India there are deptlis whicli they have not 
sounded, and cannot sound, for they pass on without perceiving them- 
There is a pervading tone of conscious superiority, a ring of cotitempt in 
the treatment of Hindu metaphysics, as thougli the European mind is 
alone enlightened enough to polish the rough diamond of the old San- 
scrit writers, and separate right from wrong for the benefit of their de- 
scendants. We see them disputing over the external forms of expression 
without a conception of the great vital truths these hide from the profane 

■'As a rule, the Brahmans," says JacoUiot, "rarely go beyond the 
class of grihesta [priests of the vulgar castes] and piirahita [exorcisers, 
divines, prophets, and evocators of spirits]. And yet, we shall see . . . 
once that we have touched upon the question and study of manifestations 
and phenomena, that these initiates of the first degree (the lowest) at- 
tribute to themselves, and in appearance possess faculties developed to a 
degree which has never been equalled in Europe. As to the initiates of 
the second and especially of the third category, they pretend to be 
enabled to ignore time, space, and to command life and death." * 

Such initiates as these M. Jacolliot did not meet ; for, as he says him- 
self, they only appear on the most solemn occasions, and when the faith 
of the multitudes has to be strengthened by phenomena of a superior 
order. " They are never seen, either in the neighborhood of, or even in- 
side the temples, except at the grand quinquennial festival of the fire. 
On that occasion, they appear about the middle of the night, on a plat- 
form erected in the centre of the sacred lake, like so many phantoms, 
and by their conjurations they illumine the space. A fiery column of 
light ascends from around them, rushing from earth to heaven. Unfa- 
miliar sounds vibrate through the air, and five or six hundred thousand 
Hindus, gathered from every part of India to contemplate these demi- 
gods, throw themselves with their faces buried in the dust, invoking the 
souls of their ancestors." f 

Let any impartial person read the Spiritisme dans le Afonde, and he 
cannot believe that this "implacable rationalist," as Jacolliot takes pride 
in terming himself, said one word more than is warranted by what he had 
seen. His statements support and are corroborated by those of other 
skeptics. As a rule, the missionaries, even after passing half a lifetime 
in the country of " devil-worship," as they call India, either disingenu- 
ously deny altogether what they cannot help knowing to be true, or 
ridiculously attribute phenomena to this power of the Devil, that outrival 
the " miracles " of the apostolic ages. And what do we see this French 

* " Le Spiritisme dans le Monde," p. 6S. f Ibid., pp. 78, 79. 


author, notwithstanding his incorrigible rationalism, forced to admit, 
after having narrated the greatest wonders? Watch the fakirs as he 
would, he is compelled to bear the strongest testimony to their perfect 
honesty in the matter of their miraculous phenomena. " Never," he 
says, " have we succeeded in detecting a single one in the act of deceit." 
One fact should be noted by all who, without having been in India, still 
fancy they are clever enough to expose the fraud oi pretended magicians. 
This skilled and cool observer, this redoubtable materialist, after his 
long sojourn in India, affirms, "We unhesitatingly avow that we have not 
met, either in India or in Ceylon, a single European, even among the old- 
est residents, who has been able to indicate the means employed by these 
devotees for the production of these phenomena ! " 

And how should they ? Does not this zealous Orientalist confess to 
us that even he, who had every available means at hand to learn many of 
their rites and doctrines at first hand, failed in his attempts to make the 
Brahmans explain to him their secrets. " All that our most diligent inqui- 
ries of the Pourohitas could elicit from them respecting the acts of their 
superiors (the invisible initiates of the temples), amounts to very little." 
And again, speaking of one of the books, he confesses that, while purport- 
ing to reveal all that is desirable to know, it " falls back into mysterious 
formulas, in combinations of magical and occult letters, the secret of 
which it has been impossible for us to penetrate," etc. 

The fakirs, although they can never reach beyond the first degree of 
initiation, are, notwithstanding, the only agents between the living world 
and the " silent brothers," or those initiates who never cross the thresh- 
olds of their sacred dwellings. The Fukara-Yogis belong to the tem- 
ples, and who knows but these cenobites of the sanctuary have far more 
to do with the psychological phenomena which attend the fakirs, and 
have been so graphically described by Jacolliot, than the Pitris them- 
selves? Who can tell but that the fluidic spectre of the ancient Brahman 
seen by Jacolliot was the Scin-lecca, the spiritual double, of one of these 
mysterious sannyasi ? 

Although the story has been translated and commented upon by Pro- 
fessor Perty, of Geneva, still we will venture to give it in JacolHot's own 
words : " A moment after tlie disappearance of the hands, the fakir con- 
tinuing his evocations {mantras) more earnestly than ever, a cloud tike 
the first, but more opalescent and more opaque, began to hover near 
the small brasier, which, by request of the Hindu, I had constantly fed 
with live coals. Little by little it assumed a form entire human, and I 
distinguished the spectre — for I cannot call it otherwise — of an old Brah- 
man sacrificator, kneeling near the little brasier. 

" He bore on his forehead the signs sacred to Vishnu, and around his 


body the triple cord, sign of the initiates of the priestly caste. He joined 
his hands above his head, as during the sacrifices, and his hps moved as 
if they were reciting prayers. At a given moment, he took d pinch of 
perfumed powder, and threw it upon the coals ; it must have been a 
strong compound, for a thick smoke arose on the instant, and filled the 
two chambers. 

"When it was dissipated, I perceived the spectre, which, two steps 
from me, was extending to me its fieshless hand ; J took it in mine, mak- 
ing a salutation, and I was astonished to find it, although bony and hard, 
warm and living. 

" 'Art thou, indeed,' said I at this moment, in a loud voice, ' an ancient 
inhabitant of the earth ? ' 

" I had not finished the question, when the word am (yes) appeared 
and then disappeared in letters of fire, on the breast of the old Brahman, 
with an effect much like that which the word would produce if written in 
the dark with a stick of phosphorus. 

" 'Win you leave me nothing in token of your visit ?' I continued. 

"The spirit broke the triple cord, composed of three strands of cot- 
ton, which begirt his loins, gave it to me, and vanished at my feet." * 

" Oh Brahma ! what is this mystery which takes place every night ? 
. . . When lying on the matting, with eyes closed, the body is lost sight 
of, and the soul escapes to enter into conversation with the Pitris. . . . 
Watch over it, O Brahma, when, forsaking the resting body, it goes away 
to hover over the waters, to wander in the immensity of heaven, and 
penetrate into the dark and mysterious nooks of the valleys and grand 
forests of the Hymavat ! " {Agroushada Partkshai.) 

The fakirs, when belonging to some particular temple, never act but 
under orders. Not one of them, unless he has reached a degree of extra- 
ordinary sanctity, is freed from the influence and guidance of his guru, his 
teacher, who first initiated and instructed him in the mysteries of the 
occult sciences. Like the subject of the European mesmerizer, the aver- 
age fakir can never rid himself entirely of the psychological influence 
exercised on him by his guru. Having passed two or three hours in the 
silence and' solitude of the inner temple in prayer and meditation, the 
fakir, when he emerges thence, is mesmerically strengthened and pre- 
pared ; he produces wonders far more varied and powerful than before 
he entered. The "master" has laid his Jiands upon him, and the fakir 
feels strong. 

It may be shown, on the authority of many Brahraanical and Buddhist 
sacred books, that there has ever existed a great difference between 

* Louis JacolUot : " Phenomenes et Manifestations." 


adepts of the higher order, and purely psychological subjects — like many 
of these fakirs, who are mediums in a certain qualified sense. True, 
the fakir is ever talking of Pitris, and this is natural ; for they are his 
protecting deities. But are the Pitris disembodied human beijigs of our 
race'l This is the question, and we will discuss it in a moment. 

We say that the fakir may be regarded in a degree as a medium ; 
for he is — what is not generally known — under the direct mesmeric in- 
fluence of a living adept, his sannyasi or guru. When the latter dies, 
the power of the former, unless he has received the last transfer of 
spiritual forces, wanes and often even disappears. Wh}', if it were other- 
wise, should the fakirs have been excluded from the right of advancing 
to the second and third degree ? The lives of many of them exempHfy 
a degree of self-sacrifice and sanctity unknown and utterly incomprehen- 
sible to Europeans, who shudder at the bare thought of such self-inflicted 
tortures. But however shielded from control by vulgar and earth-bound 
spirits, however wide the chasm between a debasing influence and their 
self-controlled souls ; and however well protected by the seven-knotted ma- 
gical bamboo rod which he receives from the guru, still the fakir lives in the 
outer world of sin and matter, and it is possible that his soul may be 
tainted, perchance, by the magnetic emanations from profane objects 
and persons, and thereby open an access to strange spirits and gods. 
To admit one so situated, one not under any and all circumstances 
sure of the mastery over himself, to a knowledge of the awful mysteries 
and priceless secrets of initiation, would be impracticable. It would not 
only imperil the security of that which must, at all hazards, be guarded 
from profanation, but it would be consenting to admit behind the veil a 
fellow being, whose mediumistic irresponsibility might at any moment 
cause him to lose his life through an involuntary indiscretion. The same 
law which prevailed in the Eleusinian Mysteries before our era, holds 
good now in India. 

Not only must the adept have mastery over himself, but he must be 
able to control the inferior grades of spiritual beings, nature-spirits, and 
earthbound souls, in short the very ones by whom, if by any, the fakir is 
liable to be affected. ' 

For the objector to affirm that the Brahman-adepts and the fakirs admit 
that of themselves they are powerless, and can only act with the help of 
disembodied human spirits, is to state that these Hindus are unacquainted 
with the laws of their sacred books and even the meaning of the word Pitris. 
The Laws of Mann, the Atharva-Veda, and other books, prove what we 
now say. "All that exists," says the Atharva-Veda, "is in the powei 
of the gods. The gods are under the power of magical conjurations. 
The magical conjurations are under the control of the Brahmans. Hence 


the gods are in the power of the Brahmans." This is logical, albeit seem- 
ingly paradoxical, and it is the fact. And this fact will explain to those 
who have not hitherto had the clew (among whom Jacolliot must be num- 
bered, as will appear on reading his works), why the fakir should be con- 
fined to the first, or lowest degree of that course of initiation whose highest 
adepts, or hierophants, are the sannydsis, or members of the ancient 
Supreme Council of Seventy. 

Moreover, in Book I., of the Hindu Genesis, or Book of Creation 
of Md'iu, the Pitris are called the lunar ancestors of the human race. 
They belong to a race of beings different from ourselves, and cannot 
properly be called " human spirits " in the sense in which the spiritualists 
use this term. This is what is said of them : 

"Then they (the gods) created the Jackshas, the Rakshasas, the 
Pisatshas,* the Gandarbas f and the Apsaras, and the Asuras, the Nagas, 
the Sarpas and the Suparnas, \ and the Pitris — lunar ancestors of the 
human race" (See Listitutes of Mann, Book I., sloka 37, where the Pitris 
are termed " progenitors of mankind "). 

The Pitris are a distinct race of spirits belonging to the mytho- 
logical hierarchy or rather to the kabalistical nomenclature, and must 
be included with the good genii, the dasmons of the Greeks, or the 
inferior gods of tire invisible world ; and when a fakir attributes his phe- 
nomena to the Pitris, he means only what the ancient philosophers and 
theurgists meant when they maintained that all the "miracles" were 
obtained through the intervention of the gods, or the good and bad 
daemons, who control the powers of nature, the elementals, who are subor- 
dinate to the power of him " who knows." A ghost or human phantom 
would be termed by a fakir patit, or chutnd, as that of a female human 
i^\nt pichhalpdi, not pitris. True, pita ra means (plural) fathers, ances- 
tors ; and pitra-i is a kinsman ; but these words are used in quite a 
different sense from that of the Pitris invoked in the mantras. 

To maintain before a devout Brahman or a fakir that any one can 
converse with the spirits of the dead, would be to shock him with what 
would appear to him blasphemy. Does not the concluding verse of the 
Bagavat state that this supreme felicity is alone reserved to the holy 
sannyasis, the gurus, and yogis ? 

" Long before they finally rid themselves of their mortal envelopes, 
the souls who have practiced only good, such as those of the sannyasis 
and the vanaprasthas, acquire the faculty of conversing with the souls 
which preceded them to the swarga." 

* Pisatshas, diemons of the race of the gnomes, the giants and the vampiies. 

\ Gandarbas, good djemons, celestial sei aphs, singers. 

i Asuras and Nagas are the Titanic spirits and the dragon or serpent -headed spirits. 


In this case the Pitris instead of genii are the spirits, or rather souls, 
of the departed ones. But they will freely communicate only with those 
whose atmosphere is as pure as their own, and to whose prayerful kalassa 
(invocation) they can respond without the risk of defiling their own celes- 
tial purity. When the soul of the invocator has reached the Sayadyam, 
or perfect identity of essence with the Universal Soul, when matter is 
utterly conquered, then the adept can freely enter into daily and hourly 
communion with those who, though unburdened with their corporeal forms, 
are still themselves progressing through the endless series of transforma- 
tions included in the gradual approach to the Parani^tma, or the grand 
Universal Soul. 

Bearing in mind that the Christian fathers have always claimed for 
themselves and their saints the name of " friends of God," and knowing 
that they borrowed this expression, with many others, from the technology 
of the Pagan temples, it is but natural to expect them to show an evil 
temper whenever alluding to these rites. Ignorant, as a rule, and having 
had biographers as ignorant as themselves, we could not well expect 
them to find in the accounts of their beatific visions a descriptive beauty 
such as we find in the Pagan classics. Whether the visions and objective 
phenomena claimed by both the fathers of the desert and the hierophants 
of the sanctuary are to be discredited, or accepted as facts, the splendid 
imagery employed by Proclus and Apuleius in narrating the small por- 
tion of the final initiation that they dared reveal, throws completely into 
the shade the plagiaristic tales of the Christian ascetics, faithful copies 
though they were intended to be. The story of the temptation of St. 
Anthony in the desert by the female demon, is a parody upon the prelim- 
inary trials of the neophyte during the Mikra, or minor Mysteries of 
Agree — those rites at the thought of which Clemens railed so bitterly, and 
which represented the bereaved Demeter in search of her child, and her 
good-natured hostess Baubo. * 

Without entering again into a demonstration that in Christian, and 
especially Irish Roman Catholic, churches f the same apparently in- 
decent customs as the above prevailed until the end of the last century, 
we will recur to the untiring labors of that honest and brave defender of 
the ancient faith, Thomas Taylor, and his works. However much dog- 
matic Greek scholarship may have found to say against his "mistransla- 
tions," his memory must be dear to every true Platonist, who seeks rather 
to learn the inner thought of the great philosopher than enjoy the mere 
external mechanism of his writings. Better classical translators may have 

* See Arnolius: " Op. Cit.," pp. 249, 250. 

f See Inman's " Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism." 


rendered us, in more correct phraeeology, Plato's words, but Taylor shows 
us Plato's meaning, and this is more than can be said of Zeller, Jowett, and 
their predecessors. Yet, as writes Professor A. Wilder, " Taylor's works 
have met with favor at the hands of men capable of profound and recon- 
dite thinking ; and it must be conceded that he was endowed with a 
superior qualification — that of an intuitive perception of the interior 
meaning of the subjects which he considered. Others may have known 
more Greek, but he knew more Plato." * 

Taylor devoted his whole useful life to the search after such old 
manuscripts as would enable him to have his own speculations concerning 
several obscure rites in the Mysteries corroborated by writers who had 
been initiated themselves. It is with full confidence in the assertions of 
various classical writers that we say that ridiculous, perhaps licentious in 
some cases, as may appear ancient worship to the modern critic, it ought 
not to have so appeared to the Christians. During the mediaeval ages, and 
even later, they accepted pretty nearly the same without understanding 
the secret import of its rites, and quite satisfied with the obscure and 
rather fantastic interpretations of their clergy, who accepted the exterior 
form and distorted the inner meaning. We are ready to concede, in full 
justice, that centuries have passed since the great majority of the Chris- 
tian clergy, who are not allowed to pry into Gods mysteries nor seek to 
explain that which the Church has once accepted and established, have 
had the remotest idea of their symbolism, whether in its exoteric or eso- 
teric meaning. Not so with the head of the Church and its highest digni- 
taries. And if we fully agree with Inman that it is "difficult to believe 
that the ecclesiastics who sanctioned the publication of such prints f could 
have been as ignorant as modern ritualists," we are not at all prepared 
to believe with the same author "that the latter, if they knew the real 
meaning of the symbols commonly used by the Roman Church, would 
not have adopted them." 

To eliminate what is plainly derived from the sex and nature wor- 

* Introduction to Taylor's " Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries," published by J. W. 

\ Illustrated figures " from an ancient Rosary of the blessed Virgin Mary, printed at 
Venice, 1524, with a license from the Inquisition." In the illustrations given by Dr. 
Inman the Virgin is represented in an Assyrian ** grove," the abomination in the eyes 
of the Lord, according to the Bible prophets. " The book in question," says the author, 
" coutains numerous figures, all resembling closely the Mesopotamian emblem of Ishtar. 
The presence of the woman therein identifies the two as symbolic of Isis, or la nature ; 
and a man bowing down in adoration thereof shows the same idea as is depicted in 
Assyrian sculptures, where males offer to the goddess symbols of themselves " (See 
"Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism," p. 91. Second edition. J. W. 
Bouton, publisher, New York). 


ship of the ancient heathens, would be equivalent to pulling down the 
whole Roman Catholic image-worship— the Madonna element — and 
reforming the faith to Protestantism. The enforcement of the late dogma 
of the Immaculation was prompted by this very secret reason. The 
science of symbology was making too rapid progress. Blind faith in the 
Pope's infallibility and in the immaculate nature of the Virgin ar.d of her 
ancestral female lineage to a certain remove could alone save the Church 
from the indiscreet revelations of science. It was a clever stroke of 
policy on the part of the vicegerent of God. What matters it if, by 
'■conferring upon her such an honor," as Don Pascale de Franciscis 
naively expresses it, he has made a goddess of the Virgin Mary, an Olym- 
pian Deity, who, having been by her very nature placed in the impossi- 
bility of sinning, can claim no virtue, no personal merit for her puritj', 
precisely for which, as we were taught to believe in our younger days, she 
was chosen among all other women. If his Holiness has deprived her of 
this, perhaps, on the other hand, he thinks that he has endowed her with 
at least one physical attribute not shared by the other virgin-goddesses. 
But even this new dogma, which, in company with the new claim to 
infallibility, has quasi-revolutionised the Christian world, is not original 
with the Church of Rome. It is but a return to a hardly-remembered 
heresy of the early Christian ages, that of the CoUyridians, so called from 
their sacrificing cakes to the Virgin, whom they claimed to be Virgin- 
born. * The new sentence, " O, Virgin Mary, coticeived without sin" is 
simply a tardy acceptance of that which was at first deemed a '■^blasphemous 
heresie" by the orthodox fathers. 

To think for one moment that any of the popes, cardinals, or other 
high dignitaries "were not aware " from the first to the last of the exter- 
nal meanings of their symbols, is to do injustice to their great learning 
and their spirit of Machiavellism. It is to forget that the emissaries of 
Rome will never be stopped by any difficulty which can be skirted by the 
employment of Jesuitical artifice. The policy of complaisant conformity 
was never carried to greater lengths than by the missionaries in Ceylon, 
who, according to the Abb6 Dubois — certainly a learned and competent 
authority — " conducted the images of the Virgin and Saviour on triumphal 
cars, imitated from the orgies of Juggernauth, and introduced the dancers 
from the Brahminical rites into the ceremonial of the church." f Let us 
at least thank these black-frocked politicians for their consistency in 
employing the car of Juggernauth, upon which the "wicked heathen" 

* See King's " Gnostics," pp. 91, 92 ; " Tlie Genealogy of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary," by Faustus, Bishop of Riez. 

\ Prinseps quotes Dubois, "Edinburgh Review," April, 1851, p. 411. 


convey the liiii^ham of Siva. To have used this car to carry in its turn 
the Romish representative of the female principle in nature, is to show- 
discrimination and a thorough knowledge of the oldest mythological con- 
ceptions. They have blended the two deities, and thus represented, in a 
Christian procession, the "heathen" Brahma, or Nara (the father), Nari 
(the mother), and Viradj (the son). 

Says Manu : " The Sovereign Master who exists through himself, di- 
vides his body into two halves, male and female, and from the union of 
tliese two principles is born Viradj, the Son."* 

There was not a Christian Father who could have been ignorant of 
these symbols in their physical meaning ; for it is in this latter aspect 
that they were abandoned to the ignorant rabble. Moreover, they all 
had as good reasons to suspect the occult symbolism contained in these 
images ; although as none of them — Paul excepted, perhaps — had been 
initiated they could know nothing whatever about the nature of the final 
rites. Any person revealing these mysteries was put to death, regardless 
of sex, nationality, or creed. A Christian father would no more be 
proof against an accident than a Pagan ATysta or the Mu'ctttjs. 

If during the Aporreta or preliminary arcanes, there were some 
practices which might have shocked the pudicity of a Christian convert 
— though we doubt the sincerity of such statements — their mystical 
symbolism was all sufficient to relieve the performance of any charge of 
licentiousness. Even the episode of the Matron Baubo — whose rather 
eccentric method of consolation was immortalized in the minor Myste- 
ries — is explained by impartial mystagogues quite naturally. Ceres- 
Demeter and her earthly wanderings in search of her daughter are the 
euhemerized descriptions of one of the most metaphysico-psychological 
subjects ever treated of by human mind. It is a mask for the transcend- 
ent narrative of the initiated seers ; the celestial vision of the freed soul 
of the initiate of the last hour describing the process by which the soul 
that has not yet been incarnated descends for the first time into matter, 
" Blessed is he who hath seen those common C07icerns of the under- 
world ; he knows both the end of life and its divine origin from Jupiter," 
says Pindar. Taylor shows, on the authority of more than one initiate, 
tliat the " dramatic performances of the Lesser Mysteries were designed 
by their founders, to signify occultly the condition of the unpurified soul 
invested with an earthly body, and enveloped in a material and physical 

* " Manu," book I., sloka 32 : Sir W.Jones, translating from the Northern "Manu," 
renders this sloka as follows : " Having divided his own substance, the mighty Power 
became half male, half female, or nature active and passive ; and from that female he 
produced Viraj. 


nature . . . that the soul, indeed, till purified by philosophy, suffers 
death through i-ts union with the body." 

The body is the sepulchre, the prison of the soul, and many Christian 
Fathers held with Plato that the soul is punished through its union with 
the body. Such is the fundamental doctrine of the Buddhists and of 
many Brahmanists too. When Plotinus remarks that " when the soul 
has descended into generation (from its half-Axwrne condition) she par- 
takes of evil, and is carried a great way into a state the opposite of her 
first purity and integrity, to be entirely merged in which is nothing more 
than to fall into dark mire ; " * he only repeats the teachings of Gautama- 
Buddha. If we have to believe the ancient initiates at all, we must 
accept their interpretation of the symbols. And if, moreover, we find 
them perfectly coinciding with the teachings of the greatest philosophers 
and that which we know symbolizes the same meaning in the modern 
Mysteries in the East, we must believe them to be right. 

If Demeter was considered the intellectual soul, or rather the Astral 
soul, half emanation from the spirit and half tainted with matter through 
a succession of spiritual evolutions — we may readily understand what is 
meant by the Matron Baubo, the Enchantress, who before she succeeds 
in reconciling the soul — Demeter, to its new position, finds herseff obliged 
to assume the sexual forms of an infant. Baubo is matter, the physical 
body ; and the intellectual, as yet pure astral soul can be ensnared into 
its new terrestrial prison but by the display of innocent babyhood. 
Until then, doomed -to her fate, Demeter, or Magna-mater, the Soul, won- 
ders and hesitates and suffers ; but once having partaken of the magic 
potion prepared by Baubo, she forgets her sorrows ; for a certain time 
she parts with that consciousness of higher intellect that she was pos- 
sessed of before entering the body of a child. Thenceforth she must 
seek to rejoin it again ; and when the age of reason arrives for the child, 
the struggle — forgotten for a few years of infancy — begins again. The 
astral soul is placed between matter (body) and the highest intellect 
(its immortal spirit or nous). Which of those two will conquer? The 
result of the battle of life lies between the triad. It is a question of a 
few years of physical enjoyment on earth and — if it has begotten abuse 
— of the dissolution of the earthly body being followed by death of the 
astral body, which thus is prevented from being united with the highest 
spirit of the triad, which alone confers on us individual imniortaUty ; or, 
on the other hand, of becoming immortal mystse ; initiated before death 
of the body into the divine truths of the after life. Demi-gods below, 
and GODS above. 

* " Enead," i., book viii. 



Such was the chief object of the Mysteries represented as diabolical 
by theology, and ridiculed by modern symbologists. To disbelieve that 
there exist in man certain arcane powers, which, by psychological study 
he can develop in himself to the highest degree, become an hierophant 
and then impart to others upder the same conditions of earthly discipline, 
is to cast an imputation of falsehood and lunacy upon a number of the 
best, purest, and most learned men of antiquity and of the middle ages. 
What the hierophant was allowed to see at the last hour is hardly hinted 
at by them. And yet Pythagoras, Plato, Plotinus, lamblichus, Proclus, 
and many others knew and affirmed their reality. 

Whether in the "inner temple," or through the study of theurgy carried 
on privately, or by the sole exertion of a whole life of spiritual labor, they 
all obtained the practical proof of such divine possibilities for man fight- 
ing his battle with life on earth to win a life in the eternity. What the 
last epopteia was is alluded to by Plato in Phxdrus (64) ; " . . . being 
initiated in those Mysteries, which it is lawful to call the most blessed of 
all mysteries ... we were freed from the molestations of evils which 
otherwise await us in a future period of time. Likewise, in consequence 
of this divine initiation, we became spectators of entire, simple, immova- 
ble, and blessed visions, resident in a pure light." This sentence shows 
that they saw visions, gods, spirits. As Taylor correctly observes, from 
all such passages in the works of the initiates it may be inferred, " that 
the most sublime part of the epopteia . . . consisted in beholding the 
gods themselves invested with a resislendent light," or highest planetary 
spirits. The statement of Proclus upon this subject is unequivocal : "In 
all the initiations and mysteries, the gods exhibit many forms of them- 
selves, and appear in o. variety of shapes, and sometimes, indeed, a form- 
less light of themselves is held forth to the view ; sometimes this light is 
according to a human form, and sometimes it proceeds into a different 
shape." * 

" Whatever is on earth is the resemblance and shadow of something 
that is in the sphere, while that resplendent thing (the prototype of the 
soul-spirit) remaineth in unchangeable condition, it is well also with its 
shadow. But when the resplendent one renioveth far from its shadow life 
removeth from the latter to a distance. And yet, that very light is the 
shadow of something still more resplendent than itself." Thus speaks 
Desatir, the Persian Book of Shet,\ thereby showing its identity of eso- 
teric doctrines with those of the Greek philosophers. 

The second statement of Plato confirms our belief that the Mysteries 
of the ancients were identical with the Initiations, as practiced now 

• " Commentary upon the Republic of Plato," p. 380. f Verses 33-41. 


among the Buddhists and the Hindu adepts. The highest visions, the 
most truthful, are produced, not through natural ecstatics or "mediums," 
as it is sometimes erroneously asserted, but through a regular discipline 
of gradual initiations and development of psychical powers. The Mystae 
were brought into close union with those whom Proclus calls " mystical 
natures," "resplendent gods," because, as Plato says, "we were our- 
selves pure and immaculate, being liberated from this surrounding vest- 
me?it, which we denominate body, and to which we are now bound like 
an oyster to its shell." * 

So the doctrine of planetary and terrestrial Pitris was revealed en- 
tirely in ancient India, as well as now, only at the last moment of 
initiation, and to the adepts of superior degrees. Many are the fakirs, 
who, though pure, and honest, and self-devoted, have yet never seen the 
astral form of a purely hutnan pilar (an ancestor or father), otherwise 
than at the solemn moment of their first and last initiation. It is in the 
presence of his instructor, the guru, and just before the vatou-ii^\x is 
dispatched into the world of the living, with his seven-knotted bamboo 
wand for all protection, that he is suddenly placed face to face with the 
unknown presence. He sees it, and falls prostrate at the feet of the 
evanescent form, but is not entrusted with the great secret of its evoca- 
tion ; for it is the supreme mystery of the holy syllable. The AuM con- 
tains the evocation of the Vedic triad, the Trimurti Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, 
say the Orientalists ; f it contains the evocation of something more real 
and objective than this triime abstraction — we say, respectfully contradict- 
ing the eminent scientists. It is the trinity of man himself, on his way 
to become immortal through the solemn union of his inner triune self — • 
the exterior, gross body, the husk not even being taken in consideration 
in this human trinity.J It is, when this trinity, in anticipation of the final 

* " Phsedrus," p. 64. 

f The Supreme Buddha is invoked with two of his acolytes of the theistic triad, 
Dharma and Sanga. This triad is addressed in Sanscrit in the following terms : 
Namo Buddhdya, 
Na7no Dharmdya, 
Navto Sang&ya, 
Aum ! 
while the Thibetan Buddhists pronounce their invocations as follows : 
Nan-won Fo-tho-ye^ 
Nan-won Tha-ma-ye, 
Nan-won Seng-kia-ye, 
Aan ! 
See also " Journal Asiatique," tome vii., p. 286. 

X The body of man — his coat of skin — is an inert mass of matter, per se; it is but 
the sentietit living body within the man that is considered as the man's body proper, 


triumphant reunion beyond the gates of corporeal death became for a 
few seconds a unity, that the candidate is allowed, at the moment of the 
initiation, to behold his future self. Thus we read in the Persian Desa- 
tir, of the " Resplendent one ; " in the Greek philosopher-initiates, of 
the Augoeides — the self shining " blessed vision resident in the pure light ; " 
in Porphyry, that Plotinus was united to his " god " six times during his 
lifetime ; and so on. 

" In ancient India, the mystery of the triad, known but to the ini- 
tiates, could not, under the penalty of death, be revealed to the vulgar," 
says Vrihaspati, 

Neither could it in the ancient Grecian and Samothracian Mysteries. 
Nor can it be now. It is in the hands of the adepts, and must remain 
a mystery to the world so long as the materialistic savant regards it as an 
undemonstrated fallacy, an insane hallucination, and the dogmatic theo- 
logian, a snare of the Evil One. 

Subjective communication with the human, god-hke spirits of those who 
have preceded us to the silent land of bhss, is in India divided into three 
categories. Under the spiritual training of a guru or sannyasi, the vatou 
(disciple or neophyte) begins to feel them. Were he not under the imme- 
diate guidance of an adept, he would be controlled by the invisibles, and 
utterly at their mercy, for among these subjective influences he is unable 
to discern the good from the bad. Happy the sensitive who is sure of 
the purity of his spiritual atmosphere ! 

To this subjective consciousness, which is the first degree, is, after 
a time, added that of clairaudience. This is the second degree or stage of 
development. The sensitive — when not naturally made so by psycho- 
logical training — now audibly hears, but is still unable to discern ; and 
is incapable of verifying his impressions, and one who is unprotected 
the tricky powers of the air but too often delude with semblances of 
voices and speech. But the guru's influence is there ; it is the most 
powerful shield against the intrusion of the bhictnd into the atmosphere 
of the vatou, consecrated to the pure, human, and celestial Pitris. 

The third degree is that when the fakir or any other candidate both 
feels, hears, and sees ; and when he can at will produce the reflections 
of the Pitris on the mirror of astral light. All depends upon his psycho- 
logical and mesmeric powers, which are always proportionate to the in- 
tensity of his will. But the fakir will never control the Akasa, the spir- 
itual life -principle, the omnipotent agent of every phenomenon, in the 
same deo-ree as an adept of the third and highest initiation. And the 

and it is that which, together with the fontal soul or purely astral body, directly con- 
nected with the immortal spirit, constitutes the trinity of man. 


phenomena produced by the will of the latter do not generally run the 
market-places for the satisfaction of open-mouthed investigators. 

The unity of God, the immortality of the spirit, belief in salvation 
only through our works, merit and demerit ; such are the principal arti- 
cles of faith of the Wisdom-religion, and the ground -work of Vedaisni, 
Buddhism, Parsism, and such we find to have been even that of the an- 
cient Osirism, when we, after abandoning the popular sun-god to the 
materialism of the rabble, confine our attention to the Books of Hermes, 
the thrice-great. 

" The THOUGHT concealed as yet the world in silence and darkness. 
. . . Then the Lord who exists through Himself, and who is not to be 
divulged to the external senses of man ; dissipated darkness, and mani- 
fested the perceptible world." 

" He that can be perceived only by the spirit, that escapes the 
organs of sense, who is without visible parts, eternal, the soul of all 
beings, that none can comprehend, displayed His own splendor " 
{Manu, book i., slokas, 6-7). 

Such is the ideal of the Supreme in the mind of every Hindu phil- 

" Of all the duties, the principal one is to acquire the knowledge of 
the supreme soul (the spirit) ; it is the first of all sciences, for it alone 
confers on man immortality " [Manu, book xii., sloka 85). 

And our scientists talk of the Nirvana of Buddha and the Moksha of 
Brahma as of a complete annihilation ! It is thus that the following 
verse is interpreted by some materialists. 

" The man who recognizes the Supreme Soul, in his own soul, as 
well as in that of all creatures, and who is equally just to all (whether 
man or animals) obtains the happiest of all fates, that to be finally ab- 
sorbed in the bosom of Brahma" (Manu, book xii., sloka 125). 

The doctrine of the Moksha and the Nirvana, as understood by the 
school of Max Miiller, can never bear confronting with numerous texts 
that can be found, if required, as a final refutation. There are sculp- 
tures in many pagodas which contradict, point-blank, the imputation. 
Ask a Brahman to explain Moksha, address yourself to an educated Bud- 
dhist and pray him to define for you the meaning of Nirvana. Both 
will answer you that in every one of these religions Nirvana represents 
the dogma of the spirit's immortality. That, to reach the Nirvana 
means absorption into the great universal soul, the latter representing a 
state, not an individual being or an anthropomorphic god, as some under- 
stand the great existence. That a spirit reaching such a state becomes 
a part of the integral whole, but never loses its individuality for all that. 
Henceforth, the spirit lives spiritually, without any fear of further modi- 


fications of form ; for form pertains to matter, and the state of Nirvana 
implies a complete purification or a final riddance from even the most 
sublimated particle of matter. 

This word, absorbed, when it is proved that the Hindus and Buddhists 
believe in the immortality of the spirit, must necessarily mean intimate 
union, not annihilation. Let Christians call them idolaters, if they still dare 
do so, in the face of science and the latest translations of the sacred 
Sanscrit books ; they have no right to present the speculative philosophy 
of ancient sages as an inconsistency and the philosophers themselves as 
illogical fools. With far better reason we can accuse the ancient Jews 
of utter nihilism. There is not a word contained in the Books of Moses 
— or the prophets either — which, taken literally, implies the spirit's immor- 
tality. Yet every devout Jew hopes as well to be "gathered into the 
bosom of A-Braham." 

The hierophants and some Brahmans are accused of having adminis- 
tered to their epoptai strong drinks or ansesthetics to produce visions which 
shall be taken by the latter as realities. They did and do use sacred bever- 
ages which, like the Soma-drink, possess the faculty of freeing the astral 
form from the bonds of matter ; but in those visions there is as little to 
be attributed to hallucination as in the glimpses which the scientist, by 
the help of his optical instrument, gets into the microscopic world. A man 
cannot perceive, touch, and converse with pure spirit through any of his 
bodily senses. Only spirit alone can talk to and see spirit ; and even 
our astral soul, the Doppelganger, is too gross, too much tainted yet with 
earthly matter to trust entirely to its perceptions and insinuations. 

How dangerous may often become untrained mediumship, and how 
thoroughly it was understood and provided against by the ancient sages, 
is perfectly exemplified in the case of Socrates. The old Grecian phi- 
losopher was a " medium ; " hence, he had never been initiated into the 
Mysteries ; for such was the rigorous law. But he had his " familiar 
spirit " as they call it, his daimonion ; and this invisible counsellor 
became the cause of his death. It is generally believed that if he was 
not initiated into the Mysteries it was because he himself neglected to 
become so. But the Secret Records teach us that it was because he could 
not be admitted to participate in the sacred rites, and precisely, as we 
state, on account of his mediumship. There was a law against the 
admission not only of such as were convicted of deliberate witchcraft * 

* We really think that the word ' ' witchcraft ' ' ought, once for all, to be understood 
in the sense which properly belongs to it. Witchcraft may be either conscious or uncon- 
scious. Certain wicked and dangerous results may be obtaiatid through the mesmeric 
powers of a so-called sorcerer, who misuses his potential fluid ; or again tliey may be 
achieved through an easy access of malicious tricky " spirits " (so much the worse if 


but even of those who were known to have " a familiar spirit." The law- 
was just and logical, because a genuine medium is more or less irre- 
sponsible ; and the eccentricities of Socrates are thus accounted for in 
some degree. A medium must he passive ; and if a firm believer in his 
" spirit-guide " he will allow himself to be ruled by the latter, not by the 
rules of the sanctuary. A medium of olden times, like the modern 
"medium" was subject to be entranced at the will and pleasure of the 
"power" which controlled him; therefore, he could not well have been 
entrusted with the awful secrets of the final initiation, "never to be revealed 
under the penalty of death." The old sage, in unguarded moments of 
"spiritual inspiration," revealed that which he had never learned ; and 
was therefore put to death as an atheist. 

How then, with such an instance as that of Socrates, in relation to 
the visions and spiritual wonders at the epoptai, of the Inner Temple, 
can any one assert that these seers, theurgists, and thauniaturgists were 
all " spirit-mediums ? " Neither Pythagoras, Plato, nor any of the later 
more important Neo-platonists ; neither lamblichus, Longinus, Proclus, 
nor ApoUonius of Tyana, were ever mediums ; for in such case they 
would not have been admitted to the Mysteries at all. As Taylor proves 
— " This assertion of divine visions in the Mysteries is clearly confirmed 
by Plotinus. And in short, that magical evocation formed a part of the 
sacerdotal office in them, and that this was universally believed by all 
antiquity long before the era of the later Platonists," shows that apart 
from natural " mediumship," there has existed, from the beginning of 
time, a mysterious science, discussed by many, but known only to a few. 

The use of it is a longing toward our only true and real home — the 
after-life, and a desire to cling more closely to our parent spirit ; abuse 
of it is sorcery, witchcraft, black magic. Between the two is placed natu- 
ral " mediumship ; " a soul clothed with imperfect matter, a ready agent 
for either the one'or the other, and utterly dependent on its surroundings 
of life, constitutional heredity — physical as well as mental — and on the 
nature of the " spirits" it attracts around itself. A blessing or a curse, 
as fate will have it, unless the medium is purified of earthly dross. 

The reason why in every age so little has been generally known of the 
mysteries of initiation, is twofold. The first has already been explained 
by more than one author, and Hes in the terrible penalty following the least 
indiscretion. The second, is the superhuman difficulties and even dan- 
gers which the daring candidate of old had to encounter, and either con- 
quer, or die in the attempt, when, what is still worse, he did not lose his 

human) to the atmosphere surrounding a medium. How many thousands of such irre- 
sponsible innocent victims have met infamous deaths through the tricks of those Ele- 
mentai'ies ! 


reason. There was no real danger to him whose mind had become thor- 
oughl}' spiritualized, and so prepared for every terrific sight. He who 
fully recognized the power of his immortal spirit, and never doubted for 
one moment its omnipotent protection, had naught to fear. But woe to 
the candidate in whom the slightest physical fear — sickly child of matter 
— made him lose sight and faith in his own invulnerability. He who 
was not wholly confident of his moral fitness to accept the burden of these 
tremendous secrets was doomed. 

The Talmud gives the story of the four Tanaim, who are made, in 
allegorical terms, to enter into the garden of delights ; i. e., to be initia- 
ted into the occult and final science. 

"According to the teaching of our holy masters the names of the four 
who entered the garden of delight, are : Ben Asai, Ben Zoma, Acher, and 
Rabbi Akiba. . . . 

"Ben Asai looked and — lost his sight. 

"Ben Zoma looked and — lost his reason. 

"Acher made depredations in the plantation" (mixed up the whole 
and failed). " But Akiba, who had entered in peace, came out of it in 
peace, for the saint whose name be blessed had said, ' This old man is 
worthy of serving us with glory.' " 

"The learned commentators of the Talmud, the Rabbis of the s)'na- 
gogue, explain that the garden of delight, in which those four personages 
are made to enter, is but that mysterious science, the most terrible of 
sciences for weak intellects, which it leads directly to insanity" says A. 
Franck, in his Kabbala. It is not the pure at heart and he who studies 
but with a view to perfecting himself and so more easily acquiring the 
promised immortality, who need have any fear ; but rather he who 
makes of the science of sciences a sinful pretext for worldly motives, who 
should tremble. The latter will never withstand the kahalistic evocations 
of the supreme initiation. 

The licentious performances of the thousand and one early Christian 
sects, may be criticised by partial commentators as well as the ancient 
Eleusinian and other rites. But why should they incur the blame of the 
theologians, the Christians, when their own " Mysteries" of " the divine 
incarnation with Joseph, Mary, and the angel " in a sacred trilogue used 
to be enacted in more than one country, and were famous at one time in 
Spain and Southern France? Later, they fell like many other once 
secret rites into the hands of the populace. It is but a few years since, 
during every Christmas week, Punch-and- Judy-boxes, containing the above 
named personages, an additional display of the infant Jesus in his manger, 
were carried about the country in Poland and Southern Russia. They 
were called Kaliadovki, a word the correct etymology of which we are 


unable to give unless it is from the verb Kaliadovdt, a word that we as 
willingly abandon to learned philologists. We have seen this show in 
our days of childhood. We remember the three king-Magi represented 
by three dolls in powdered wigs and colored tights ; and it is from recol- 
lecting the simple, profound veneration depicted on the faces of the 
pious audience, that we can the more readily appreciate the honest and 
just remark by the editor, in the introduction to the Eleusinian Mysteries, 
who says : "It is ignorance which leads to profanation. Men ridicule 
what they do not properly understand. . . . The undercurrent of this 
world is set toward one goal ; and inside of human credulity — call it 
human weakness, if you please — is a power almost infinite, a holy faith 
capable of apprehending the supremest truths of all existence." 

If that abstract sentiment called Christian charity prevailed in the 
Church, we would be well content to leave all this unsaid. We have no 
quarrel with Christians whose faith is sincere and whose practice coincides 
with their profession. But with an arrogant, dogmatic, and dishonest 
clergy, we have nothing to do except to see the ancient philosophy — 
antagonized by modern theology in its puny offspring — Spiritualism — 
defended and righted so far as we are able, so that its grandeur and suffi- 
ciency may be thoroughly displayed. It is not alone for the esoteric 
philosophy that we fight ; nor for any modern system of moral philoso- 
phy, but for the inalienable right of private judgment, and especially for 
the ennobhng idea of a future life of activity and accountabiHty. 

We eagerly applaud such commentators as Godfrey Higgins, Inman, 
Payne Knight, King, Dunlap, and Dr. Newton, however much they disa- 
gree with our own mystical views, for their diligence is constantly being 
rewarded by fresh discoveries of the Pagan paternity of Christian sym- 
bols. But otherwise, all these learned works are useless. Their re- 
searches only cover half the ground. Lacking the true key of interpreta- 
tion they see the symbols only in a physical aspect. They have no pass- 
word to cause the gates of mystery to swing open ; and ancient spiritual 
philosophy is to them a closed book. Diametrically opposed though 
they be to the clergy in their ideas respecting it, in the way of interpreta- 
tion they do little more than their opponents for a questioning public. 
Their labors tend to strengthen materialism as those of the clergy, 
especially the Romish clergy, do to cultivate belief in diabolism. 

If the study of Hermetic philosophy held out no other hope of reward, 
it would be more than enough to know that by it we may learn with what 
perfection of justice the world is governed. A sermon upon this text is 
preached by every page of history. Among all there is not one that con- 
veys a deeper moral than the case of the Roman Church. The divine 
law of compensation was never more strikingly exemplified than in the 


fact that by her own act she has deprived herself of the only possible key 
to her own religious mysteries. The assumption of Godfrey Hi^gins that 
there are two doctrines maintained in the Roman Church, one for the 
masses and the other — the esoteric — for the " perfect," or the initiates, as 
in the ancient Mysteries, appears to us unwarranted and rather fantastic. 
They have lost the key, we repeat ; otherwise no terrestrial power could 
have prostrated her, and except a superficial knowledge of the means of 
producing " miracles," her clergy can in no way be compared in their 
wisdom with the hierophants of old. 

In burning the works of the theurgists ; in proscribing those who affect 
their study ; in affixing the stigma of demonolatry to magic in general, 
Rome has left her exoteric worship and Bible to be helplessly riddled by 
every free-thinker, her sexual emblems to be identified with coarseness, 
and her priests to unwittingly turn magicians and even sorcerers in their 
exorcisms, which are but necromantic evocations. Thus retribution, by 
the exquisite adjustment of divine law, is made to overtake this scheme of 
cruelty, injustice, and bigotry, through her own suicidal acts. 

True philosophy and divine truth are convertible terms. A religion 
which dreads the light cannot be a religion based on either truth or phil- 
osophy — hence, it must be false. The ancient Mysteries were mysteries 
to the profane only, whom the hierophant never sought nor would accept as 
proselytes; to the initiates the Mysteries became explained as soon as the 
final veil was withdrawn. No mind like that of Pythagoras or Plato would 
have contented itself with an unfathomable and incomprehensible mystery, 
like that of the Christian dogma. There can be but one truth, for two 
small truths on the same subject can but constitute one great error. 
Among thousands of exoteric or popular conflicting religions which have 
been propagated since the days when the first men were enabled to inter- 
change their ideas, not a nation, not a people, nor the most abject tribe, 
but after their own fashion has believed in an Unseen God, the First 
Cause of unerring and immutable laws, and in the inunortality of our spirit. 
No creed, no false philosophy, no religious exaggerations, could ever de- 
stroy that feehng. It must, therefore, be based upon an absolute truth. 
On the other hand, every one of the numberless religions and religious 
sects views the Deity after its own fashion ; and, fathering on the un- 
known its own speculations, it enforces these purely human outgrowths 
of overheated imagination on the ignorant masses, and calls them "re- 
velation." As the dogmas of every religion and sect often differ radically, 
they cannot be true. And if untrue, what are they ? 

"The greatest curse to a nation," remarks Dr. Inman, "is not a baa 
religion, but a form of faith which prevents manly inquiry. I know of 
no nation of old that was priest-ridden which did not fall under the swords 


of those who did not care for hierarchs. . . . The greatest danger is to 
be feared from those ecclesiastics who wink at vice, and encourage it as 
a means whereby they can gain power over their votaries. So long as 
every man does to other men as he would that they should do to him, 
and allows no one to interfere between him and his Maker, all will go well 
with the world." * 

" Ancient Pagan and Modem Christian Symbolism," preface, p. 34. 


*'KlNG. — Let us from point to point this story know." 

—Airs Well That Ends iVell.— Act v., Scene 3. 

" He is the One, self-proceeding : and from Him all things proceed. 
And in them He Himself exerts His activi^ : no mortal 
Beholds Him, but He beholds all ! " — Orphic Hymn. 

''And Athens, O Athena, is thy own ! 
Great Goddess hear ! and on my darkened mind 
Pour thy pure light in measure unconfined : 
That sacred light, O all-proceeding Queen, 
Which beams eternal from thy face serene. 
My soul, while wand'ring on the earth, inspire 
With thy own blessed and impulsive fire ! " 

— Proclus : Taylor : To Mi*ierzia. 

" '^ow faith is the substance of things. ... By faith the harlot Rahab perished not with them that 
believed not, when she had received the sj>ies in peace" — Hebreivs xi. 1,31. 

" What doth it profit, my brethren, though a man hath faith, and have not works ? Can vxyth 
save hint ? . . . Likewise also was not Rahab the harlot justified by luorks, when she had received 
the messengers, and had sent them out another way ? " — James ii. 14, 25. 

CLEMENT describes Basilides, the Gnostic, as " a philosopher 
devoted to the contemplation of divine things." This very 
appropriate expression may be applied to many of the founders of the 
more important sects which later were all engulfed in one — that stupen- 
dous compound of unintelligible dogmas enforced by Irenceus, Tertullian, 
and others, which is now termed Christianity. If these must be called 
heresies, tlien early Christianity itself must be included in the number. 
Basilides and Valentinus preceded Irenseus and Tertullian ; and the 
two latter Fathers had less facts than the two former Gnostics to show 
that their heresy was plausible. Neither divine right nor truth brought 
about the triumph of their Christianity ; fate alone was propitious. We 
can assert, with entire plausibilit)', that there is not one of all these 
sects — KabaJism, Judaism, and our present Christianity included — but 
sprang from the two main branches of that one mother-trunk, the once 
universal religion, which antedated the Vedaic ages — we speak of that 
prehistoric Buddlrism which merged later into Brahmanism. 

The religion which the primitive teaching of the early few apostles 
most resembled — a religion preached by Jesus himself — is the elder of 
these two, Buddhism. The latter as taught in its primitive purity, and 
carried to perfection by the last of the Buddhas, Gautama, based its 


moral ethics on three fundamental principles. It alleged that i, every 
thing existing, exists from natural causes ; 2, that virtue brings its own 
reward, and vice and sin their own punishment ; and, 3, that the state 
of man in this world is probationary. We might add that on these three 
principles rested the universal foundation of every religious creed ; God, 
and individual immortality for every man — if he could but win it. 
However puzzling the subsequent theological tenets ; however seem- 
ingly incomprehensible the metaphysical abstractions which have con- 
vulsed the theology of every one of the great rehgions of mankind as 
soon as it was placed on a sure footing, the above is found to be the 
essence of every religious philosophy, with the exception of later Chris- 
tianity. It was that of Zoroaster, of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Jesus, 
and even of Moses, albeit the teachings of the Jewish law-giver have 
been so piously tampered with. 

We will devote the present chapter mainly to a brief survey of the 
numerous sects which have recognized themselves as Christians ; that is 
to say, that have believed in a Christos, or an anointed one. We will 
also endeavor to explain the latter appellation from the kabalistic stand- 
point, and show it reappearing in every religious system. It might be 
profitable, at the same time, to see how much the earliest apostles — Paul 
and Peter, agreed in their preaching of the new Dispensation. We will 
begin with Peter. 

We must once more return to that greatest of all the Patristic frauds ; 
the one which has undeniably helped the Roman Catholic Church to its 
unmerited supremacy, viz. : the barefaced assertion, in the teeth of histor- 
ical evidence, that Peter suffered martyrdom at Rome. It is but too 
natural that the Latin clergy should cling to it, for, with the exposure of 
the fraudulent nature of this pretext, the dogma of apostolic succession 
must fall to the ground. 

There have been many able works of late, in refutation of this pre- 
posterous claim. Among others we note Mr. G. Reber's, The Christ of 
Paul, which overthrows it quite ingeniously. The author proves, i, that 
there was no church established at Rome, until the reign of Antoninus 
Pius ; 2, that as Eusebius and Irensus both agree that Linus was the 
second Bishop of Rome, into whose hands " the blessed apostles " Peter 
and Paul committed the church after building it, it could not have been at 
any other time than between a.d. 64 and 68 ; 3, that this interval of 
years happens during the reign of Nero, for Eusebius states that Linus 
held this ofiice twelve years [Ecclesiastical History, book iii., c. 13), 
entering upon it a.d. 69, one year after the death of Nero, and dying 
himself in 8r. After that the author maintains, on very solid grounds, 
that Peter could not be in Rome a.d. 64, for he was then in Babylon ; 


wherefrom he wrote his first Epistle, the date of which is fixed by Dr. 
Lardner and other critics at precisely this year. But we believe that his 
best argument is in proving that it was not in the character of the 
cowardly Peter to risk himself in such close neighborhood with Nero, 
who " was feeding the wild beasts of the Amphitheatre with the flesh and 
bones of Christians " * at that time. 

Perhaps the Church of Rome was but consistent in choosing as her 
titular founder the apostle who thrice denied his master at the moment 
of danger ; and the only one, moreover, except Judas, who provoked 
Christ in such a way as to be addressed as the " Enemy." " Get thee 
behind me, Satan ! " exclaims Jesus, rebuking the taunting apostle, f 

There is a tradition in the Greek Church which has never found favor 
at the Vatican. The former traces its origin to one of the Gnostic lead- 
ers — Basilides, perhaps, who lived under Trajan and Adrian, at the end 
of the first and the beginning of the second century. With regard to this 
particular tradition, if the Gnostic is Basilides, then he must be accepted 
as a sufficient authority, having claimed to have been a disciple of the 
Apostle Matthew, and to have had for master Glaucias, a disciple of St. 
Peter himself. Were the narrative attributed to him authenticated, the 
London Committee for the Revision of the Bible would have to add a new 
verse to Matthew, Mark, and John, who tell the story of Peter's denial 
of Christ. 

This tradition, then, of which we have been speaking, affirms that, 
when frightened at the accusation of the servant of the high priest, the 
apostle had thrice denied his master, and the cock had crowed, Jesus, 
who was then passing through the hall in custody of the soldiers, turned, 
and, looking at Peter, said : " Verily, I say unto thee, Peter, thou shalt 
deny me throughout the coming ages, and never stop until thou shalt be 
old, and shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee and 
carry thee whither thou wouldst not." The latter part of this sentence, 
say the Greeks, relates to the Church of Rome, and prophesies her con- 
stant apostasy from Christ, under the mask of false religion. Later, it 
was inserted in the twenty-first chapter of Jolin, but the whole of this 
chapter had been pronounced a forgery, even before it was found that this 
Gospel was never written by John the Apostle at all. 

The anonymous author of Supernatural Religion, a work which in two 
years passed through several editions, and which is alleged to have been 
written by an eminent theologian, proves conclusively the spuriousness 
of the four gospels, or at least their complete transformation in the hands 

* " The Christ of Faul," p. 123. 
\ Gospel according to Marlj, viii. 33. 


of the too-zealous Iren»us and his champions. The fourth gospel is 
completely upset by this able author ; the extraordinary forgeries of the 
Fathers of the early centuries are plainly demonstrated, and the relative 
value of the synoptics is discussed with an unprecedented power of logic. 
The work carries conviction in its every line. From it we quote the fol- 
lowing : " We gain infinitely more than we lose in abandoning belief in 
the reality of Divine Revelation. Whilst we retain, pure and unimpaired, 
the treasure of Christian morahty, we relinquish nothing but the debasing 
elements added to it by human superstition. We are no longer bound 
to believe a theology which outrages reason and moral sense. We are 
freed from base anthropomorphic views of God and His government of 
the Universe, and from Jewish Mythology we rise to higher conceptions 
of an infinitely wise and beneficent Being, hidden from our finite minds, it 
is true, in the impenetrable glory of Divinity, but whose laws of wondrous 
comprehensiveness and perfection we ever perceive in operation around 
us. . . . The argument so often employed by theologians, that Divine 
revelation is necessary for man, and that certain views contained in that, 
revelation are required for our moral consciousness, is purely imaginary, 
and derived from the revelation which it seeks to maintain. The only 
thing absolutely necessary for man is Truth, and to that, and that alone, 
must our moral consciousness adapt itself." * 

We will consider farther in what light was regarded the Divine reve- 
lation of the Jewish Bible by the Gnostics, who yet believed in Christ in 
their own way, a far better and less blasphemous one than the Roman 
Cathohc. The Fathers have forced on the behevers in Christ a BiUe, 
the laws prescribed in which he was the first to break ; the teachings of 
which he utterly rejected ; and for which crimes he was finally crucified. 
Of whatever else the Christian world can boast, it can hardly claim logic 
and consistency as its chief virtues. 

The fact alone that Peter remained to the last an " apostle of the cir- 
cumcision," speaks for itself. Whosoever else might have built the Church 
of Rome it was not Peter. If such were the case, the successors of this 
apostle would have to submit themselves to circumcision, if it were but 
for the sake of consistency, and to show that the claims of the popes are 
not utterly groundless. Dr. Inman asserts that report says that "in our 
Christian times popes have to be privately perfect," f but we do not know 
whether it is carried to the extent of the Levitical Jewish law. The first 
fifteen Christian bishops of Jerusalem, commencing with James and in- 
cluding Judas, were all circumcised Jews. \ 

* " Supernatural Religion," vol. ii., p. 489. 

\ " Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism," p. 28. 

% See Eusebius, " E\. H,," bk. iv., ch. v. ; " Sulpicius Severus," vol. ii., p. 31. 


In the Sepher Toldos Jeshu* a Hebrew manuscript of great anti- 
quity, the version about Peter is different. Simon Peter, it says, was one 
of their own brethren, though he had somewhat departed from the laws, 
and the Jewish hatred and persecution of the apostle seems to have 
existed but in the fecund imagination of the fathers. The author speaks 
of him with great respect and fairness, calling him '= a faithful servant of 
the living God," who passed his life in austerity and meditation, "living 
in Babylon at the summit of a tower," composing hymns, and preaching 
charity. He adds that Peter always recommended to the Christians not 
to molest the Jews, but as soon as he was dead, behold another preacher 
went to Rome and pretended that Simon Peter had altered the teachings 
of his master. He invented a burning hell and threatened every one 
with it ; promised miracles, but worked none. 

How much there is in the above of fiction and how much of truth, it 
is for others to decide ; but it certainly bears more the evidence of sin- 
cerity and fact on its face, than the fables concocted by the fathers to 
answer their end. 

We may the mot'e readily credit this friendship between Peter and his 
late co-religionists as we find in Theodoret the following assertion : " The 
Nazarenes are Jews, honoring the anointed (Jesus) as a juit tnan and 
using the Evangel according to Peter." f Peter was a Nazarene, accord- 
ing to the Talmud. He belonged to the sect of the later Nazarenes, 
which dissented from the followers of John the Baptist, and became a 
rival sect ; and which — as tradition goes — was instituted by Jesus himself 

History finds the first Christian sects to have been either Nazarenes like 
John the Baptist ; or Ebionites, among whom were many of the relatives 
of Jesus ; or Essenes (lessaens) the Therapeutfe, healers, of which the 
Nazaria were a branch. All these sects, which only in the days of Ire- 
njeus began to be considered heretical, were more or less kabalistic. 
They believed in the expulsion of demons by magical incantations, and 
practiced this method; Jervis terms the Nabatheans and other such sects 
" wandering Jewish exorcists," | the Arabic word Naba, meaning to wan- 
der, and the Hebrew saj naba, to prophesy. The Talmud indiscrimi- 

* It appears that the Jews attribute a very high antiquity to " Sepher Toldos 
Jeshu," It was mentioned for the first time by Martin, about the beginning of the 
thirteenth century, for the Talmudists took great care to conceal it from the Christians. 
Levi says that Porchetus Salvaticus published some portions of it, which were used by 
Luther (see vol. viii. , Jena Ed.). The Hebrew text, which was missing, was at last 
found by Miinster and Buxtorf, and published in i6Si, by Christopher Wagenseilius, 
in Nuremberg, and in Frankfort, in a collection entitled " Tela Ignea Satanse," or 
The Burning Darts of Satan (" See Levi's Science des Esprits"). 

f Theodoret : " Heretic. Fab.," lib. ii., ii. 

\ Jervis W. Jervis : " Genesis," p. 324. 


nately calls all the Christians Nozari. * All the Gnostic sects equally 
believed in magic. Irenseus, in describing the followers of Basilides, 
says, '■' They use images, invocations, incantations, and all other things 
pertaining unto magic." Dunlap, on the authority of Lightfoot, shows 
that Jesus was called Nazaraios, in reference to his humble and mean 
external condition; "for Nazaraios means separation, alienation from 
other men." f 

The real meaning of the word nazar -its. signifies to vow or conse- 
crate one's self to the service of God. As a noun it is a diadem or 
emblem of such consecration, a head so consecrated. \ Joseph was 
styled a nazar. § " The head of Joseph, the vertex of the nazar among 
his brethren." Samson and Samuel (iibmb ^n-ib-j; Semes-on and Sem- 
va-el) are described alike as nazars. Porphyry, treating of Pythagoras, 
says that he was purified and initiated at Babylon by Zar-adas, the head 
of the sacred college. May it not be surmised, therefore, that the Zoro- 
Aster was the nazar of Ishtar, Zar-adas or Na-Zar-Ad, || being the same 
with change of idiom ? Ezra, or x-ity, was a priest and scribe, a hiero- 
phant ; and the first Hebrew colonizer of Judea wsfs V^aiit Zeru-Babel 
or the Zoro or nazar of Babylon. 

The Jewish Scriptures indicate two distinct worships and religions 
among the Israelites; that of Bacchus-worship under the mask of Jeho- 
vah, and that of the Chaldean initiates to whom belonged some of the 
nazars, the theurgists, and a few of the prophets. The headquarters of 
these were always at Babylon and Chaldea, where two rival schools of 
Magians can be distinctly shown. Those who would doubt the state- 
ment will have in such a case to account for the discrepancy between 
history and Plato, who of all men of his day was certainly one of the 
best informed? Speaking of the Magians, he shows them as instructing 
the Persian kings of Zoroaster, as the son or priest of Oromasdes ; and 
yet Darius, in the inscription at Bihistun, boasts of having restored the 
cultus of Ormazd and put down the Magian rites ! Evidently there were 
two distinct and antagonistic Magian schools. The oldest and the most 
esoteric of the two being that which, satisfied with its unassailable knowl- 
edge and secret power, was content to apparently rehnquish her exoteric 
popularity, and concede her supremacy into the hands of the reforming 
Darius. The later Gnostics showed the same prudent policy by accom- 
modating themselves in every country to the prevailing religious forms, 
still secretly adhering to their own essential doctrines. 

* "Lightfoot," 501. f Dunlap : " Sod, the Son of the Man," p. x. 

X Jeremiah vii. 29 : " Cut off thine hair, O Jerusalem, and cast it away, and take 
up a lamentation on high places." 

§ Genesis xlix. 26. | Nazareth ? 


There is another hypothesis possible, which is that Zero-Ishtar was 
the high priest of the Chaldean worship, or Magian hierophant. When 
the Aryans of Persia, under Darius Hystaspes, overthrew the Magian 
Gomates, and restored the Masdean worship, there ensued an amalgama- 
tion by which the Magian Zoro-astar became the Zara-tushra of the 
Vendidad. This was not acceptable to the other Aryans, who adopted 
the Vedic religion as distinguished from that of Avesta. But this is but 
an hypothesis. 

And whatever Moses is now believed to have been, we will demon- 
strate that he was an initiate. The Mosaic rehgion was at best a sun-and 
serpent worship, diluted, perhaps, with some slight monotheistic notions 
before the latter were forcibly crammed into the so-called " inspired Scrip- 
tures " by Ezra, at the time he was alleged to have r^rwritten the Mosaic 
books. At all events the Book of A'umbers was a later book ; and there 
the sun-and-serpent worship is as plainly traceable as in any Pagan story. 
The tale of the fiery serpents is an allegory in more than one sense. 
The " serpents " were the Levites or Ophites, who were Moses' body- 
guard (see Exodus xxxii. 26); and the command of the "Lord" to 
Moses to hang the heads of the people " before the Lord against the 
sun," which is the emblem of this Lord, is unequivocal. 

The nazars or prophets, as well as the Nazarenes, were an anti- 
Bacchus caste, in so far that, in common with all the initiated prophets, 
they held to the spirit of the symbolical religions and offered a strong 
opposition to the idolatrous and exoteric practices of the dead letter. 
Hence, the frequent stoning of the prophets by the populace and under 
the leadership of those priests who made a profitable living out of the 
popular superstitions. Otfried Miiller shows how much the Orphic Mys- 
teries differed from the foprilar rites of Bacchus,* although the Orphikoi 
are known to have followed the worship of Bacchus. The system of the 
purest morality and Of a severe asceticism promulgated in the teachings 
of Orpheus, and so strictly adhered to by his votaries, are incompatible 
with the lasciviousness and gross immorality of the popular rites. The 
fable of Aristceus pursuing Eurydike into the woods where a serpent occa- 
sions her death, is a very plain allegory, which was in part explained at 
the earliest times. Aristseus is brutal power, pursuing Eurydike, the 
esoteric doctrine, into the woods where the serpent (emblem of every 
sun-god, and worshipped under its grosser aspect even by the Jews) 
kills her ; i.e., forces truth to become still more esoteric, and seek 
shelter in the Underworld, which is not the hell of our theologians. 
Moreover, the fate of Orpheus, torn to pieces by the Bacchantes, is 

* Otfried Miiller : " Historical Greek Literature," pp. 230-240. 


another allegory to show that the gross and popular rites are always 
more welcome than divine but simple truth, and proves the great diflfer- 
ence that must have existed between the esoteric and the popular wor- 
ship. As the poems of both Orpheus and Musfeus were said to have been 
lost since the earliest ages, so that neither Plato nor Aristotle recognized 
anything authentic in the poems extant in their time, it is difficult to say with 
precision what constituted their peculiar rites. Still we have the oral tra- 
dition, and every infei^ence to draw therefrom ; and this tradition points to 
Orpheus as having brought his doctrines from India. As one whose 
religion was that of the oldest Magians — hence, that to which belonged 
the initiates of all countries, beginning with Moses, the " sons of the 
Prophets," and the ascetic nazars (who must not be confounded with 
those against whom thundered Hosea and other prophets) to the Essenes. 
This latter sect were Pythagoreans before they rather degenerated, than 
became perfected in their system by the Buddhist missionaries, whom 
Pliny tells us established themselves on the shores of the Dead Sea, ages 
before his time, '■'■per sceculorum millia." But if, on the one hand, these 
Buddhist monks were the first to establish monastic communities and in- 
culcate the strict observance of dogmatic conventual rule, on the other 
they were also the first to enforce and popularize those stern virtues so 
exemplified by Sakya-muni, and which were previously exercised only in 
isolated cases of well-known philosophers and their followers ; virtues 
preached two or three centuries later by Jesus, practiced by a few Chris- 
tian ascetics, and gradually abandoned, and even entirely forgotten by 
the Christian Church. 

The initiated nazars had ever held to this rule, which had to be fol- 
lowed before them by the adepts of every age ; and the disciples of 
John were but a dissenting branch of the Essenes. Therefore, we cannot 
well confound them with all the nazars spoken of in the Old Testament, 
and who are accused by Hosea with having separated or consecrated 
themselves to Bosheth n»2 (see Hebrew text) ; which implied the great- 
est possible abomination. To infer, as some critics and theologians do, 
that it means to separate one's self to chastity or continence, is either to 
advisedly pervert the true meaning, or to be totally ignorant of the 
Hebrew language. The eleventh verse of the first chapter of Micah 
half explains the word in its veiled translation : " Pass ye away, thou 
inhabitant of Saphir, etc.," and in the original text the word is Bosheth. 
Certainly neither Baal, nor lahoh Kadosh, with his Kadeshim, was a god 
of ascetic virtue, albeit the Septuaginia terms them, as well as the galli 
— the perfected priests — TereXeo-yuti-ous, the initiated and the consecrated.* 

See " Movers," p. 6S3. 


The great Sod of the Kadeshim, translated in Psalm Ixxxix. 7, by 
"assembly of the saints," was anything but a mystery of tl^^e '■'■sancti- 
fied" in the sense given to the latter word by Webster. 

The Nazireate sect existed long before the laws of Moses, and origin- 
ated among people most inimical to the "cliosen" ones of Israel, viz., 
the people of Galilee, the ancient oUa-podrida of idolatrous nations, 
where was built Nazara, the present Nazareth. It is in Nazara that the 
ancient Nazori'a or Nazireates held their " Mysteries of Life " or " assem- 
blies," as the word now stands in the translation,* which were but the 
secret mysteries of initiation, f utterly distinct in their practical form 
from the popular M\steries which were held at Byblus in honor of Adonis. 
While the true initiates of the ostracised Galilee were worshipping the 
true God and enjoying transcendent visions, what were the "chosen" 
ones about ? Ezekiel tells it to us (chap, viii) when, in describing what 
he saw, he says that the form of a hand took him by a lock of his head 
and transported him from Chaldea unto Jerusalem. "And there stood 
seventy men of the senators of the house of Israel. . . . ' Son of man, 
hast thou seen what the ancients ... do in the dark ? ' " inquires the 
" Lord." " At the door of the house of the Lord . . . behold there sat 
women weeping for Taiiimuz " (Adonis). We really cannot suppose that 
the Pagans have ever surpassed the " chosen" people in certain shameful 
abominations of which their own prophets accuse them so profusely. To 
admit this truth, one hardly needs even to be a Hebrew scholar ; let him 
read the Bible in English and meditate over the language of the " holy" 

This accounts for the hatred of the later Nazarenes for the orthodox 
Jews — followers of the exoteric Mosaic Law — who are ever taunted by 
this sect with being the worshippers of lurbo-Adunai, or Lord Bacchus. 
Passing under the disguise of Adoni-Iaclwh (original text, Isaiah Ixi. i), 
lahoh and Lord Sabaoth, the Baal-Adonis, or Bacchus, worshipped in 
the groves and public sods or Mysteries, under the poUshing hand of Ezra 
becomes finally the later-vowelled Adonai of the Massorah — the One 
and Supreme God of the Christians ! 

" Thou shalt not worship the Sun who is named Adunai, says the 
Codex of the Nazarenes ; whose name is also Kadush \ and El-El. This 
Adunai will elect to himself a nation and congregate in crowds (his wor- 
ship will be exoteric) . . . Jerusalem will become the refuge and city of 
the Abortive, who shall perfect themselves (circumcise) with a sword 
. . . and shall adore Adunai." § 

* " Codex Nazarasus," ii., 305. f See Lucian : " De Syria Dea." 

^:See Psalm Lxx.xix. 18. § " Codex Nazarxus," i. 47. 


The oldest Nazarenes, who were the descendants of the Scripture 
iiazars, and whose last prominent leader was John the Baptist, although 
never very orthodox in the sight of the scribes and Pharisees of Jerusalem 
were, nevertheless, respected and left unmolested. Even Herod '-feared 
the multitude " because they regarded John as a prophet {Matthew xiv. 
5). But the followers of Jesus evidently adhered to a sect which became 
a still more exasperating thorn in their side. It appeared as a heresy 
within another heresy ; for while the nazars of the olden times, the 
" Sons of the Prophets," were Chaldean kabalists, the adepts of the new 
dissenting sect showed themselves reformers and innovators from the 
first. The great similitude traced by some critics between the rites and 
observances of the earliest Christians and those of the Essenes may be 
accounted for without the slightest difficulty. The Essenes, as we re- 
marked just now, were the converts of Buddhist missionaries who had 
overrun Egypt, Greece, and even Judea at one time, since the reign of 
Asoka the zealous propagandist ; and while it is evidently to the Essenes 
that belongs the honor of having had the Nazarene reformer, Jesus, as 
a pupil, still the latter is found disagreeing with his early teachers on 
several questions of formal observance. He cannot strictly be called 
an Essene, for reasons which we will indicate further on, neither was he 
a nazar, or Nazaria of the older sect. What Jesus was, may be found in 
the Codex Nazarizus, in the unjust accusations of the Bardesanian Gnos- 

" Jesu is Nebu, the false Messiah, the destroyer of the old orthodox 
religion," says the Codex. * He is the founder of the sect of the new 
nazars, and, as the words clearly imply, a follower of the Buddhist 
doctrine. In Hebrew the word naba ttas means to speak of inspiration ; 
and las is nebo, a god of wisdom. But Nebo is also Mercury, and Mer- 
cury is Buddha in the Hindu monogram of planets. Moreover, we find 
the Talmudists holding that Jesus was inspired by the genius of Mer- 
cury, f 

The Nazarene reformer had undoubtedly belonged to one of these 
sects ; though, perhaps, it would be next to impossible to decide 
absolutely which. But what is self-evident is that he preached the 
philosophy of Buddha-Sakyamfini. Denounced by the later prophets, 
cursed by the Sanhedrim, the nazars — they were confounded with others 
of that name " who separated themselves unto that shame," J they were 
secretly, if not openly persecuted by the orthodox synagogue. It be- 

* Ibid. ; Norberg : " Onomasticon," 74. 

f Alph. de Spire : " Fortalicium Fidei," ii., 2. 

\ Hosea ix. 10. 


comes clear why Jesus was treated with such contempt from the first, 
and deprecatingly called " the Galilean." Nathaniel inquires — " Can 
tliere any good thing come out of Nazareth ? " {John i. 46) at the very 
beginning of his career ; and merely because he knows him to be a 
nazar. Does not this clearly hint, that even the older nazars were not 
really Hebrew religionists, but rather a class of Chaldean theurgists ? 
Besides, as the Niw Testament is noted for its mistranslations and trans- 
parent falsifications of texts, we may justly suspect that the word Nazareth 
was substituted for that of nasaria, or nozari. That it originally read 
" Can any good thing come from a nozari, or Nazarene ; " a follower of 
St. John the Baptist, with whom we see him associating from his first 
appearance on the stage of action, after having been lost sight of for a 
period of nearly twenty years. The blunders of the Old Testament ■i.-r^ 
as nothing to those of the gospels. Nothing shows better than these self- 
evident contradictions the system of pious fraud upon which the super- 
structure of the Messiahship rests. "This is Elias which was for to 
come," says Matthew of John the Baptist, thus forcing an ancient kabal- 
istic tradition into the frame of evidence (xi. 14). But when address- 
ing the Baptist himself, they ask him {/ohni. 16), "Art thou Elias?" 
" And he saith lam not / " Which knew best — John or his biographer ? 
And which is divine revelation ? 

The motive of Jesus was evidently like that of Gautama-Buddha, to 
benefit humanity at large by producing a religious reform which should 
give it a religion of pure ethics ; the true knowledge of God and nature 
having remained until then solely in the hands of the esoteric sects, and 
their adepts. As Jesus used oil and the Essenes never used aught but 
pure water,* he cannot be called a strict Essene. On the other hand, 
the Essenes were also " set apart ;" they were healers {assaya) and dwelt 
in the desert as all ascetics did. 

But although he did not abstain from wine he could have remained a 
Nazarene all the same. For in chapter vi. of Numbers, we see that 
after the priest has waved a part of the hair of a Nazorite for a wave- 
offering before the Lord," "after that a Nazarene may drink wine" 
(v. 20). The bitter denunciation by the reformer of the people who 
would be satisfied with nothing is worded in the following exclamation : 
"John came neither eating nor drinking and they say: 'He hath a 
devil.' . . . The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say : 
' Behold a man gluttonous and a wine-bibber.' " And yet he was an Essene 
and Nazarene, for we not only find him sending a message to Herod, to 
say that he was one of those who cast out demons, and who performed 

* " The Essenes considered oil as a defilement," says Josephus: " Wars," ii., p. 7. 


cures, but actually calling himself a prophet and declaring himself equal 
to the other prophets. * 

The author of Sod shows Matthew trying to connect the appella- 
tion of Nazarene with a prophecy, f and inquires " Why then does 
Matthew state that the prophet said he should be called NazariaV 
Simply "because he belonged to that sect, and a prophecy would con- 
firm his claims to the Messiahship. . . . Now it does not appear that 
the prophets anywhere state that the Messiah will be called a Nazarene:'\ 
The fact alone that Matthew tries in the last verse of chapter ii. to 
strengthen his claim that Jesus dwelt in Nazareth merely to fulfil a 
prophecy, does more than weaken the argument, it upsets it entirely ; for 
the first two chapters have sufficiently been proved later forgeries. 

Baptism is one of the oldest rites and was practiced by all the nations 
in their Mysteries, as sacred ablutions. Dunlap seems to derive the 
name of the nazars from nazah, sprinkling ; Bahak-Zivo is the genius 
who called the world into existence § out of the " dark water," say the 
Nazarenes ; and Richardson's Persian, Arabic, and English Lexicon 
asserts that the word Bahak means "raining." But the Bahak-Zivo of 
the Nazarenes cannot be traced so easily to Bacchus, who " was the 
rain-god," for the nazars were the greatest opponents of Bacchus-wor- 
ship. " Bacchus is brought up by the Hyades, the rain-nymphs," says 
Preller ; || who shows, furthermore, that f at the conclusion of the religious 
Mysteries, the priests baptized (washed) their monuments and anointed 
them with oil. All this is but a very indirect proof. The Jordan bap- 
tism need not be shown a substitution for tlie exoteric Bacchic rites and 
the libations in honor of Adonis or Adoni — whom the Nazarenes abhorred 
— in order to prove it to have been a sect sprung from the " Mysteries" 
of the " Secret Doctrine ; " and their rites can by no means be con- 
founded with those of the Pagan populace, who had simply fallen into the 
idolatrous and unreasoning faith of all plebeian multitudes. John was the 
prophet of these Nazarenes, and in Galilee he was termed "the Saviour," 
but he was not the founder of that sect which derived its tradition from 
the remotest Chaldeo-Akkadian theurgy. 

" The early plebeian Israelites were Canaanites and Phoenicians, with 

* Luke xiii. 32. 

f Matthew ii. We must bear in mind that the Gospel according to Matthew in 
the New Testament is not the original Gospel of the apostle of that name. The au- 
thentic Evangel was for centuries in the possession of the Nazarenes and the Ebionites, 
as we show further on the admission of St. Jerome himself, who confesses that he had 
to ask permission of the Nazarenes to translate it. 

X Dunlap : " Sod, the Son of the Man." § " Codex Nazarceus," vol. ii., p. 233. 

II Preller : vol. i., p. 415. •[ Ibid., vol. i., p. 490. 


the same worship of the Phallic gods — Bacchus, Baal or Adon, lacchos 
— lao or Jehovah ; " but even among them there had always been a 
class of initiated adepts. Later, the character of this plebe was modified 
by Assyrian conquests ; and, finally, the Persian colonizations superim- 
posed the Pharisean and Eastern ideas and usages, from which the Old 
Testament and the Mosaic institutes were derived. The Asmonean 
priest-kings promulgated the canon of the Old Testament in contradis- 
tinction to the Apocrypha or Secret Books of the Alexandrian Jews — 
kabalists.* Till John Hyrcanus they were Asideans (Chasidim) and 
Pharisees (Parsees), but then they became Sadducees or Zadokites — as- 
serters of sacerdotal rule as contradistinguished from rabbinical. The 
Pharisees were lenient and intellectual, the Sadducees, bigoted and cruel. 

Says the Codex: "John, son of the AbaSaba-Zacharia, conceived 
by his mother Anasabet in her hundredth year, had baptized for /i?;Yj'-/wf 
years \ when Jesu Messias came to the Jordan to be baptized with John's 
baptism. . . . But \l& ^'\}1 pervert John! s doctrine, (ihzx\^'^<g the baptism 
of the Jordan, and perverting the sayings of justice." \ 

The baptism was changed from water to that of the Holy Ghost, un- 
doubtedly in consequence of the ever-dominant idea of the Fathers to 
institute a reform, and make the Christians distinct from St. John's 
Nazarenes, the Nabatheans and Ebionites, in order to make room for 
new dogmas. Not only do the Synoptics tell us that Jesus was baptizing 
the same as John, but John's own disciples complained of it, though surely 
Jesus cannot be accused of following a purely Bacchic rite. The paren- 
thesis in verse 2d of John iv., "... though Jesus himself baptized not," 
is so clumsy as to show upon its face that it is an interpolation. 
Matthew makes John say that he that should come after him would not 
baptize them with water "but with the Holy Ghost and fire." Mark, 
Luke, and John corroborate these words. Water, fire, and spirit, or Holy 
Ghost, have all their origin in India, as we will show. 

* The word Apocrypha was very erroneously adopted as doubtful and spurious. 
The word means hidden and secret ; but that which is secret may be often more true 
than that which is revealed. 

f The statement, if reliable, would show that Jesus was between fifty and sixty years 
old when baptized ; for the Gospels make him but a few months younger than John. 
The kabalists say that Jesus was over forty years old when first appearing at the gates 
of Jerusalem. The present copy of the *' Codex Nazar^us " is dated in the year 1042, 
but Dunlap finds in Irenceus (2d century) quotations from and ample references to this 
book. " The basis of the material common to Irenceus and the '' Codex Nazarasus" 
must be at least as early as the first century," says the author in his preface to " Sod, 
the Son of the Man," p. i. 

X " Codex Nazarseus," vol. i., p. 109; Dunlap: Ibid., xxiv. 


Now there is one very strange peculiarity about this sentence. It is 
flatly denied in Acts xix. 2-5. ApoUos, a Jew of Alexandria, belonged 
to the sect of St. John's disciples ; he had been baptized, and instructf;d 
others in the doctrines of the Baptist. And yet when Paul, cleverly 
profiting by his absence at Corinth, finds certain disciples of Apollos' 
at Ephesus, and asks them whether they received the Holy Ghost, 
he is naively answered, " We have not so much as heard whether 
there be any Holy Ghost ! " "Unto what then were you baptized?" 
he inquires. '■'■ Unto John' s baptisjn" they say. Then Paul is made to 
repeat the words attributed to John by the Synoptics ; and these men 
" were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus," exhibiting, moreover, 
at the same instant, the usual polyglot gift which accompanies the descent 
of the Holy Ghost. 

How then ? St. John the Baptist, who is called the " precursor," that 
" the prophecy might be fulfilled," the great prophet and martyr, 
whose words ought to have had such an importance in the eyes of his 
disciples, announces the " Holy Ghost " to his listeners ; causes crowds 
to assemble on the shores of the Jordan, where, at the great ceremony 
of Christ's baptism, the promised "Holy Ghost" appears within the 
opened heavens, and the multitude hears the voice, and yet there are 
disciples of St. John who have " never so much as heard whether there be 
any Holy Ghost ! " 

Verily the disciples who wrote the Codex Nazarmtcs were right. Only 
it is not Jesus himself, but those who came after him, and who concocted 
the Bible to suit themselves, that '■'■perverted John's doctrine, changed 
the baptism of the Jordan, and perverted the sayings of justice." 

It is useless to object that the present Codex was written centuries 
after the direct apostles of John preached. So were our Gospels. When 
this astounding interview of Paul with the " Baptists" took place, Barde- 
sanes had not yet appeared among them, and the sect was not considered 
a " heresy." Moreover, we are enabled to judge how little St. John's 
promise of the "Holy Ghost," and the appearance of the "Ghost" him- 
self, had affected his disciples, by the displeasure shown by them toward the 
disciples of Jesus, and the kind of rivalry manifested from the first. Nav, 
so httle is John himself sure of the identity of Jesus with the expected 
Messiah, that after the famous scene of the baptism at the Jordan, and the 
oral assurance by the Holy Ghost Himself that " This is my beloved Son" 
{MattheTv iii. 17), we find "the Precursor," in Matthew xi., sending 
two of his disciples from his prison to inquire of Jesus : " Art thou he 
that should come, or do we look for another ! ! " 

This flagrant contradiction alone ought to have long ago satisfied 
reasonable minds as to the putative divine inspiration of the A'ew Testa- 


inent. But we may offer another question : If baptism is the sign of 
regeneration, and an ordinance instituted by Jesus, why do not Christians 
now baptize as Jesus is here represented as doing, " with the Holy Ghost 
and with fire," instead of following the custom of the Nazarenes? In 
making these palpable interpolations, what possible motive could Irenseus 
have had except to cause people to believe that the appellation of Naza- 
rene, which Jesus bore, came only from his father's residence at Nazareth, 
and not from his affihation with the sect of Nazaria, the healers ? 

This expedient of Irenasus was a most unfortunate one, for from time 
immemorial the prophets of old had been thundering against the baptism 
of fire as practiced by their neighbors, which imparted the "spirit of 
prophecy," or the Holy Ghost. But the case was desperate ; the Christians 
were universally called Nazoreens and lessaens (according to Epiphanius), 
and Christ simply ranked as a Jewish prophet and healer — so self styled, 
so accepted by his own disciples, and so regarded by their followers. In 
such a state of things there was no room for either a new hierarchy or a 
new God-head; and since Irenseus had undertaken the business of man- 
ufacturing both, he had to put together such materials as were available, 
and fill the gaps with his own fertile inventions. 

To assure ourselves that Jesus was a true Nazarene — albeit with ideas 
of a new reform — we must not search for the proof in the translated 
Gospels, but in such original versions as are accessible. Tischendorf, 
ill his translation from the Greek o{ Luke'w. 34, has it " lesou Nazarene ;" 
and in the Syriac it reads " lasoua, thou Nazaria." Thus, if we take in 
account all that is puzzling and incomprehensible in the four Gospels, 
revised and corrected as they now stand, we shall easily see for ourselves 
that the true, original Christianity, such as was preached by Jesus, is to 
be found only in the so-called Syrian heresies. Only from them can we 
extract any clear notions about what was primitive Christianity. 
Such was the faith of Paul, when Tertullus the orator accused the apostle 
before the governor Felix. What he complained of was that they had 
found " that man a mover of sedition ... a ringleader of the sect of the 
Nazarenes ;" * and, while Paul denies every other accusation, he con- 
fesses that " after the way which they call heresy, so worship I the God of 
my fathers." f This confession is a whole revelation. It shows : i, 
that Paul admitted belonging to the sect of the Nazarenes ; 2, that he 
worshipped the God of his fathers, not the trinitarian Christian God, of 
whom he knows nothing, and who was not invented until after his death; 
and, 3, that this unlucky confession satisfactorily explains why the \.xe.2^- 
im, Acts of the Apostles, together with John's Hevelation, vihich atone 

* Acts xxiv. 5. \ Ibid., 14. 


period was utterly rejected, were kept out of the canon of the New Testa- 
ment for such a length of tmie. 

At Byblos, the neophytes as well as the hierophants were, after par- 
ticipating in the Mysteries, obliged to fast and remain in solitude for 
some time. There was strict fasting and preparation before as well as 
after the Bacchic, Adonian, and Eleusinian orgies ; and Herodotus hints, 
with fear and veneration about the lake of Bacchus, in which " they 
(the priests) made at night exhibitions of his life and sufferings."* In 
the Mithraic sacrifices, during the initiation, a preHminary scene of death 
was simulated by the neophyte, and it preceded the scene showing him 
himself " being born again by the rite of baptism:' A portion of tiiis 
ceremony is still enacted in the present day by the Masons, when the 
neophyte, as the Grand Master Hiram Abiff, hes dead, and is raised by 
the strong grip of the Hon's paw. 

The priests were circumcised. The neophyte could not be initiated 
without having been present at the solemn Mysteries of the Take. 
The Nazarenes were baptized in the Jordan ; and could not be baptized 
elsewhere ; they were also circumcised, and had to fast before as well as 
after the purification by baptism. Jesus is said to have fasted in the 
wilderness for forty days, immediately after his baptism. To the present 
day, there is outside every temple in India, a lake, stream, or a reservoir 
full of holy water, in which the Brahmans and the Hindu devotees bathe 
daily. Such places of consecrated water are necessary to every temple. 
The bathing festivals, or baptismal rites, occur twice every year ; in Octo- 
ber and April. Each lasts ten days ; and, as in ancient Egypt and Greece, 
the statues of their gods, goddesses, and idols are immersed in water 
by the priests ; the object of the ceremony being to wash away from 
them the sins of their worshippers which they have taken upon them- 
selves, and which pollute them, until washed off by holy water. 
During the Aratty, the bathing ceremony, the principal god of every 
temple is carried in solemn procession to be baptized in the sea. The 
Brahman priests, carrying the sacred images, are followed generally by 
the Maharajah — barefoot, and nearly naked. Three times the priests 
enter the sea ; the third time they carry with them the whole of the 
images. Holding them up with prayers repeated by the whole congre- 
gation, the Chief Priest plunges the statues of the gods thrice in the 
name of the mystic trinity, into the water ; after which they are purified.f 
The Orphic hymn calls water the greatest purifier of men and gods. 

* *' Herodotus," U. , p. 170. 

f Tlie Hindu High Pontiff — the Chief of the Namburis, who lives in the Cochin 
Land, is generally present during these festivals of "Holy Water" immersions. lie 
travels sometimes to very great distances to preside over the ceremony. 


Our Nazarene sect is known to have existed some 150 years B.C., 
and to have lived on the banks of the Jordan, and on the eastern shore 
of the Dead Sea, according to Phny and Josephus. * But in King's 
Gnostics, we find quoted another statement by Josephus from verse 13, 
which says that the Essenes had been established on the shores of 
the Dead Sea "for thousands of ages" before Pliny's time, f 

According to Munk the term " Galilean " is nearly synonymous with 
that of " Nazarene ; " furthermore, he shows the relations of the former 
with the Gentiles as very intimate. The populace had probably grad- 
ualVy adopted, in their constant intercourse, certain rites and modes of 
worship of the Pagans ; and the scorn with which the Galileans were 
regarded by the orthodox Jews is attributed by him to the same cause. 
Their friendly relations had certainly led them, at a later period, to 
adopt the " Adonia," or the sacred rites over the body of the lamented 
Adonis, as we find Jerome fairly lamenting this circumstance. " Over 
Bethlehem," he says, " the grove of Tharamuz, that is of Adonis, was 
casting its shadow ! And in the groito where formerly the infant Jesus 
cried, the lover of Venus was being mourned." \ 

Mt was after the rebellion of Bar Cochba, that the Roman Emperor 
estabhshed the Mysteries of Adonis at the Sacred Cave in Bethlehem ; 
and who knows but this was the petra or rock-temple on which the 
church was built ? The Boar of Adonis was placed above the gate of 
Jerusalem which looked toward Bethlehem. 

Munk says that the " Nazireate was an institution established before 
the laws of Musah. " § This is evident ; as we find this sect not only 
mentioned but minutely described in Numbers (chap. vi.). In the 
commandment given in this chapter to Moses by the " Lord," it is easy 
to recognize the rites and laws of the Priests of Adonis. || The absti- 
nence and purity strictly prescribed in both sects are identical. Both 

* " Ant. Jud. ," xiii., p. g ; xv., p. 10. 

f King thinks it a great exaggeration and is inclined to believe that these Essenes, 
who were most undoubtedly Buddhist monks, were " merely a continuation of the 
associations known as Sons of the Prophets." " The Gnostics and their Remains," 
p. 22. 

I St. Jerome: "Epistles," p. 49 (ad. Poulmam) ; see Dunlap's "Spirit-His- 
tory," p. 218. 

§ ■' Munk," p. 169. 

I Bacchus and Ceres — or the mystical Wine and Bread, used during the Mysteries, 
become, in the " Adonia," Adonis and Venus. Movers shows that " lao is Bacchus," 
p. 550; and his authority is Lydics de Mens (^S-J^) ; " Spir. Hist.," p. 195. /an 
is a Sun-god and the Jewish Jehovah ; the intellectual or Central Sun of the kabal- 
ists. See Julian in Proclus. But this " lao" is not the Mystery-god. 


allowed their hair to grow long * as the Hindu ccenobites and fakirs do 
to this day, while other castes shave their hair and abstain on certain 
days from wine. The prophet Elijah, a Nazarene, is described in 2 
Kings, and by Josephus as " a hairy man girt wit4i a girdle of leather." f 
And John the Baptist and Jesus are both represented as wearing very 
long hair. \ John is " clothed with camel's hair" and wearing a girdle 
of hide, and Jesus in a long garment "without any seams" . . . "and 
very white, like snow," says Mark ; the very dress worn by the Nazarene 
Priests and the Pythagorean and Buddhist Essenes, as described by 

If we carefully trace the terms nazar, and nazaret, throughout the 
best known works of ancient writers, we will meet them in connection 
with "Pagan" as well as Jewish adepts. Thus, Alexander Polyhistor 
says of Pythagoras that he was a disciple of the Assyrian Nazaret, whom 
some suppose to be Ezekiel. Diogenes Laertius states most positively 
that Pythagoras, after being initiated into all the Mysteries of the Greeks 
and barbarians, " went into Egypt and afterward visited the Chaldeans 
and Magi ; " and Apuleius maintains that it was Zoroaster who instructed 

Were we to suggest that the Hebrew nazars, the railing prophets of 
the " Lord," had been initiated into the so-called Pagan mysteries, and 
belonged (or at least a majority of them) to the same Lodge or circle of 
adepts as those who were considered idolaters ; that their " circle of 
prophets " was but a collateral branch of a secret association, which we 
may well term " international," what a visitation of Christian wrath would 
we not incur ! And still, the case looks strangely suspicious. 

Let us first recall to our mind that which Ammianus Marcellinus, and 
other historians relate of Darius Hystaspes. The latter, penetrating into 
Upper India (Bactriana), learned pure rites, and stellar and cosniical 
sciences from Brachmans, and communicated them to the Magi. Now 
Hystaspes is shown in history to have crushed the Magi ; and intro- 
duced — or rather forced upon them — the pure religion of Zoroaster, that 
of Ormazd. How is it, then, that an inscription is found on the tomb 

* Josephus: "Ant. Jud.," iv., p. 4. 

flbid. , ix. ; 2 Kings, i. 8. 

X In relation to the well-known fact of Jesus wearing his hair long, and being always 
so represented, it becomes quite startling to find how little the unknown Editor of the 
" Acts " knew about the Apostle Paul, since he makes him say in i Corinthians xi. 14, 
" Doth not Nature itself teach you, that if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto 
Aim ? " Certainly Paul could never have said such a thing ! Therefore, if the pas- 
sage is genuine, Paul knew nothing of the prophet whose doctrines he had embraced 
and for which he died ; and if false — how much more reliable is what remains ? 


of Darius, stating that he was " teacher and hierophant of magic, or 
magianism ? " Evidently there must be some historical mistake, and 
history confesses it. In this imbroglio of names, Zoroaster, the teacher 
and instructor of Pythagoras, can be neither the Zoroaster nor Zarathustra 
who instituted sun-worship among the Parsees ; nor he who appeared at 
the court of Gushtasp (Hystaspes) the alleged father of Darius; nor, 
again, the Zoroaster who placed his magi above the kings themselves. 
The oldest Zoroastrian scripture — the Avesta — does not betray the 
slightest traces of the reformer having ever been acquainted with any of 
the nations that subsequently adopted his mode of worship. He seems 
utterly ignorant of the neighbors of Western Iran, the Medes, the Assyri- 
ans, the Persians, and others. If we had no other evidences of the great 
antiquity of the Zoroastrian religion than the discovery of the blunder 
committed by some scholars in our own century, who regarded King 
Vistaspa (Gushtasp) as identical with the father of Darius, whereas the 
Persian tradition points directly to Vistaspa as to the last of the line of 
Kaianian princes who ruled in Bactriana, it ought to be enough, for the 
Assyrian conquest of Bactriana took place 1,200 years B.C.* 

Therefore, it is but natural that we should see in the appellation of 
Zoroaster not a name but a generic term, whose significance must be left 
to philologists to agree upon. Guru, in Sanscrit, is a spiritual teacher ; 
and as Zuruastara means in the same language he who worships the sun, 
why is it impossible, that by some natm-al change of language, due to the 
great number of different nations which were converted to the sun 
worship, the word guru-astara, the spiritual teacher of sun-worship, so 
closely resembling the name of the founder of this religion, became grad- 
ually transformed in its primal form of Zuryastara or Zoroaster ? The 
opinion of the kabalists is that there was but one Zarathustra and many 
guruastars or spiritual teachers, and that one such o'?/r«, or rather huru- 
aster, as he is called in the old manuscripts, was the instructor of Pythag- 
oras. To philology and our readers we leave the explanation for what it 
is worth. Personally we believe in it, as we credit on this subject kab- 
alistic tradition far more than the explanation of scientists, no two of 
whom have been able to agree up to the present year. 

Aristotle states that Zoroaster lived 6,000 years before Christ ; Her- 
mippus of Alexandria, who is said to have read the genuine books of the 
Zoroastrians, although Alexander the Great is accused of having destroyed 

* Max Miiller has sufficiently proved the case in his lecture on the " Zend-Avesta." 
He calls Gushtasp "the mythical pupil of Zoroaster." Mythical, perhaps, only be- 
cause the period in which he lived and learned with Zoroaster is too remote to allow 
our modern science to speculate upon it with any certainty. 


them, shows Zoroaster as the pupil of Azonak (Azon-ach, or the Azon- 
God) and as having lived 5,000 years before the fall of Troy. Er or Eros, 
whose vision is related by Plato in the Republic, is declared by Clement 
to have been Zordusth. While the Magus who dethroned Cambyses 
was a Mede, and Darius proclaims that he put down the Magian rites to 
establish those of Ormazd, Xanthus of Lydia declares Zoroaster to have 
been the chief of the Magi ! 

Wliich of them is wrong ? or are they all right, and only the modern 
interpreters fail to explain the difference between the Reformer and his 
apostles and followers ? This blundering of our commentators reminds us 
of that of Suetonius, who mistook the Christians for one Christo.s, or 
Crestos, as he spells it, and assured his readers that Claudius banished 
him for the disturbance he made among the Jews. 

Finally, and to return again to the nazars, Zaratus is mentioned by 
Pliny in the following words : " He was Zoroaster and Nazaret." As 
Zoroaster is called princeps of the Magi, and nazar signifies separated or 
consecrated, is it not a Hebrew rendering of mag ? Volney believes so. 
The Persian word Na-zaruan means millions of years, and refers to the 
Chaldean "Ancient of Days." Hence the name of the Nazars or Naza- 
renes, who were consecrated to the service of the Supreme one God, the 
kabalistic En-Soph, or the Ancient of Days, the "Aged of the aged." 

But the word nazar may also be found in India. In Hindustani 
nazar is sight, internal or supernatural vision ; nazar band-i means fas- 
cination, a mesmeric or magical spell ; and nazaran is the word for sight- 
seeing or vision. 

Professor Wilder thinks that as the word Zeruana is nowhere to be 
found in the Avesta, but only in the later Parsi books, it came from the 
Magians, who composed the Persian sacred caste in the Sassan period, 
but were originally Assyrians. " Turan, of the poets," he says, " I con- 
sider to be Aturia, or Assyria ; and that Zohak (Az-dahaka, Dei-okes, or 
Astyages), the Serpent-king, was Assyrian, Median, and Babylonian — 
when those countries were united." 

This opinion does not, however, in the least implicate our statement 
that the secret doctrines of the Magi, of the pre-Vedic Buddhists, of the 
hierophants of the EgyjHian Thoth or Hermes, and of the adepts of what- 
ever age and nationality, including the Chaldean kabahsts and the Jewish 
nazars, were identical from the beginning. When we use the term Bud- 
dhists, we do not mean to imply by it either the exoteric Buddhism insti- 
tuted by the followers of Gautama-Buddha, nor the modern Buddhistic 
religion, but the secret philosophy of Sakyamuni, which in its essence is 
certainly identical with the ancient wisdom-religion of the sanctuary, the 
pre Vedic Brahmanism. The "schism" of Zoroaster, as it is called, is a 


direct proof of it. For it was no schism, strictl)' speaking, but merely a 
partially-public exposition of strictly monotheistic religious truths, hitherto 
taught only in the sanctuaries, and that he had learned from the Brah- 
mans. Zoroaster, the primeval institutor of sun-worship, cannot be called 
the founder of the dualistic system ; neither was he the first to teach the 
unity of God, for he taught but what he had learned himself with the 
Brahmans. And that Zarathustra and his followers, the Zoroastrians, 
" had been settled in India before they immigrated into Persia," is also 
proved by Max Miiller. " That the Zoroastrians and their ancestors 
started from India," he says, " during the Vaidik period, can be proved 
as distinctly as that the inhabitants of Massilia started from Greece. 
. . . Many of the gods of the Zoroastrians come out ... as mere reflec- 
tions and deflections of the primitive and authentic gods of the Veda." * 

If, now, we can prove — and we can do so on the evidence of the 
Kabala and the oldest traditions of the wisdom-religion, the philosophy 
of the -old sanctuaries — that all these gods, whether of the Zoroastrians 
or of the Veda, are but so many personated occult powers of nature, the 
faithful servants of the adepts of secret wisdom — Magic — we are on 
secure ground. 

Thus, whether we say that Kabalisra and Gnosticism proceeded from 
Masdeanism or Zoroastrianism, it is all the same, unless we meant the 
exoteric worship — which we do not. Likewise, and in this sense, we may 
echo King, the author of the Gnostics, and several other archceologists, 
and maintain that both the former proceeded from Buddhism, at once 
the simplest and most satisfying of philosophies, and which resulted 
in one of the purest religions of the world. It is only a matter of chron- 
ology to decide which of these religions, differing but in external form, 
is the oldest, therefore the least adulterated. But even this bears but very 
indirectly, if at all, on the subject we treat of. Already some time before 
our era, the adepts, except in India, had ceased to congregate in large 
communities ; but whether among the Essenes, or the Neo-platonists, or, 
again, among the innumerable struggling sects born but to die, the same 
doctrines, identical in substance and spirit, if not always in form, are 
encountered. By Buddhism, therefore, we mean that religion signifying 
literally the doctrine of wisdom, and which by many ages antedates the 
metaphysical philosophy of Siddhirtha Sakyamuni. 

After nineteen centuries of enforced eliiuinations from the canonical 
books of every sentence which might put the investigator on the true path, 
it has become very difficult to show, to the satisfaction of exact science, 
that the " Pagan " worshippers of Adonis, their neighbors, the Naza- 

♦ Max Miiller : " Zend Avesta," 83. 


renes, and the Pythagorean Essenes, the healing Therapeutes,* the Ebio- 
nites, and other sects, were all, with very slight differences, followers of 
the ancient theurgic Mysteries. And yet by analogy and a close study 
of the hidden sense of their rites and customs, we can trace their kin- 

It was given to a contemporary of Jesus to become the means of 
pointing out to posterity, by his interpretation of the oldest literature of 
Israel, how deeply the kabalistic philosophy agreed in its esoterism with 
that of the profoundest Greek thinkers. This contemporary, an ardent 
disciple of Plato and Aristotle, was Philo Judsus. While explaining the 
Mosaic books according to a purely kabalistic method, he is the famous 
Hebrew writer whom Kingsley calls the Father of New Platonism. 

It is evident that Philo's Therapeutes are a branch of the Essenes. 
Their name indicates it — 'Etrcraroi, Asaya, physician. Hence, the con- 
tradictions, forgeries, and other desperate expedients to reconcile the 
prophecies of the Jewish canon with the Galilean nativity and god- 

Luke, wlio was a physician, is designated in the Syriac texts as 
Asaia, the Essaian or Essene. Josephus and Philo Judaeus have suf- 
ficiently described this sect to leave no doubt in our mind that the Naza- 
rene Reformer, after having received his education in their dwellings in 
the desert, and been duly initiated in the Mysteries, preferred the free 
and independent life of a wandering Nazaria, and so separated or ina- 
zarenized himself from them, thus becoming a travelling Therapeute, a 
Nazaria, a healer. Every Therapeute, before quitting his community, 
had to do the same. Both Jesus and St. John the Baptist preached the 
end of the Age ; f which proves their knowledge of the secret computa- 
tion of the priests and kabalists, who with the chiefs of the Essene com- 
munities alone had the secret of the duration of the cycles. The latter 
were kabalists and theurgists ; " they had their mystic books, and pre- 
dicted future events," says Munk. J 

Diinlap, whose personal researches seem to have been quite success- 
ful in that direction, traces the Essenes, Nazarenes, Dositheans, and some 
other sects as having all existed before Christ : " They rejected pleas- 
ures, despised riches, loved one another, and more than other sects, neg- 

* Philo : " De Vita. Contemp." 

\ Tlie real meaning of the division into ages is esoteric and Buddhistic. So httle 
did the uninitiated Christians understand it that they accepted the words of Jesus liter- 
ally and firmly l^elieved that he meant the end of the world. There had been many 
prophecies about the forthcoming age. Virgil, in the fourth Eclogue, mentions the 
Metatron — a new offspring, with whom the iron age shall end and s. golden one arise. 

X " Palestine," p. 525, et seq. 


lected wedlock, deeming the conquest of the passions to be virtuous," * 
he says. 

These are all virtues preached by Jesus ; and if we are to take the 
gospels as a standard of truth, Christ was a metempsychosist " or i-e-in- 
carnationist — again like these same Essenes, whom we see were Pythag- 
oreans in all their doctrines and habits. lamblichus asserts that the 
Samian philosopher spent a certain time at Carmel with them, f In his 
discourses and sermons, Jesus always spoke in parables and used meta- 
phors with his audience. This habit was again that of the Essenians 
and the Nazarene^ ; the Galileans who dwelt in cities and villages were 
never known to use such allegorical language. Indeed, some of his 
disciples being Galileans as well as himself, felt even surprised to find 
him using with the people such a form of expression. " Why speakest 
thou unto them in parables ? " J they often inquired. " Because, it is 
given unto you to know the j\[ysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to 
them it is not given," was the reply, which was that of an initiate. 
" Therefore, I speak unto them in parables ; because, they seeing, see 
not, and hearing, they hear not, neither do they understand." Moreover, 
we find Jesus expressing his thoughts still clearer — and in sentences 
which are purely Pythagorean — when, during the Sermon on the Mount, 
he says : 

" Give ye not that which is sacred to the dogs, 
Neither cast ye your pearls before swine ; 
Eor the swine will tread them under their feet 
And the dogs will turn and rend you." 

Professor A. Wilder, the editor of Taylor's Eleusinian Mysteries, 
observes " a like disposition on the part of Jesus and Paul to classify 
their doctrines as esoteric and exoteric, the Mysteries of the Kingdom of 
God ' for the apostles,' and ' parables ' for the multitude. ' AVe speak 
wisdom,' says Paul, 'among them that are perfect' (or initiated)." § 

In the Eleusinian and other Mysteries the participants were always 
divided into two classes, the neophytes and the perfect. The former 
were sometimes admitted to the preliminary initiation : the dramatic 
performance of Ceres, or the soul, descending to Hades. | But it was 

* "Sod," vol. ii.. Preface, p. xi. 

\ " Vit. Pythag." Munk derives the name of the lessaiis or Essenes from the Syriac 
Asaya — the healers, or physicians, thus showing their identity with the Egyptian Thera- 
peutae. " Palestine," p. 515. 

X Matthew xiii. 10. 

§ " Eleusinian Mysteries," p. 15. 

1 This descent to Hades signified the inevitable fate of each soul to be united for a 
time with a terrestrial body. This union, or dark prospect for the soul to find itself 


given only to the "perfect" to enjoy and learn the Mysteries of the 
divine Elysium, the celestial abode of the blessed ; this Elysium being 
unquestionably the same as the "Kingdom of Heaven." To contradict 
or reject the above, would be merely to shut one's eyes to the truth. 

The narrative of the Apostle Paul, m his second Epistle to the Cor- 
inthians (xii. 3, 4), has struck several scholars, well versed in the 
descriptions of the mystical rites of tlie initiation given by some 
classics, as alluding most undoubtedly to the final Epopteia* " I knew 
a certain man — whether in body or outside of body, I know not : God 
knoweth — who was rapt into Paradise, and heard things ineffable appijra 
pr^/xara, which it is not lawful for a man to repeat." These words have 
rarely, so far as we know, been regarded by commentators as an 
allusion to the beatific visions of a^n " initiated" seer. But the phrase- 
ology is unequivocal. These things " which it is not lawful to repeat" 
are hinted at in the same words, and the reason for it assigned, is the 
same as that which we find repeatedly expressed by Plato, Proclus, 
lanibHchus, Herodotus, and other classics. "We speak wisdom only 
among them who are perfect," says Paul ; the plain and undeniable 
translation of the sentence being : " We speak of the profounder (or 
final) esoteric doctrines of the Mysteries (which were denominated wis- 
dom) only among them who are initiated." f So in relation to the "man 
who was rapt into Paradise " — and who was evidently Paul himself J— 
the Christian word Paradise having replaced that of Elysium. To 
complete the proof, we might recall the words of Plato, given else- 
where, which show that before an initiate could see the gods in their 
purest light, he had to become liberated horn his body ; i.e., to separate 
his astral soul from it. § Apuleius also describes his initiation into the 
Mysteries in the same way : " I approached the confines of death ; and, 
having trodden on the threshold of Proserpina, returned, having been 
carried through all the elements. In the depths of midnight I saw the 
sun glittering with a splendid light, together with the infernal and super- 
nal gods, and to these divinities approaching, I paid the tribute of de- 
vout adoration." || 

imprisoned within the dark tenement of a body, was considered by all the ancient 
philosophers and is even by the modern Buddhists, as a punishment. 

* " Eleusinian Mysteries," p. 49, foot-note. 

f " The profound or esoteric doctrines of the ancients were denominated wisdom, 
and afterward philosophy, and also the gnosis^or knowledge. They related to the human 
soul, its divine parentage, its supposed degradation from its high estate by becoming 
connected with "generation" or the physical world, its onward progress and restora- 
tion to God by regenerations or . . . transmigrations." Ibid, p. 2, foot-note. 

X Cyril of Jerusalem asserts it. See vi. 10. 

§ " Pha;drus," 64. 1 " The Golden Ass," xL 


Thus, in common with Pythagoras and other hierophant reformers, 
Jesus divided his teachings into exoteric and esoteric. Following 
faithfully the Pythagoreo-Essenean ways, he never sat at a meal without 
saying "grace." "The priest prays before his meal," says Josephus, 
describing the Essenes. Jesus also divided his followers into " neo- 
jihytes," "brethren," and the "perfect," if we may judge by the differ- 
ence he made between them. But his career at least as a public Rabbi, 
was of a too short duration to allow him to estabUsh a regular school of 
his own ; and with the exception, perhaps, of John, it does not seem that 
he had initiated any other apostle. The Gnostic amulets and tahsmans are 
mostly the emblems of the apocalyptic allegories. The " seven vowels" 
are closely related to the " seven seals ; " and the mystic title Abraxas, 
partakes as much of the compositian of Shem Hamphirosh, " the holy 
word" or ineffable name, as the name called : The word of God, that 
" no man kne"v but he himself^' * as John expresses it. 

It would be difficult to escape from the well-adduced proofs that the 
Apocalypse is the production of an initiated kabalist, when this Revelation 
presents whole* passages taken from the Books of Enoch and Daniel, 
which latter is in itself an abridged imitation of the former ; and when, 
furthermore, we ascertain that the Ophite Gnostics who rejected the Old- 
Testament entirely, as " emanating from an inferior being (Jehovah)," 
accepted the most ancient prophets, such as Enoch, and deduced the 
strongest support from this book for their religious tenets, the demonstra- 
tion becomes evident. We will show further how closely related are all 
these doctrines. Besides, there is the history of Domitian's persecutions 
of magicians and philosophers, which affords as good a proof as any that 
John was generally considered a kabalist. As the apostle was included 
among the number, and, moreover, conspicuous, the imperial edict ban- 
ished him not only from Rome, but even from the continent. It was 
not the Christians whom — confounding them with the Jews, as some his- 
torians will have it — the emperor persecuted, but the astrologers and kab- 
alists. f 

The accusations against Jesus of practicing the magic of Egypt were 
numerous, and at one time universal, in the towns where he was known. 
The Pharisees, as claimed in the Bible, had been the first to flinsf it in his 

* "Apocalypse," xix. 12. 

f See Suet, in "Vita. Eutrop.," 7. It is neither cruelty, nor an insane indulgence 
in it, which shows this emperor in history as passing his time in catching flies and trans- 
piercing them with a golden bodkin, but religious superstition. The Jewish astrolo- 
gers had predicted to him that he had provoked the wrath of Beelzebub, the " Lord 
of the fiies," and would perish miserably through the revenge of the dark god of 
Ekron, and die like King Ahaziali, because he persecuted the Jews. 


face, although Rabbi Wise considers Jesns himself a Pharisee. The Tal- 
mud certainly points to James the Just as one of that sect. * But these 
partisans are known to have always stoned every prophet who denounced 
their evil ways, and it is not on this fact that vi'e base our assertion. 
These accused him of sorcery, and of driving out devils by Beelzebub, 
their prince, with as much justice as later the Catholic clergy had to 
accuse of the same more than one innocent martyr. But Justin Martyr 
states on better authority that the men of his time who were ?iot Jews 
asserted that the miracles of Jesus were performed by magical art — 
/j-ayiKij (j>avTa(Tia — the very expression used by the skeptics of those 
days to designate the feats of thaumaturgy accomplished in the Pagan 
temples. " They even ventured to call him a magician and a deceiver of 
the people," complains the martyr, f In the Gospel of Nicodemus (the 
Acta Pilate), the Jews bring the same accusation before Pilate. " Did 
we not tell thee he was a magician ? " | Celsus speaks of the same charge, 
and as a Neo-platonist believes in it. § The Talmudic literature is full 
of the most minute particulars, and their greatest accusation is that "Jesus 
could fly as easily in the air as others could walk." || St. 'Austin asserted 
that it was generally believed that he had been initiated in Egypt, and 
that he wrote books concerning magic, which he delivered to John. ^ 
There was a work called Magia Jesu Chrisfi, which was attributed to 
Jesus ** himself. In the Clementine Recognitions the charge is brought 
against Jesus that he did not perform his miracles as a Jewish prophet, 
but as a magician, i.e., an initiate of the " heathen " temples. \\ 

It was usual then, as it is now, among the intolerant clergy of 
opposing religions, as well as among the lower classes of society, and 
even among those patricians who, for various reasons had been excluded 
from any participation of the Mysteries, to accuse, sometimes, the highest 
hierophants and adepts of sorcery and black magic. So Apuleius, who 

* We believe that it was the Sadducees and not the Pharisees who crucified Jesus. 
They were Zadokites — partisans of the house of Zadok, or the sacerdotal family. In 
the " Acts" the apostles were said to be persecuted by the Sadducees, but never by the 
Pharisees. In fact, the latternever persecuted any one. They had the scribes, rabbis, 
and learned men in their numbers, and were not, like the Sadducees, jealous of their 

j- ■' Dial.," p. 69. 

IFabricius: "Cod. Apoc, N. T.," i., 243; Tischendorf: " Evang. Ap.," p. 

g Origen : " Cont. Cels.," 11. 

II Rabbi lochan : "Mag.," 51. f "Origen," 11. 

** Cf. "August de Consans. Evang.," i., 9; Fabric. : "Cod. Ap. N. T.," i., 
p. 305, ff. 

\\ " Recog.," i. 58; cf., p. 40. 


had been initiated, was likewise accused of witchcraft, and of carrying 
about him the figure of a skeleton — a potent agent, as it is asserted, in 
the operations of the black art. But one of the best and most unques- 
tionable proofs of our assertion may be found in the so-called Museo 
Gregoriano. On the sarcophagus, which is panelled with bas-reliefs 
representing the miracles of Christ, * may be seen the full figure 
of Jesus, who, in the resurrection of Lazarus, appears beardless " and 
equipped with a wand in the received guise of a necromancer ( .? ) whilst 
the corpse of Lazarus is swathed in bandages exactly as an Egyptian 

Had posterity been enabled to have several such representations 
executed during the first century when the figure, dress, and every-day 
habits of the Reformer were still fresh in the memory of his contempora- 
ries, perhaps the Christian world would be more Christ-like ; the dozens 
of contradictory, groundless, and utterly meaningless speculations about 
the "Son of Man " would have been impossible ; and humanity would now 
have but one religion and one God. It is this absence of all proof, the 
lack of the least positive clew about him whom Christianity has dei- 
fied, that has caused the present state of perplexity. No pictures of 
Christ were possible until after the days of Constantine, when the Jewish 
element was nearly eliminated among the followers of the new religion. 
The Jews, apostles, and disciples, whom the Zoroastrians and the Parsees 
had inoculated with a holy horror of any form of images, would have 
considered it a sacrilegious blasphemy to represent in any way or shape 
their master. The only authorized image of Jesus, even in the days of 
TertuUian, was an allegorical representation of the " Good Shepherd," f 
which was no portrait, but the figure of a man with a jackal-head, Hke 
Anubis. \ On this gem, as seen in the collection of Gnostic amulets, the 
Good Shepherd bears upon his shoulders the lost lamb. He seems to 
have a human head upon his neck; but, as King correctly observes, " it 
only seems so to the uninitiated eye." On closer inspection, he becomes 
the double-headed Anubis, having one head human, the other a jackal's, 
whilst his girdle assumes the form of a serpent rearing aloft its crested 
head. " This figure," adds the author of the Gnostics, etc., "had two 
meanings — one obvious for the vulgar ; the other mystical, and recogniz- 
able by the initiated alone. It was perhaps the signet of some chief 

* King's "Gnostics," p. 145; the author places this sarcophagus among the 
earliest productions of that art which inundated later tlie world with mosaics and en- 
gravings, representing the events and personages of the " New Testament." 

f " De Pudicitia." See " The Gnostics and their Rem.-iins," p. 144. 

X Ibid., plate i., p. 200. 


teacher or apostle." * This affords a fresh proof that the Gnostics and 
early orthodox ( ? ) Christians were not so wide apart in their secret doc- 
trine. King deduces from a quotation from Epiphanius, that even as 
late as 400 a.d. it was considered an atrocious sin to attempt to repre- 
sent the bodily appearance of Christ. Epiphanius f brings it as an idola- 
trous charge against the Carpocratians that " they kept painted portraits, 
and even gold and silver images, and in other materials, which they 
pretended to be portraits of Jesus, and made by Pilate after the likeness 
of Christ. . . . These they keep in secret, along with Pythagoras, Plato, 
and Aristotle, and setting them all up together, they worship and offer 
sacrifices unto them after the Gentiles' fashion." 

What would the pious Epiphanius say were he to resuscitate and 
step into St. Peter's Cathedral at Rome ! Ambrosius seems also very 
desperate at the idea — that some persons fully credited the statement 
of Lampridius that Alexander Severus had in his private chapel an 
image of Christ among other great philosophers. "That the Pagans 
should have preserved the likeness of Christ," he exclaims, " but the 
disciples have neglected to do so, is a notion the mind shudders to 
entertain, much less to believe." 

All this points undeniably to the fact, that except a handful of self- 
styled Christians who subsequently won the day, all the civilized portion 
of the Pagans who knew of Jesus honored him as a philosopher, an adept 
whom they placed on the same level with Pythagoras and Apollonius. 
Whence such a veneration on their part for a man, were he simply, as 
represented by the Synoptics, a poor, unknown Jewish carpenter from 
Nazareth ? As an incarnated God there is no single record of him on 
this earth capable of withstanding the critical e.vamination of science ; as 
one of the greatest reformers, an inveterate enemy of every theological 
dogmatism, a persecutor of bigotry, a teacher of one of the most sublime 
codes of ethics, Jesus is one of the grandest and most clearly-defined 
figures on the panorama of human history. His age may, with every day, 
be receding farther and farther back into the gloomy and hazy mists of 
the past ; and his theology — based on human fancy and supported by 
untenable dogmas may, nay, must with every day lose more of its un- 
merited prestige ; alone the grand figure of the philosopher and moral 
reformer instead of growing paler will become with every century more 
pronounced and more clearly defined. It will reign supreme and uni- 
versal only on that day when the whole of humanity recognizes but one 

* This gem is in the collection of the author of " The Gnostics and their Remains." 
See p. 201. 

f " Hoeresies," xxvii. 


father — the unknown one above — and one brother — the whole of man- 
kind below. 

In a pretended letter of Lentulus, a senator and a distingdished his- 
torian, to the Roman senate, there is a description of the personal ap- 
pearance of Jesus. The letter itself, written in horrid Latin, is pro- 
nounced a bare-faced forgery ; but we find therein an expression which 
suggests many thoughts. Albeit a forgery it is evident that whosoever 
invented it has nevertheless tried to follow tradition as closely as possi- 
ble. The hair of Jesus is represented in it as "wavy and curling . . . 
flowing down upon his shoulders," and as "having a parting in the mid- 
dle of the head after the fashion of the Nazarenes." This last sentence 
shows : I. That there was such a tradition, based on the biblical de- 
scription of John the Baptist, the Nazaria, and the custom of this sect. 
2. Had Lentulus been the author of this letter, it is difficult to believe 
that Paul should never have heard of it ; and had he known its contents, 
he would never have pronounced it a shame for men to wear their hair 
long,* thus shaming his Lord and Christ-God. 3. If Jesus did wear his 
hair long and " parted in the middle of the forehead, after the fashion of 
the Nazarenes (as well as John, the only one of his apostles who fol- 
lowed it), then we have one good reason more to say that Jesus must 
have belonged to the sect of the Nazarenes, and been called Nasaria 
for this reason and not because he was an inhabitant of Nazareth ; for 
they never wore their hair long. The Nazarite, who separated himself 
unto the Lord, allowed " no razor to come upon his head." " He shall 
be holy, and shall let the locks of the hair of his head grow," says Num- 
bers (vi. s)- Samson was a Nazarite, i.e., vowed to the service of God, 
and in his hair was his strength. " No razor shall come upon his head ; 
the child shall be a Nazarite nnto God from the womb" {Judges xiii. 5). 
But the final and most reasonable conclusion to be inferred from this is 
that Jesus, who was so opposed to all the orthodox Jewish practices, would 
not have allowed his hair to grow had he not belonged to this sect, which 
in the days of John the Baptist had already become a heresy in the eyes 
of the Sanhedrim. The Talmud, speaking of the Nazaria, or the Naza- 
renes (who had abandoned the world like Hindu yogis or hermits) calls 
theur a sect of physicians, of wandering exorcists ; as also does Jervis. 
"They went about the country, living on alms and performing cures." f 
Epiphanius says that the Nazarenes come next in heresy to the Corin- 
thians whether having existed " before them or after them, nevertheless 
synchronous," and then adds that "all Christians at that time were 
equally called Nazarenes ! " J 

* I Cor. xi. 14. -j- See the " Israelite Indeed," vol. ii., p. 238 ; " Treatise Nazir," 
J " Epiph. ed. Petar," vol. i., p 117. 


In the very first remark made by Jesus about John the Baptist, we 
find him stating that he is " Elias, which was for to come." This asser- 
tion, if it is not a later interpolation for the sake of having a prophecy ful- 
filled, means again that Jesus was a kabalist ; unless indeed we have to 
adopt the doctrine of the French spiritists and suspect him of believing 
in reincarnation. Except the kabalistic sects of the Essenes, the Nazar- 
enes, the disciples of Simeon Ben lochai, and Hillel, neither the ortho- 
dox Jews, nor the Galileans, believed or knew anything about the doc- 
trine oi permutation. And the Sadducees rejected even that of the res- 

"But the author of this restitutionis was Mosah, our master, upon 
whom be peace ! Who was the revolutio (transmigration) of Seth and 
Hebel, that he might cover the nudity of his Father Adam — Primus" says 
the Kabala* Thus, Jesus hinting that John was the revolutio, or trans- 
migration of Elias, seems to prove beyond any doubt the school to 
which he belonged. 

Until the present day uninitiated Kabalists and Masons believe per- 
mutation to be synonymous with transmigration and metempsychosis. 
But they are as much mistaken in regard to the doctrine of the true 
Kabalists as to that of the Buddhists. True, the Sohar says in one 
place, "All souls are subject to transmigration . . . men do not know the 
ways of the Holy One, blessed be He ; they do not know that they are 
brought before the tribunal, both before they enter this world and after 
they quit it," and the Pharisees also held this doctrine, as Josephus 
shows (Ajitiguities, xviii. 13). Also the doctrine of Gilgul, held to the 
strange theory of the " Whirling of the Soul," which taught that the 
bodies of Jews buried far away from the Holy Land, still preserve a par- 
ticle of soul which can neither rest nor quit them, until it reaches the 
soil of the "Promised Land." And this "whirling" process was 
thought to be accomplished by the soul being conveyed back through an 
actual evolution of species ; transmigrating from the minutest insect up 
to the largest animal. But this was an exoteric doctrine. We refer the 
reader to the Kahbala Denudata of Henry Khunrath ; his language, how- 
ever obscure, may yet throw some light upon the subject. 

But this doctrine of permutation, or revolutio, must not be understood 
as a belief in reincarnation. That Moses was considered the transmigra- 
tion of Abel and Seth, does not imply that the kabalists — those who were 
initiated at least — beUeved that the identical spirit of either of Adam's 
sons reappeared under the corporeal form of Moses. It only shows what 
was the mode of expression they used when hinting at one of the pro- 
foundest mysteries of the Oriental Gnosis, one of the most majestic arti- 

* "Kabbala Denudata," ii., 155 ; " Vallis Regia," Paris edition. 

WHEN A "god" becomes INCARNATE. 153 

cles of faith of the Secret Wisdom. It was purposely veiled so as to half 
conceal and half reveal the truth. It implied that Moses, like certain 
other god-like men, was beHeved to have reached the highest of all 
states on earth : — the rarest of all psychological phenomena, the perfect 
union of the immortal spirit with the terrestrial duad had occurred. The 
trinity was complete. A god was incarnate. But how rare such incar- 
nations ! 

That expression, " Ye are gods," which, to our biblical students, is a 
mere abstraction, has for the kabalists a vital significance. Each immor- 
tal spirit that sheds its radiance upon a human being is a god — the Micro- 
cosmos of the Macrocosm'os, part and parcel of the Unknown God, the 
First Cause of which it is a direct emanation. It is possessed of all the 
attributes of its pai-ent source. Among these attributes are omniscience 
and omnipotence. Endowed with these, but yet unable to fully manifest 
them while in the body, during which time they are obscured, veiled, 
limited by the capabilities of physical nature, the thus divinely-inhabi- 
ted man may tower far above his kind, evince a god-like wisdom, and 
display deific powers ; for while the rest of mortals around him are but 
■overshadowed by their divine self, with every chance given to them to 
become immortal hereafter, but no other security than their personal 
efforts to win the kingdom of heaven, the so chosen man has already be- 
come an immortal while yet on earth. His prize is secured. Henceforth 
he will live forever in eternal life. Not only he may have " dominion " * 
over all the works of creation by employing the "excellence" of the 
NAME (the ineffable one) but be higher in this life, not, as Paul is made 
to say, "a little lower than the angels." f 

The ancients never entertained the sacrilegious thought that such 
perfected entities were incarnations of the One Supreme and for ever 
invisible God. No such profanation of the awful Majesty entered into 
their conceptions. Moses and his antitypes and types were to them but 
complete men, gods on earth, for their gods (divine spirits) had entered 
unto their hallowed tabernacles, the purified physical bodies. The dis- 
embodied spirits of the heroes and sages were termed gods by the 
ancients. Hence, the accusation of polytheism and idolatry on the part 
of those who were the first to anthropomorphize the holiest and purest 
abstractions of their forefathers. 

* Psalms viii. 

\ This contradiction, which is attributed to Paul in Hebrews, by making him say 
of Jesus in chapter i., 4 : " Being made so much better than the angels," and then im- 
mediately stating in chapter ii. g, " But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower 
than the angels," shows how unscrupulously the writings of the apostles, if they ever 
wrote any, were tampered with. 


The real and hidden sense of this doctrine was known to all the ini- 
tiates. The Tanaim imparted it to their elect ones, the Isarini, in the 
solemn solitudes of crypts and deserted places. It was one of the most 
esoteric and jealously guarded, for human nature was the same then as 
it is now, and the sacerdotal caste as confident as now in the supremacy 
of its knowledge, and ambitious of ascendency over the weaker masses ; 
with the difference perhaps that its hierophants could prove the legiti- 
macy of their claims and the plausibility of their doctrines, whereas now, 
believers must be content with blind faith. 

While the kabalists called this mysterious and rare occurrence of the 
union of spirit with the mortal charge entrusted to its care, the "descent 
of the Angel Gabriel " (the latter being a kind of generic name for it), the 
Messenger of Life, and the angel Metatron ; and while the Nazarenes 
termed the same Abel-Zivo,* the Delegatus sent by the Lord of Celsitude, 
it was universally known as the " Anointed Spirit." 

Thus it is the acceptation of this doctrine which caused the Gnostics 
to maintain that Jesus was a man overshadowed by the Christos or Mes- 
senger of Life, and that his despairing cry from the cross " Eloi, Eloi, 
Lama Sabachthani," was wrung from him at the instant when he felt that 
this inspiring Presence had finally abandoned him, for — as some affirmed 
— his faith had also abandoned him when on the cross. 

The early Nazarenes, who must be numbered among the Gnostic sects, 
believing that Jesus was a prophet, held, nevertheless, in relation to him 
the same doctrine of the divine "overshadowing," of certain "men of 
God," sent for the salvation of nations, and to recall them to the path of 
righteousness. " The Divine mind is eternal," says the Codex,\ "And it is 
pure light, and poured out through splendid and immense space (pleronia). 
It is Genetrix of the ^ons. But one of them went to matter (chaos) 
stirring up confused (turbulentos) movements ; and by a certain portion 
of heavenly light fashioned it, properly constituted for use and appear- 
ance, but the beginning of every evil. The Demiurg (of matter) claimed 
divine honor.J Therefore Christus (" the anointed"), the prince of the 
yEons (powers), was sent (expeditus), who taking on the person of a most 
devout Jew, lesu, was to conquer him ; but who having laid it (the body) 
aside, departed on high." We will explain further on the full significance 
of the name Christos and its mystic meaning. 

And now, in order to make such passages as the above more intelli- 
gible, we will endeavor to define, as briefly as possible, the dogmas in 

* *' Codex Nazaraeus," i. 23. 
f Ibid., preface, p. v., translated from Norberg. 

X " According to the Nazai-enes and Gnostics, the Demiurg, the creator of the ma- 
terial world, is not the highest God." (See Dunlap : " Sod, the Son of the Man.") 


which, with very trifling differences, nearly all the Gnostic sects beheved. 
It is in Ephesus that flourished in those days the greatest college, wherein 
the abstruse Oriental speculations and the Platonic philosophy were taught 
in conjunction. It was a focus of the universal " secret " doctrines ; the 
weird laboratory whence, fashioned in elegant Grecian phraseology, sprang 
the quintessence of Buddhistic, Zoroastrian, and Chaldean philosophy. 
Artemis, the gigantic concrete symbol of theosophico-pantheistic abstrac- 
tions, the great mother Multimamma, androgyne and patroness of the 
" Ephesian writings," was conquered by Paul ; but although the zealous 
converts of the apostles pretended to burn all their books on " curious 
arts," ra irepiepya, enough of these remained for them to study when 
their first zeal had cooled off It is from Ephesus that spread nearly 
all the Gnosis which antagonized so fiercely with the Irenffian dogmas ; 
and still it was Ephesus, with her numerous collateral branches of the 
great college of the Essenes, which proved to be the hot-bed of all 
the kabalistic speculations brought by the Tanaim from the captivity. 
" In Ephesus," says Matter, " the notions of the Jewish-Egyptian school, 
and the semi-Persian speculations of the kabalists had then recently come 
to swell the vast conflux of Grecian and Asiatic doctrines, so there is no 
wonder that teachers should have sprung up there who strove to com- 
bine the religion newly preached by the apostle with the ideas there so 
long estabhshed." 

Had not the Christians burdened themselves with the Revelations 
of a little nation, and accepted the Jehovah of Moses, the Gnostic ideas 
would never have been termed heresies ; once relieved of their dogmatic 
exaggerations the world would have had a religious system based on pure 
Platonic philosophy, and surely something would then have been gained. 

Now let us see what are the greatest heresies of the Gnostics. We 
will select Basilides as the standard for our comparisons, for all the 
founders of other Gnostic sects group round him, like a cluster of stars 
borrowing light from their sun. 

Basilides maintained that he had had all his doctrines from the Apos- 
tle Matthew, and from Peter through Glaucus, the disciple of the lat- 
ter.* According to Eusebius, f he published twenty-four volumes of 
Interpretations upon the Gospels, X all of which were burned, a fact which 
makes us suppose that they contained more truthful matter than the 
school of Irenaaus was prepared to deny. He asserted that the unknown, 

• Clemens : " Al. Strom." vii., 7, § io5. 

fH. E., iv. 7. 

t The gospels interpreted by Basilides were not our present gospels, which, as it is 
proved by the greatest authorities, were not in his days in existence. See " Supernat- 
ural Religion," vol. ii., chap. Basilides. 


eternal, and uncreated Father having first brought forth Nous, or Mind, 
the latter emanated from itself— the Logos. The Logos (the Word of 
John) emanated in its turn Ph-ronesis, or the Intelligences (Divine-human 
spirits). From Phronesis sprung Sophia, or feminine wisdom, and 
Dynamis — strength. These were the personified attributes of the Mys- 
terious godhead, the Gnostic quinternion, typifying the five spiritual, but 
intelligible substances, personal virtues or beings external to the 
unknown godhead. This is preeminently a kabalistic idea. It is still 
more Buddhistic. The earliest system of the Buddhistic philosophy — 
which preceded by far Gautama-Buddha — is based upon the uncreated 
substance of the " Unknown," the A'di Buddha.* This eternal, infinite 
Monad possesses, as proper to his own essence, five acts of wisdom. 
From these it, by five separate acts of Dhyiin, emitted five Dhyani 
Buddhas ; these, like A'di Buddha, are quiescent in their system (pas- 
sive). Neither A'di, nor either of the five Dhyani Buddhas, were ever 
incarnated, but seven of their emanations becan)e Avatars, i.e., were 
incarnated on this earth. 

* The five make mystically ten. They are androgynes. " Having divided his body in 
two parts, the Supreme Wisdom became male and female " (" Manu," book i., sloka 
32). There are many early Buddhistic ideas to be found in Brahmanism. 

The prevalent idea that the last of the Buddhas, Gautama, is the ninth incarnation 
of Vishnu, or the ninth Avatar, is disclaimed partially by the Brahmans, and wholly 
rejected by the learned Buddhist theologians. The latter insist that the worship of 
Buddha possesses a far higher claim to antiquity than any of the Brahmanical deities of 
the Vedas, which they call secular literature. The Brahmans, they show, came from 
other countries, and established their heresy on the already accepted popular deities. 
They conquered the land by the sword, and succeeded in burying truth, by building a 
theology of their own on the ruins of the more ancient one of Buddha, which had 
prevailed for ages. They admit the divinity and spiritual existence of some of the 
Vedantic gods ; but as in the case of the Christian angel-hierarchy they beUeve that 
all these deities are greatly subordinate, even to the incarnated Buddhas. They do not 
even acknowledge the creation of the physical universe. Spiritually and invisibly \\. has 
existed from all eternity, and thus it was made merely visible to the human senses. 
When it first appeared it was called forth from the realm of the invisible into the visi- 
ble by the impulse of A'di Buddha — the "Essence." They reckon twenty-two such visible 
appearances of the universe governed by Buddhas, and as many destructions of it, by 
fire and water in regular successions. After the last destruction by the flood, at the end 
of the precedent cycle— (the exact calculation, embracing several millions of years, is a 
secret cycle) the world, during the present age of the Kali Yug — Maha Bhadda Calpa— 
has been ruled successively by four Buddhas, the last of whom was Gautama, the 
" Holy One." The fifth, Maitree-Buddha, is yet to come. This latter is the expected 
kabalistic King Messiah, the Messenger of Light, and Sosiosh, the Persian Saviour, 
who will come on a white horse. It is also the Christian Second Advent. See 
" Apocalypse " of St, John. 


Describing the Basilidean system, Iren^us, quoting the Gnostics, 
declares as follows : 

" When the uncreated, unnamed Father saw the corruption of man- 
kind, he sent his first-born Nous, into the world, in the form of Christ, 
for the redemption of all who believe in him, out of the power of those 
who fabricated the world (the Demiurgus, and his six sons, the planet- 
ary genii). He appeared amongst men as the man, Jesus, and wrought 
miracles. This Christ did not die in person, but Simon the Cyrenian 
•suffered in his stead, to whom he lent his bodily form ; for the Divine 
Power, the Nous of the Eternal Father, is not corporeal, and cannot die. 
Whoso, therefore, maintains that Christ has died, is still the bondsman 
of ignorance ; whoso denies the same, he is free, and hath understood 
the purpose of the Father." * 

So far, and taken in its abstract sense, we do not see anything blas- 
phemous in this system. It may be a heresy against the theology of 
Irenseus and Tertullian, f but there is certainly nothing sacrilegious 
against the religious idea itself, and it will seem to every impartial thinker 
far more consistent with divine reverence than the anthropomorphism 
of actual Christianity. The Gnostics were called by the orthodox 
Christians, Docetce, or Illusionists, for believing that Christ did not, nor 
could, suffer death actually — in physical body. The later Brahmanical 
books contain, likewise, much that is repugnant to the reverential feeling 
and idea of the Divinity ; and as well as the Gnostics, the Brahmans 
explain such legends as may shock the divine dignity of the Spiritual 
beings called gods by attributing them to Maya or illusion. 

A people brought up and nurtured for countless ages among all the 
psychological phenomena of which the civilize'd (!) nations read, but 
reject as incredible and worthless, cannot well expect to have its reli- 
gious system even understood — let alone appreciated. The profoundest 
and most transcendental speculations of the ancient metaphysicians of 
India and other countries, are all based on that great Buddhistic and 
Brahmanical principle underlying the whole of their religious meta- 
physics — illusion of the senses. Everything that is finite is illusion, all 
that which is eternal and infinite is reality. Form, color, that which 
we hear and feel, or see with our mortal eyes, exists only so far as it can 
be conveyed to each of us through our senses. The universe for a man 
born blind does not exist in either form or color, but it exists in its priva- 
tion (in the Aristotelean sense), and is a reality for the spiritual senses 

* " Irenaeus," i. 23. 

■f Tertullian reversed the table himself by rejecting, later in life, the doctrines for 
which he fought with such an acerbity and by becoming a Montanist. 


of the blind man. We all live under the powerful doniinion of phan- 
tasy. Alone the highest and invisible originals emanated from the 
thought of the Unknown are real and permanent beings, forms, and 
ideas ; on earth, we see but their reflections ; more or less correct, and 
ever dependent on the physical and mental organization of the person 
who beholds them. 

Ages untold before our era, the Hindu Mystic Kapila, who is consid- 
ered by many scientists as a skeptic, because they judge him with their 
habitual superficiality, magnificently expressed this idea in the following ' 
terms : 

" Man (physical man) counts for so little, that hardly anything can 
demonstrate to him his proper existence and that of nature. Perhaps, 
that which we regard as the universe, and the divers beings which seem 
to compose it, have nothing real, and are but the product of continued 
illusion — maya — of our senses." 

And the modern Schopenhauer, repeating this philosophical idea, 
10,000 years old now, says :" Nature is non-existent, /ifrjf. . . . Nature 
is the infinite illusion of our senses." Kant, Schelling, and other meta- 
physicians have said the same, and their school maintains the idea. The 
objects of sense being ever delusive and fluctuating, cannot be a reaUty. 
Spirit alone is unchangeable, hence — alone is no illusion. This is pure 
Buddhist doctrine. The religion of the Gnosis (knowledge), the 
most evident offshoot of Buddhism, was utterly based on this metaphysi- 
cal tenet. Christos suffered spiritually for us, and far more acutely 
than did the illusionary Jesus while his body was being tortured on the 

In the ideas of the Christians, Christ is but another name for Jesus. 
The philosophy of the Gnostics, the initiates, and hierophants understood 
it otherwise. The word Christos, Xpiaros, like all Greek words, must be 
sought in its philological origin — the Sanscrit. In this latter language 
Kris means sacred,* and the Hindu deity was named Chris-na (the 
pure or the sacred) from that. On the other hand, the Greek Christos 
bears several meanings, as anointed (pure oil, chrism) and others. In 
all languages, though the synonym of the word means pure or sacred 
essence, it is the first emanation of the invisible Godhead, manifesting 
itself tangibly in spirit. The Greek Logos, the Hebrew Messiah, the 

* In his debate with JacoUiot upon the right spelling of the Hindu Chiistna, Mr. 
Textor de Ravisi, an ultramontane Catholic, tries to prove that the name of Christna 
ought to be written Krishna, for, as the latter means black, and the statues of this 
deity are generally black, the word is derived from the color. We refer the reader to 
JacoUiot's answer in his recent work, " Christna et le Christ," for the conclusive evi- 
dence that the na]ne is not derived from the color. 


Latin Verbum, and the Hindu Viradj (the son) are identically the same ; 
they represent an idea of collective entities — of flames detached from the 
one eternal centre of light. 

" The man who accomphshes pious but interested acts (with the sole 
object of his salvation) may reach the ranks of the devas (saints) ; * but he 
who accomplishes, disinterestedly, the same pious acts, finds himself ridden 
forever of the five elements" (of matter). "Perceiving the Supreme 
Soul in all beings and all beings in the Supreme Soul, in offering his own 
soul in sacrifice, he identifies himself with the Being who shines in his 
own splendor " [Ma/iii, book xii., slokas 90, 91). 

Thus, Christos, as a unity, is but an abstraction : a general idea 
representing the collective aggregation of the numberless spirit-entities, 
which are the direct emanations of the infinite, invisible, incomprehensi- 
ble First Cause — the individual spirits of men, erroneously called the souls. 
They are the divine sons of God, of which some only overshadow mortal 
men — but this the majority — some remain forever planetary spirits, 
and some — the smaller and rare minority — unite themselves during life 
with some men. Such God-like beings as Gautama-Buddha, Jesus, 
Tissoo, Christna, and a few others had united themselves with their 
spirits permanently — hence, they became gods on earth. Others, such as 
Moses, Pythagoras, ApoUonius, Plotinus, Confucius, Plato, lamblichus, 
and some Christian saints, having at intervals been so united, have taken 
rank in history as denii-gods and leaders of mankind. When unburthenedof 
their terrestrial tabernacles, their freed souls, henceforth united forever with 
their spirits, rejoin the whole shining host, which is bound together in one 
spiritual solidarity of thought and deed, and called " the anointed." Hence, 
the meaning of the Gnostics, who, by saying that " Christos " suffered 
spiritually for humanity, implied that his Divine Spirit suffered mostly. 

Such, and far more elevating were the ideas of Marcion, the great 
"Heresiarch" of the second century, as he is termed by his opponents. 
He came to Rome toward the latter part of the half-century, from 
A.D. 139-142, according to Tertullian, Irfenaeus, Clemens, and most of 
his modern commentators, such as Bunsen, Tischendorf, Westcott, and 
many others. Credner and Schleierniacher f agree as to his high and 
irreproachable personal character, his pure religious aspirations and 
elevated views. His influence must have been powerfu', as we find 

* There is no equivalent for the word " miracle," in the Christian sense, among the 
Brahmans or Buddhists. The only correct translation would be meipo, a wonder, some- 
thing remarkable ; but not a violation of natural law. The "' saints " only produce 

f "Beitrage," vol. i.. p. 40; Schleiermacher : " Sammtl. Werke," viii. ; " Einl. 
N. T.," p. 64! ' 


Epiphanius writing more than two centuries later that in his time the 
followers of Marcion were to be found throughout the whole world. * 

The danger must have been pressing and great indeed, if we are to 
judge it to have been proportioned with the opprobrious epithets and vitu- 
peration heaped upon Marcion by the " Great African," that Patristic Cer- 
berus, whom we find ever barking at the door of the Irenaean dogmas.f 
We have but to open his celebrated refutation of Marcion's Antitheses, to 
acquaint ourselves with the fine-fleur of monkish abuse of the Christian 
school ; an abuse so faithfully carried through the middle ages, to be 
renewed again in our present day — at the Vatican. " Now, then, ye 
hounds, yelping at the God of Truth, whom the apostles cast out, to all 
your questions. These are the bones of contention which ye gnaw," 
etc. \ " The poverty of the Great African's arguments keeps pace with 
his abuse," remarks the author of Supernatural Religion. § " Their 
(the Father's) religious controversy bristles with misstatements, and is 
turbid with pious abuse. TertulHan was a master of his style, and the 
vehement vituperation with which he opens and often interlards his work 
against ' the impious and sacrilegious Marcion,' offers anything but a 
guarantee of fair and legitimate criticism." 

How firm these two Fathers — Tertullian and Epiphanius — were on 
their theological ground, maybe inferred from the curious fact that they in- 
temperately both vehemently reproach "the beast" (Marcion) "with era- 
sing passages from the Gospel of Luke which never were in Luke at all." || 
"The lightness and inaccuracy," adds the critic, "with which Tertullian 
proceeds, are all the better illustrated by the fact that not only does he 
accuse Marcion falsely, but he actually defines the motives for which he ex- 
punged a passage which never existed ; in the same chapter he also simi- 
larly accuses Marcion of erasing (from Luke) the saying that Christ had not 
come to destroy the law and the prophets, but to fulfill them, and he 
actually repeats the charge on two other occasions. ^ Epiphanius also 
commits the mistake of reproaching Marcion with omitting from Luke 
what is only found in Matthew." ** 

Having so far shown the amount of reliance to be placed in the 
Patristic literature, and it being unanimously conceded by the great ma- 
jority of biblical critics that what the Fathers fought for was not truth., 
but their own interpretations and unwarranted assertions, ff we will now 

* " Epiph. Htera.," xlii., p. i. f Tertullian : "Adv. Marc," ii. 5 ; cf. 9. 
\ Ibid., ii. 5. g vol. ii., p. 105. \ Ibid., vol. ii., p. 100. ' 

If " Adv. Marc," iv., 9, 36. 

** "Supernatural Religion," p. lor ; Matthew v. 17. 

ff This author, vol. ii. , p. 103, remarks with great justice of the " Heresiarch " 
Marcion, " whose high personal character exerted so powerful an influence upon his own 


proceed to state what were the views of Marcion, whom TertuUian desired 
to annihilate as the most dangerous heretic of his day. If we are to be- 
lieve Hilgenfeld, one of the greatest German biblical critics, then " From 
the critical standing-point one must . . . consider the statements of the 
Fathers of the Church only as expressions of their subjective view, which 
itself requires proof." * 

We can do no better nor make a more correct statement of facts 
concerning Marcion than by quoting what our space permits from Super- 
natural Religion, the author of which bases his assertions on the evidence 
of the greatest critics, as well as on his own researches. He shows in 
the days of IVEarcion "two broad parties in the primitive Church" — 
one considering Christianity " a mere continuation of the law, and dwarf- 
ing it into an Israelitish institution, a narrow sect of Judaism;" the other 
representing the glad tidings " as the introduction of a new system, appli- 
cable to all, and supplanting the Mosaic dispensation of the law by a 
universal dispensation of grace." These two parties, he adds, "were 
popularly represented in the early Church, by the two apostles Peter and 
Paul, and their antagonism is faintly revealed in the Epistle to the 
Galatians." \ 

time," that " it was the misfortune of Marcion to live in an age when Christianity had 
passed out of the pure morality of its infancy ; when, untroubled' by complicated ques- 
tions of dogma, simple faith and pious enthusiasm had been the one great bond of 
Christian brotherhood, into a phase of ecclesiastical development in which religion was 
fast degenerating into theology, and complicated doctrines were rapidly assuming the 
rampant attitude which led to so much bitterness, persecution, and schism. In later 
times Marcion might have been honored as a reformer, in his own he was denounced as 
a heretic. Austere and ascetic in his opinions, he aimed at superhuman purity, and, 
although his clerical adversaries might scoff at his impracticable doctrines regarding 
marriage and the subjugation of the flesh, they have had their parallels amongst those 
whom the Church has since most delighted to honor, and, at least, the whole tendency 
of his system was markedly towards the side of virtue." These statements are based 
upon Credner's " Beitrage," i., p. 40; cf. Neander : " AUg. K. G.,'' ii., p. 792, f. ; 
Schleiermacher, Milman, etc., etc. 

* Justin's. " Die Evv.," p. 446, sup. B. 

\ But, on the other hand, this antagonism is very strongly marked in the " Clemen- 
tine Homilies," in which Peter unequivocally denies that Paul, whom he calls Simon the 
Magician has ever had a vision of Christ, and calls him " an enemy." Canon Westcott 
says: "There can be no doubt that St. Paul is referred to as ' the enemy' " (" On 
the Canon," p. 252, riote 2 ; "Supernatural Religion," vol. ii., p. 35). But this antag- 
onism, which rages unto the present day, we find even in St. Paul's " Epistles." What 
can be more energetic than such like sentences: " Such are false apostles, deceitful 
workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ. ... I suppose I was 
not a whit behind the very chiefest apostle" (2 Corinthians, xi.). " Paul, an apostle 
not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised hirn 
from the dead . . . but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the Gospel 


Marcion, who recognized no other Gospels than a few Epistles of 
Paul, who rejected totally the anthropomorphism of the Old Testa- 
ment, and drew a distinct line of demarcation between the old Judaism 
and Christianity, viewed Jesus neither as a King, Messiah of the Jews, 
nor the son of David, who was in any way connected with the law or 
prophets, " but a divine being sent to reveal to man a spiritual religion, 
wholly new, and a God of goodness and grace hitherto unknown." The 

of Christ . . . false irethren. . . . When Peter came to Antioch I withstood him to 
his face, because he was to be blamed. For before that certain came from James, kg did 
eat with the Gentiles, but when they were come he withdrew, fearing them which were of 
the circumcision. And the other Jews dissembled , . . insomuch that Barnabas also was 
carried away with their dissimulation,'''' etc., etc. (Galat. i. and ii.). On the other hand, we 
find Peter in the " Homilies," indulging in various complaints which, although alleged 
to be addressed to Simon Magus, are evidently all du"ect answers to the above-quoted 
sentences from the Pauline Epistles, and cannot have anything to do with Simon. So, 
for instance, Peter said: "For some among the Gentiles have rejected my lawful 
preaching, and accepted certain lawless and foolish teaching of the hostile men (ene- 
my) " — Epist. of Peter to James, § 2. He says further : " Simon (Paul) . . . who came 
befoi'e me to the Gentiles . . . and I have followed him as light upon darkness, as 
knowledge upon ignorance, as health upon disease " (" Homil.," ii. 17). Still further, 
he calls him Death and a deceiver (Ibid., ii. 18). He warns the Gentiles that " our Lord 
and Prophet ( .? ) {Jesus') announced that he would send from among his followers, apos- 
tles to deceive. " Therefore, above all, remember to avoid every apostle, or teacher, 
or prophet, who fir?t does not accurately compare his teaching with that of James, 
called the brother of our Lord " (see the difference between Paul and James on faith, 
Epist. to Hebrews, xi., xii., and Epist. of James, ii.). " Lest the Evil One should send 
a false preacher ... as he has sent to us Simon (?) preaching a counterfeit of truth in 
the name of our Lord, and disseminating error " (" Hom." xi., 35 ; see above quotation 
from Gal. i, 5). He then denies Paul's assertion, in the following words: " If, there- 
fore, our Jesus indeed appeared in a vision to you, it was only as an irritated adversary. 
. . . But how can any one through visions become wise in teaching ? And if you say, 
'it is possible,' then I ask, wherefore did the Teacher remain for a whole year and dis- 
course to those who were attentive ? And how can we believe your story that he 
appeared to you ? And in what manner did he appear to you, when you hold opinions 
contrary to his teaching ? . . . For you now set yourself up against me, who am a 
firm rock, the foundation of the Church. If you were not an opponent, you would 
not calumniate me, you would not revile my teaching . . . (circumcision?) in order that, 
in declaring what I have myself heard from the Lord, I may not be believed, as though/ 
were condemned. . . . But if you say that I am condemned, you blame God who 
revealed Christ tome." "This last phrase," observes t'ne author of " Supernatiu-al 
Religion," " 'if you say that I am condemned,' is an evident allusion to Galat. ii, 11, 
' I withstood him to the face, because he was condemned ' " (" Supernatural Religion," 
p. 37). " There cannot be a doubt," adds the just-quoted author, "that the Apostle 
Paul is attacked in this religious romance as the great enemy of the true faith, under 
the hated name of Simon the Magician, whom Peter follows everywhere for the pur- 
pose of unmaskmg and confuting him " (p. 34). And if so, then we must believe 
that it was St. Paul who broke both his legs in Rome when flying in the air. 


" Lord God " of the Jews in his eyes, the Creator (Demiurgos), was totally- 
different and distinct from the Deity who sent Jesus to reveal the divine 
truth and preach the glad tidings, to bring reconciliation and salvation to 
all. The mission of Jesus — according to Marcion — was to abrogate the 
Jewish " Lord," who " was opposed to the God and Father of Jesus 
Christ as matter is to spirit, impurity to purity T 

Was Marcion so far wrong ? Was it blasphemy, or was it intuition, 
divine inspiration in him to express that which every honest heart yearn- 
ing for truth, more or less feels and acknowledges ? If in his sincere 
desire to establish a purely spiritual religion, a universal faith based on 
unadulterated truth, he found it necessary to make of Christianity an 
entirely new and separate system from that of Judaism, did not Marcion 
have the very words of Christ for his authority ? " No man putteth a piece 
of new cloth into an old garment . . . for the rent is made worse. . . . 
Neither do men put new wine into old bottles, else the bottles break, 
and the wine runneth out, and the bottles perish ; but they put nnc ivine 
into new bottles, and both are preserved." In what particular does the 
jealous, wrathful, revengeful God of Israel resemble the unknown deity, 
the God of mercy preached by Jesus ; — his Father who is in Heaven, 
and the Father of all humanity ? This Father alone is the God of spirit 
and purity, and, to compare Him with the subordinate and capricious 
Sinaitic Deity is an error. Did Jesus ever pronounce the name of 
Jehovah ? Did he ever place his Father in contrast with this severe and 
cruel Judge ; his God of mercy, love, and justice, with the Jewish genius 
of retaliation ? Never ! From that memorable day when he preached 
his Sermon on the Mount, an immeasurable void opened between his 
God and that other deity who fulminated his commands from that other 
mount — Sinai. The language of Jesus is unequivocal ; it implies not only 
rebellion but defiance of the Mosaic "Lord God." "Ye have heard," 
he tells us, " that it hath been said, an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a 
tooth : but / say unto you. That ye resist not evil : but whosoever shall 
smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. Ye have 
heard that it hath been said [by the same "Lord God" on Sinai] : 
Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto 
you ; Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them 
that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and per- 
secute you" {Matthew, w.). 

And now, open Mann and read : 

" Resignation, the action of rendering good for evil, temperance, pro- 
bity, purity, repression of the senses, the knowledge of the Sastras (the 
holy books), that of the supreme soul, truthfulness and abstinence from 
anger, such are the ten virtues in which consists duty. . . . Those who 


study these ten precepts of duty, and after having studied them conform 
their Hves thereto, will reach to the supreme condition " {Manu, book 
vi., sloka 92). 

If Manu did not trace these words many thousands of years before 
the era of Christianity, at least no voice in the whole world will dare deny 
them a less antiquity than several centuries B.C. The same in the case 
of the precepts of Buddhism. 

If we turn to the Prdtimoksha Sutra and other religious tracts of the 
Buddhists, we read the ten following commandments : 

1. Thou shalt not kill any living creature. 

2. Thou shalt not steal. 

3. Thou shalt not break thy vow of chastity. 

4. Thou shalt not lie. 

5. Thou shalt not betray the secrets of others. 

6. Thou shalt not wish for the death of thy enemies. 

7. Thou shalt not desire the wealth of others. 

8. Thou shalt not pronounce injurious and foul words. 

9. Thou shalt not indulge in luxury (sleep on soft beds or be lazy). 
ID. Thou shalt not accept gold or silver. * 

" Good master, what shall I do that I may have eternal life ? " asks a 
man of Jesus. " Keep the commandments." "Which?" "Thou shalt 
do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal, 
Thou shalt not bear false witness," f is the answer. 

" What shall I do to obtain possession of Bhodi ? (knowledge of 
eternal truth) " asks a disciple of his Buddhist master. " What way is 
there to become an Upasaka ?" " Keep the commandments." " What 
are they ? " " Thou shalt abstain all thy life from murder, theft, adultery, 
and lying," answers the master. J 

Identical injunctions are they not ? Divine injunctions, the living 
up to which would purify and exalt humanity. But are they more divine 
when uttered through one mouth than another? If it is god-like to return 
good for evil, does the enunciation of the precept by a Nazarene give it 
any greater force than its enunciation by an Indian, or Thibetan philos- 
opher ? We see that the Golden Rule was not original with Jesus ; that 
its birth-place was India. Do what we may, we cannot deny Sakya- 
Muni Buddha a less remote antiquity than several centuries before the 
birth of Jesus. In seeking a model for his system of ethics why should 
Jesus have gone to the foot of the Himalayas rather than to the foot of 

* " Pratimoksha Sdtra," Pali-Burmese copy; see also "Lotus de la Bonne Loi," 
translated by Burnouf, p. 444. 

f Matthew xix. 16-18. % " Pittakatayan," book iii., Pali Version. 


Sinai, but that the doctrines of Manu and Gautama harmonized exactly 
with his own philosophy, while those of Jehovah were to him abhorrent and 
terrifying ? The Hindus taught to return good for evil, but' the Jehovis- 
tic command was : "An eye for an eye " and " a tooth for a tooth." 

Would Christians still maintain the identity of the " Father" of Jesus 
and Jehovah, if evidence sufficiently clear could be adduced that the 
" Lord God " was no other than the Pagan Bacchus, Dionysos ? Well, 
this identity of the Jehovah at Mount Sinai with the god Bacchus is hardly 
disputable. The name nini is Yava or lao, according to Theodoret, 
which is the secret name of the Phoenician Mystery-god ; * and it was ac- 
tually adopted from the Chaldeans with whom it also was the secret name 
of the creator. Wherever Bacchus was worshipped there was a tradition 
of Nysa and a cave where he was reared. Beth-San or Scythopolis in 
Palestine had that designation ; so had a spot on Mount Parnassus. 
But Diodorus declares that Nysa was between Phoenicia and Egypt ; 
Euripides states that Dionysos came to Greece from India ; and Diodo- 
rus adds his testimony : " Osiris was brought up in Nysa, in Arabia the 
Happy ; he was the son of Zeus, and was named from his father (nomi- 
native Zeus, genitive Dios) and the place Dio-Nysos " — the Zeus or Jove 
of Nysa. This identity of name or title is very significant. In Greece 
Dionysos was second only to Zeus, and Pindar says : 

" So Father Zeus governs all things, and Bacchus he governs also." 

But outside of Greece Bacchus was the all-powerful " Zagreus, the 
highest of gods." Moses seems to have worshipped him personally and 
together with the populace at Mount Sinai ; unless we admit that he 
was an initiated priest, an adept, who knew how to lift the veil which 
hangs behind all such exoteric worship, but kept the secret. '^ And Moses 
built an altar, and called the name of it felwTali-N issi ! " or lao-Nisi. 
What better evidence is required to show that the Sinaitic god was in- 
differently Bacchus, Osiris, and Jehovah ? Mr. Sharpe appends also his 
testimony that the place where Osiris was born " was Mount Sinai, 
called by the Egyptians Mount Nissa," The Brazen Serpent was a nis, 
en:, and the month of the Jewish Passover nisan. 

If the Mosaic " Lord God " was the only living God, and Jesus His 
only Son, how account for the rebellious language of the latter ? With- 
out hesitation or qualification he sweeps away the Jewish lex talionis 
and substitutes for it the law of charity and self-denial. If the Old Tes- 

* See Judges xiii. 18, '' And the angel of the Lord said unto him : Why askest 
thou after my name, seeing it is secret? " 


tatnent is a divine revelation, how can the New Testament be ? Are we 
required to believe and worship a Deity who contradicts himself every 
few hundred years ? Was Moses inspired, or was Jesus not the son of 
God ? This is a dilemma from which the theologians are bound to res- 
cue us. It is from this very dilemma that the Gnostics endeavored to 
snatch the budding Christianity. 

Justice has been waiting nineteen centuries for intelligent commen- 
tators to appreciate this difference between the orthodox Tertulhan and 
the Gnostic Marcion. The brutal violence, unfairness, and bigotry of the 
" great African" repulse all who accept his Christianity. " How can a 
god," inquired Marcion, "break his own commandments? How could 
he consistently prohibit idolatry and image-worship, and still cause Moses 
to set up the brazen serpent ? How command : Thou shalt not steal, 
and then order the Israehtes to spoil the Egyptians of their gold and 
silver ? " Anticipating the results of modern criticism, Marcion denies 
the applicability to Jesus of the so-called Messianic prophecies. Writes 
the author of Supernatural Religion : * " The Emmanuel of Isaiah is not 
Christ ; the ' Virgin,' his mother, is simply a ' young woman,' an alma 
of the temple ; and the sufferings of the servant of God {Isaiah lii. 
13-liii. 3) are not predictions of the death of Jesus." f 

* Vol. ii., p. 106. 

f Emmanuel was doubtless the son of the prophet himself, as described in the sixth 
chapter ; what was predicted, can only be interpreted on that hypothesis. The prophet 
had also announced to Ahaz the extinction of his line. " If ye will not believe, surely 
ye shall not be established." Next comes the prediction of the placing of a new prince 
on the throne — Hezekiah of Bethlehem, said to have been Isaiah's son-in-law, under 
whom the captives should return from the uttermost parts of the earth. Assyria should 
be humbled, and peace overspread the Israelitish country, compare Isaiah vii. 14-16 ; 
viii. 3, 4 ; ix. 6, 7 ; x. 12, 20, 21 ; xi. ; Micah v., 2-7. The popular party, the 
party of the prophets, always opposed to the Zadokite priesthood, had resolved to set 
aside Ahaz and his time-serving policy, which had let in Assyria upon Palestine, and to 
set up Hezekiah, a man of their own, who should rebel against Assyria and overthrow 
the Assur-worship and Baalim (2 Kings xv. 11). Though only the prophets hint 
this, it being cut out from the historical books, it is noticeable that Ahaz offered his 
own child to Moloch, also that he died at the age of thirty-six, and Hezekiah took the 
throne at twenty-five, in full adult age. 


"Nothing better than those Mysteries, by which, from a rough and fierce life, we are polished to 
gendeness (humanity, kindness), and softened." — Cicero : de Legibus, ii., 14. 

" Descend, O Soma, with that stream with which thou Hghtest up the Sun. . . . Soma, a Life 
Ocean spread through All, thou fiUest creadve the Sun with beams." — Ris-Veda, ii., 143. 

** . . . the beautiful Virgin ascends, with long hair, and she holds two ears in her hand, and 
sits on a seat and feeds a Boy as yet lilde, and suckles him and gives him food." — Avenar. 

IT is alleged that the Pentateuch was written by Moses, and yet it 
contains the account of his own death (Deuteronomy xxxiv. 6) ; 
and in Genesis (xiv. 14), the name Dan is given to a city, \i\i\&i Judges 
(xviii. 29), tells us was only called by that name at that late day, it hav- 
ing previously been known as Laish. Well might Josiah have rent his 
clothes when he had heard the words of the Book of the Law ; for there 
was no more of Moses in it than there is of Jesus in the Gospel according 
to John. 

We have one fair alternative to offer our theologians, leaving them to 
choose for themselves, and promising to abide by their decision. Only 
they will have to admit, either that Moses was an impostor, or that his 
books are forgeries, written at different times and by different persons ; 
or, again, that they are full of fraudulent interpolations. In either case 
the work loses all claims to be considered divine Revelation. Here is 
the problem, which we quote from the Bible — the word of the God of 
Truth : 

"And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the 
name of God Almighty, but by my name of Jehovah was I not known to 
them" {Exodus vi. 3), spake God unto Moses. 

A very startling bit of information that, when, before arriving at the 
book of Exodus, we are told in Genesis (xxii. 14) that "Abraham 
called the name of that place" — where tlie patriarch had been preparing 
to cut the throat of his only-begotten son — " jEHOVAH-jireh ! " (Jeho- 
vah sees.) Which is the inspired text ? — both cannot be — which the 
forgery ? 


Now, if both Abraham and Moses had not belonged to the same holy- 
group, we might, perhaps, help theologians by suggesting to them a con- 
venient means of escape out of this dilemma. They ought to call the 
reverend Jesuit Fathers— especially those who have been missionaries in 
India— to their rescue. The latter would not be for a moment discon- 
certed. They would coolly tell us that beyond doubt Abraham had heard 
the name of Jehovah and borrowed it from Moses. Do they not main- 
tain that it was they who invented the Sanscrit, edited Manu, and com- 
posed the greater portion of the Vedas ? 

Marcion maintained, with the other Gnostics, the fallaciousness of the 
idea of an incarnate God, and therefore denied the corporeal reality of 
the living body of Christ. His entity was a mere illusion. ; it was not 
made of human flesh and blood, neither was it born of a human mother, 
for his divine nature could not be polluted with any contact with sinful 
flesh. * He accepted Paul as the only apostle preaching the pure gos- 
pel of truth, and accused the other disciples of " depraving the pure 
form of the gospel doctrines delivered to them by Jesus, mixing up mat- 
ters of the Law with the words of the Saviour." f 

Finally we may add that modern biblical criticism, which unfortu- 
nately became really active and serious only toward the end of the last 
century, now generally admits that Marcion's text of the only gospel he 
knew anything about — that of Luke, is far superior and by far more cor- 
rect than that of our present Synoptics. We find in Supernatural 
Religion the following (for every Christian) startling sentence : " We 
are, therefore, indebted to Marcion for the correct version even of ' the 
Lords Prayer: " % 

If, leaving for the present the prominent founders of Christian sects, 
we now turn to that of the Ophites, which assumed a definite form about 
the time of Marcion and the Basilideans, we may find in it the reason 
for the heresies of all others. Like all other Gnostics, they rejected the 
Mosaic Bible entirely. Nevertheless, their philosophy, apart from some 
deductions original with several of the most important founders of the 
various branches of Gnosticism was not new. Passing through the Chal- 
dean kabalistic tradition, it gathered its materials in the Hermetic books, 
and pursuing its flight still farther back for its metaphysical speculations, 
we find it floundering among the tenets of Manu, and the earUest Hindu 
ante-sacerdotal genesis. Many of our eminent antiquarians trace the 
Gnostic philosophies right back to Buddhism, which does not impair in 

* Tertullian : " Adv. Marci," iii. 8 ff. 

\ " Sup. Rel. ," vol. ii., p. 107 ; "Adv. Marci," iii. 2, § 2; cf. iii. 12, § 12. 

I " Sup. Relig.," vol. ii., p. 126. 


the least either their or our arguments. We repeat again, Buddhism is 
but the primitive source of Brahmanism. It is not against the primitive 
Vedas that Gautama protests. It is against the sacerdotal and official 
state religion of his country ; and the Brahman s, who in order to make 
room for and give authority to the castes, at a later period crammed the 
ancient manuscripts with interpolated slokas, intended to prove that the 
castes were predetermined by the Creator by the very fact that each class 
of men was issued from a more or less noble limb of Brahma. Gautama- 
Buddha's philosophy was that taught from the beginning of time in the 
impenetrable secresy of the inner sanctuaries of the pagodas. We need 
not be surprised, therefore, to find again, in all the fundamental dogmas 
of the Gnostics, the metaphysical tenets of both Brahmanism and 
Buddhism. They held that the Old Testament was the revelation of an 
inferior being, a subordinate divinity, and did not contain a single sen- 
tence of their Sophia, the Divine Wisdom. As to the New Testament, it 
had lost its purity when the compilers became guilty of interpolations. 
The revelation of divine truth was sacrificed by them to promote selfish 
ends and maintain quarrels. The accusation does not seem so very 
improbable to one who is well aware of the constant strife between the 
champions of circumcision and the " Law," and the apostles who had 
given up Judaism. 

The Gnostic Ophites taught the doctrine of Emanations, so hateful to 
the defenders of the unity in the trinity, and vice versa. The Unknown 
Deity with them had no name ; but his first female emanation was called 
Bythos or Depth. * It answered to the Shekinah of the kabalists, the 
"Veil" which conceals the "Wisdom" in the cranium of the highest 
of the three heads. As the Pythagorean Monad, this tiameless Wisdom 
was the Source of Light, and Ennoia or Mind, is Light itself. The 
latter was also called the " Primitive Man," like the Adam Kadmon, or 
ancient Adam of the Kabala. Indeed, if man was created after his 
likeness and in the image of God, then this God was like his creature in 
shape and figure — hence, he is the "Primitive man." The first Mann, 
the one evolved from Swayambhuva, "he who exists unrevealed in his 
own glory," is also, in one sense, the primitive man, with the Hindus. 

Thus the " nameless and the unrevealed," Bythos, his female reflec- 
tion, and Ennoia, the revealed Mind proceeding fi'om both, or their Son 
are the counterparts of the Chaldean firs-t triad as well as those of the 
Brahmanic Trimurti. ^Ve will compare : in all the three systems we see 

* We give the systems according to an old diagram preserved among some Kopts 
and the Druses of Mount Lebanon. Irenseus had perhaps some good reasons to dis- 
figure their doctrines. 



The Great First Cause as the One, the primordial germ, the 
unrevealed and grand All, existing through himself. In the 

Indian Pantheon. 

The Chaldean. In the Ophite. 

Ilu, Kabalistic En -Soph. The Nameless, or Secret 

Whenever the Eternal awakes from its slumber and desires to mani- 
fest itself, it divides itself into male and female. It then becomes in 
every system 

The Double-Sexed Deity, The universal Father and Mother. 

In India. In Chaldea. In the Ophite System. 

Brahma, Eikon or En-Soph. Nameless Spirit. 

Nara (male), Nari (fe- Ann (male), Anata (fe- Abrasax (male), Bythos 

male). male). (female). 

From the union of the two emanates a third, or creative Principle — 
the Son, or the manifested Logos, the product of the Divine Mind. 

In India. 
Viradj, the Son. 

In Chaldea. 
Bel, the Son. 

Ophite System. 
Ophis (another name for 
Ennoia), the Son. 

Moreover, each of these systems has a triple male trinity, each pro- 
ceeding separately through itself from one female Deity. So, for 
instance : 

In India. 
The Trinity — Brahma, 
Vishnu, Siva, are blended 
into One, who is Brahma 
(neuter gender), creating 
and being created through 
the Virgin Nari (the 
mother of perpetual fecun- 

In Chaldea. 
The trinity — Ann, Bel, 
Hoa (or Sin, Samas, Bin), 
blend into One who is 
Anu (double-sexed) 
through the Virgin Mylitta. 

In the Ophite System. 
The trmity consisted of 
the Mystery named Sige, 
Bythos, Ennoia. These be- 
come One who is Abrasax^ 
from the Virgin Sophia 
(or P^ieiitnd)^ who herselfis 
an emanation of Bythos and 
the Mystery -god and eman- 
ates through them,Christos. 

To place it still clearer, the Babylonian System recognizes first — the 
One (Ad, or Ad-ad), who is never named, but only acknowledged in 
thought as the Hindu Swayambhuva. From this he becomes manifest as 
Anu or Ana — the one above all — Monas. Next comes the Demiurge 
called Bel or Elu, who is the active power of the Godhead. The third is 
the principle of Wisdom, Hea or Hoa, who also rules the sea and the 
underworld. Each of these has his divine consort, giving us Anata, Belta, 

VARIOUS "only-begotten" sons. 171 

and Davkina. These, however, are only hke the Saktls, and not especially 
remarked by theologists. But the female principle is denoted by Mylitta, 
the Great Mother, called also Ishtar. So with the three male gods, we 
have the Triad or Trimurti, and with Mylitta added, the Arba or Four 
(Tetraktys of Pythagoras), which perfects and potentializes all. Hence, 
the above-given modes of expression. The following Chaldean diagram 
may serve as an illustration for all others : 

T3 ( Anu, ) Mylitta — Arba-il, 
H ( Hoa, ) Four-fold God, 

become, with the Christians, 

t^ ( God the Father, \ Mary; or mother of these three Gods 

.5 \ God the Son, V since tliey are one, 

fi; ( God the Holy Ghost, ) or, the Christian Heavenly Tetraktys. 

Hence, Hebron, the city of the Kabeiri was called Kirjath-Arba, city 
of the Four. The Kabeiri were Axieros — the noble Eros, Axiokersos, 
the worthy horned one, Axiokersa, Demeter and Kadniiel, Hoa, etc. 

The Pythagorean ten denoted the Arba-Il or Divine Four, emblema- 
tized by the Hindu Lingham : Anu, i ; Bel, 2 ; Hoa, 3, which makes 6. 
The triad and Mylitta as 4 make the ten. 

Though he is termed the " Primitive Man," Ennoia, who is like the 
Egyptian Pimander, the " Power of the Thought Divine," the first intel- 
ligible manifestation of the Divine Spirit in material form, he is like the 
" Only- Begotten " Son of the " Unknown P'ather," of all other nations. 
He is the emblem of the first appearance of the divine Presence in his 
own works of creation, tangible and visible, and therefore comprehensi- 
ble. The mystery-God, or the ever-unrevealed Deity fecundates through 
His will Bythos, the unfathomable and infinite depth that exists in 
silence (Sig6) and darkness (for our intellect), and that represents the 
abstract idea of all nature, the ever-producing Cosmos. As neither the 
male nor female principle, blended into the idea of a double-sexed Deity 
in ancient conceptions, could be comprehended by an ordinary human 
intellect, the theology of every people had to create for its religion a 
Logos, or manifested word, in some shape or other. With the Ophites 
and other Gnostics who took their models direct from more ancient 
originals, the unrevealed Bythos and her male counterpart produce 
Ennoia, and the three in their turn produce Sophia,* thus completing the 
Tetraktys, which will emanate Christos, the very essence of the Father 

* Sophia is the highest prototype of woman — the first spiritual Eve. In the Bible 
the system is reversed and the intervening emanation being omitted. Eve is degraded to 
simple humanity. 


Spirit. As the unrevealed One, or concealed Logos in its latent state, 
he has existed from all eternity in the Arba-Il, the metaphysical abstrac- 
tion ; therefore, he is one with all others as a unity, the latter (including 
all) being indifferently termed Ennoia, Sig6 (silence), Bythos, etc. As 
the revealed one, he is Androgyne, Christos, and Sophia (Divine Wis- 
dom), who descend into the man Jesus. Both Father and Son are shown 
by Irenasus to have loved the beauty [formam) of the primitive woman,* 
who is Bythos — Depth — as well as Sophia, and as having produced con- 
jointly Ophis and Sophia (double-sexed unity again), male and female 
wisdom, one being considered as the unrevealed Holy Spirit, or elder 
Sophia — the Pneuma — the intellectual "Mother of all things;" the other 
the revealed one, or Ophis, typifying divine wisdom fallen into matter, 
or God-man — Jesus, whom the Gnostic Ophites represented by the 
serpent (Ophis). 

Fecundated by the Divine Light of the Father and Son, the highest 
spirit and Ennoia, Sophia produces in her turn two other emanations — 
one perfect Christos, the second imperfect Sophia-Achamoth, \ from 
nitisn hakhamoth (simple wisdom), who becomes the mediatrix between 
the intellectual and material worlds. 

Christos was the mediator and guide between God (the Higher), and 
everything spiritual in man ; Achamoth — the younger Sophia — held the 
same duty between the "Primitive man," Ennoia and matter. What 
was mysteriously meant by the general term, Christos, we have just 

Delivering a sermon on the " Month of Mary," we find the Rev. Dr. 
Preston, of New York City, expressing the Christian idea of the female 
jirinciple of the trinity better and more clearly than we could, and sub- 
stantially in the spirit of an ancient "heathen" philosopher. He says 
that the " plan of the redemption made it necessary that a mother should 
be found, and Mary stands pre-eminently alone as the only instance when 
a creature was necessary to the consummation of God's work." We will 
beg the right to contradict the reverend gentleman. As shown above, thou- 
sands of years before our era it was found necessary by all the "heathen" 
theogonies to find a female principle, a " mother " for the triune male 
principle. Hence, Christianity does not present the "only instance" of 
such a consummation of God's work — albeit, as this work shows, there 
was more philosophy and less materialism, or rather anthropomorphism, 
in it. But hear the reverend Doctor express " heathen " thought in 

* See " Irenasus," book i., chap. 31-33. 

f In King's " Gnostics," we find tlie system a little incorrect. The author tells us 
that he followed Bellermann's " Drei Programmen uber die Abraxas gemmeu." 


Christian ideas. " He" (God), he says, "prepared her (Mary's) virginal 
and celestial purity, for a mother defiled could not become the mother of 
the Most High. The holy virgin, even in her childhood, was more pleas- 
ing than all the Cherubim and Seraphim, and from infancy to the maturing 
maidenhood and womanhood she grew more and more pure. By her very 
sanctity she reigned over the heart of God. When the hour came, the 
luhole court ef heaven was hushed, and the trinity listened for the answer 
of Mary, for without her consent the world could not have been redeemed!' 

Does it not seem as if we were reading Irenreus explaining the Gnostic 
"■^Heresy, which taught that the Father and Son loved the beauty {for- 
mam) of the celestial Virgin ?" or the Egyptian system, of Isis being both 
wife, sister, and mother of Osiris — Horus ? With the Gnostic philosophy 
there were but two, but the Christians have improved and perfected the 
system by making it completely "heathen," for it is the Chaldean Anu — 
Bel — Hoa, merging into Mylitta. "Then while this month (of Mary)," 
adds Dr. Preston, "begins in the paschal season — the month when nature 
decks herself with fruits and flowers, the harbingers of a bright harvest — 
let us, too, begin for a golden harvest. In this month the dead comes 
up out of the earth, figuring tlie resurrection ; so, when we are kneeling 
before the altar of the holy and immaculate Mary, let us remember that 
there should come forth from us the bud of promise, the flower of hope, 
and the imperishable fruit of sanctity." 

This is precisely the substratum of the Pagan thought, which, among 
other meanings, emblematized by the rites of the resurrection of Osiris, 
Adonis, Bacchus, and other slaughtered sun-gods, the resurrection of all 
nature in spring, the germination of seeds that had been dead and sleep- 
ing during winter, and so were allegorically said to be kept in the under- 
world (Hades). They are typified by the three days passed in hell before 
his resurrection by Hercules, by Christ, and others. 

This derivation, or rather heresy, as it is called in Christianity, is 
simply the Brahmanic doctrine in all its archaic purity. Vishnu, the 
second personage of the Hmdu trinity, is also the Logos, for he is made 
subsequently to incarnate himself in Christna. And Lakmy (or Lakshmy) 
who, as in the case of Osiris, and Isis, of En-Soph and Sephira, and of 
Bythos and Ennoia, is both his wife, sister, and daughter, through this 
endless correlation of male and female creative powers in the abstruse 
metaphysics of the ancient philosophies — is Sophia-Achamoth. Christna 
is the mediator promised by Brahma to mankind, and represents the same 
idea as the Gnostic Christos. And Lakmy, Vishnu's spiritual half, is the 
emblem of physical nature, the universal mother of all the material and 
revealed forms ; the mediatrix and protector of nature, like Sophia-Acha- 
moth, who is made by the Gnostics the mediatrix between the Great 


Cause and Matter, as Christos is the mediator between him and spiritual 

This Brahmano-Gnostic tenet is more logical, and more consistent 
with the allegory of Genesis and the fall of man. When God curses the 
first couple. He is made to curse also the earth and everything that is on 
it. The New Testament gives us a Redeemer for the first sin of mankind, 
which was punished for having sinned ; but there is not a word said about 
a Saviour who would take off the unmerited curse from the earth and 
the animals, which had never sinned at all. Thus the Gnostic allegory 
shows a greater sense of both justice and logic than the Christian. 

In the Ophite system, Sophia, the Androgyne Wisdom, is also the 
female spirit, or the Hindu female Nari (Narayana), moving on the face 
of the waters — chaos, or future matter. She vivifies it from afar, but not 
touching the abyss of darkness. She is unable to do so, for Wisdom is 
l)urely intellectual, and cannot act directly on matter. Therefore, Sophia 
is obliged to address herself to her Supreme Parent ; but although life 
proceeds primally from the Unseen Cause, and his Ennoia, neither of them 
can, any more than herself, have anything to do with the lower chaos in 
which matter assumes its definite shape. Thus, Sophia is obliged to 
employ on the task her imperfect emanation, Sophia-Achanioth, the latter 
being of a mixed nature, half spiritual and half material. 

The only difference between the Ophite cosmogony and that of the St. 
John Nazarenes is a change of names. We find equally an identical system 
in the Kabala, the Book of Mystery {Liber Mysterii). * All the three sys- 
tems, especially that of the kabalists and the Nazarenes, which were the 
models^ox the Ophite Cosmogony, belong to the pure Oriental Gnosticism. 
The Codex Nazaraiis opens with : "The Supreme King of Light, Mano, 
the great first one," f etc., the latter being the emanation of Ferho — the 
unknown, formless Life. He is the chief of the ^ons, from whom pro- 
ceed (or shoot forth) five refulgent rays of Divine light. Mano is Rex 
Lucis, the Bythos-Ennoia of the Ophites. " Unus est Rex Lucis in sua 
regno, nee uUus qui eo altior, niillus qui ejus similitudinem retulerit, nullus 
qui sublatis oculis, viderit Coronam qum in ejus capite est." He is the Man- 
ifested Light around the highest of the three kabalistic heads, the concealed 
wisdom ; from him emanate the three Lives. /Ebel Zivo is the revealed 
Logos, Christos the "Apostle Gabriel," and the first Legate or messenger 
of light. If Bythos and Ennoia are the Nazarene Mano, then the dual- 
natured, the semi-spiritual, semi-material Achamoth must be Fetahil when 
viewed from her spiritual aspect; and if regarded in her grosser nature, 
she is the Nazarene " Spiritus." 

* See " Idra Magna." \ " Codex Nazartens," part i., p. 9. 


Fetahil,* who is the reflection of his father, Lord Abatiir, the third 
life — as the elder Sophia is also the third emanation — is the ." newest- 
man." Perceiving his fruitless attempts to create a perfect material 
world, the " Spiritus " calls to one of her progeny, the Karabtanos — Ilda- 
Baoth — who is without sense or judgment (" blind matter "), to unite him- 
self with her to create something definite out of this confused {turbii- 
lentos) matter, which task she is enabled to achieve only after having 
produced from this union with Karabtanos the seven stellars. Like the 
six sons or genii of the Gnostic Ilda-Baoth, they then frame the material 
world. The same story is repeated over again in Sophia-Achamoth. 
Delegated by her purely spiritual parent, the elder Sophia, to create the 
world of visible forms, she descended into chaos, and, overpowered by 
the emanation of matter, lost her wa}'. Still ambitious to create a world 
of matter of her own, she busied herself hovering to and fro about the 
(lark abyss, and imparted life and motion to the inert elements, until she 
became so hopelessly entangled in matter that, like Fetahil, she is repre- 
sented sitting immersed in mud, and unable to extricate herself from it ; 
until, by the contact of matter itself, she produces the Creator of the 
material world. He is the Demiurgus, called by the Ophites Ilda-Baoth, 
and, as we will directly show, the parent of the Jewish God in the opinion 
of some sects, and held by others to be the " Lord God " Himself. It is 
at this point of the kabahstic-gnostic cosmogony that begins the Mosaic 
Bible. Having accepted the Jewish Old Testament as their standard, no 
wonder that the Christians were forced by the exceptional position in 
which they were placed through their own ignorance, to make the best 
of it. 

The first groups of Christians, whom Renan shows numbering but 
from seven to twelve men in each church, belonged unquestionably to 
the poorest and most ignorant classes. They had and could have no 
idea of the highly philosophical doctrines of the Platonists and Gnostics, 
and evidently knew as little about their own newly-made-up religion. 
To these, who if Jews, had been crushed under the tyrannical dominion 
of the "law," as enforced by the elders of the synagogues, and if Pagans 
had been always excluded, as the lower castes are until now in India, 
from the religious mysteries, the God of the Jews and the "Father" 
preached by Jesus were all one. The contention which reigned from the 
first years following the death of Jesus, between the two parties, the Pau- 
line and the Petrine — were deplorable. What one did, the other deemed 

* See "Codex Nazarsens," i., 181. Fetahil, sent to frame the world, finds himself 
immersed in the abyss of mud, and soliloquizes in dismay until the Spiritus (Sophia- 
Achamoth) unites herself completely with matter, and so creates the material world. 


a sacred duty to undo. If the Homilies are considered apocryphal, and 
cannot very well be accepted as an infallible standard by which to meas- 
ure the animosity which raged between the two apostles, we have the 
Bible, and the proofs afforded therein are plentiful. 

So hopelessly entangled seems Irenasus in his fruitless endeavors to 
describe, to all outward appearance at least, the true doctrines of the 
many Gnostic sects of which he treats and to present them at the same 
time as abominable "heresies," that he either deliberately, or through 
ignorance, confounds all of them in such a way that few metaphysicians 
would be able to disentangle them, without the Kabala and the Codex 
as the true keys. Thus, for instance, he cannot even tell the difference 
between the Sethianites and the Ophites, and tells us that they called the 
" God of all," ^'- Hominem" a man, and his mind the second man, or the 
" Son of tnan." So does Theodoret, who lived more than two centuries 
after Irenaeus, and who makes a sad mess of the chronological order in 
which the various sects succeeded each other.* Neither the Sethianites, 
(a branch of the Jewish Nazarenes) nor the Ophites, a purely Greek sect, 
have ever held anything of the kind. Irenaeus contradicts his own. 
words by describing in another place the doctrines of Cerinthus, the 
direct disciple of Simon Magus. He says that Cerinthus taught that the 
world was not created by the first GOD, but by a virtue (virtus) or 
power, an JEon so distant from the First Cause that he was even ignorant 
of HIM who is above all things. This ^on subjected Jesus, he begot him 
physically through Joseph from one who was not a virgin, but simply the 
wife of that Joseph, and Jesus was born like all other men. Viewed 
from this physical aspect of his nature, Jesus was called the " son of man." 
It is only after his baptism, that Christos, the anointed, descended from 
the Princeliness of above, in the figure of a dove, and then announced the 
UNKNOWN Father through Jesus, f 

If, therefore, Jesus was physically considered as a son of man, and 
spiritually as the Christos, who overshadowed him, how then could the 
" GOD OF ALL," the " Unknown Father," be called by the Gnostics Homo, 
a MAN, and his Mind, Ennoia, the second man, or Son of mant 
Neither in the Oriental Kabala, nor in Gnosticism, was the " God of all" 
ever anthropomorphized. It is but the first, or rather the second emana- 
tions, for Shekinah, Sephira, Depth, and other first-manifested female 
virtues are also emanations, that are termed "primitive men." Thus 
Adam Kadmon, Ennoia (or Sig6), the logoi in short, are the "only-be- 
gotten" ones but not the Sons of man, which appellation properly be- 

* " Irenteus," 37, and Theodoret, quoted in the same page. , 
f Ibid., i. XXV. 


longs to Christos the son of Sophia (the elder) and of the prmiitive man 
who produces him through his own vivifying light, which emanates from 
the source or cause of all, hence the cause of his light also,' the " Un- 
known Father." There is a great difference made in the Gnostic meta- 
physics between the first unrevealfid Logos and the "anointed," who is 
Christos. Ennoia may be termed, as Philo understands it, the Second 
God, but he alone is the "Priraitiv-e and First man," and by no means 
the Second one, as Theodoret and Irenasus have it. It is but the inveterate 
desire of the latter to connect Jesus in every possible way, even in the 
Hxresies, with the Highest God, that led him into so many falsifications. 

Such an identification with the Unknown God, even of Christos, the 
anointed — the yEon who overshadowed him — let alone of the man Jesus, 
never entered the head of the Gnostics nor even of the direct apostles 
and of Paul, whatever later forgeries may have added. 

How daring and desperate were many such deliberate falsifications 
was shown in the first attempts to compare the original manuscripts with 
later ones. In Bishop Horseley's edition of Sir Isaac Newton's works, 
several manuscripts on theological subjects were cautiously withhel'd 
from publication. The article known as Chrisfs Descent into Hell, which 
is found in the later Apostles' Creed, is not to be found in the manu- 
scripts of either the fourth or sixth centuries. It was an evident interpo- 
lation copied from the fables of Bacchus and Hercules and enforced 
upon Christendom as an article of faith. Concerning it the author of the 
preface to the Catalogue of the Manuscripts of the Kin^ s Library {^xq- 
face, p. xxi.) remarks : " I wish that the insertion of the article of Christ s 
Descent into Hell into the Apostles' Creed could be as well ac- 
counted for as the insertion of the said verse " {First Epistle of John, 
V. 7). * 

Now, this verse reads : " For there are three that bear record in 
Heaven, the Father, the Word and the Holy Ghost ; and these three are 
one." This verse, which has been "appointed to be read in churches," 
is now known to be spurious. It is not to be found in any Greek manu- 
script, '■' save one at Berlin, which was transcribed from some interpolated 
paraphrase between the lines. In the first and second editions of Eras- 
mus, printed in 1516 and 1519, this allusion to these three heavenly wit- 
nesses is omitted ; and the text is not contained in any Greek manu- 
script which was written earher than the fifteenth century, f It was not 

" See preface to the "Apocryphal New Testament," London, printed for W. 
Hone, Ludgate Hill, 1S20. 

\ " It is first cited by Virgilius Tapsensis, a Latin writer of no credit, in the latter 
end of the fifth century, and by him it is suspected to have been forged." 


mentioned by either of the Greek ecclesiastical writers nor by the early 
Latin fathers, so anxious to get at every proof in support of their trinity ; 
and it was omitted by Luther in his German version. Edward Gibbon 
was early in pointing out its spurious character. Archbishop Newcome 
rejected it, and the Bishop of Lincoln expresses his conviction that it is 
spurious. * There are twenty-eight Greek authors — Iren^eus, Clemens, 
and Athanasius included, who neither quote nor mention it ; and seven- 
teen Latin writers, numbering among them Augustine, Jerome, Ambro- 
sius, Cyprian, and Pope Eusebius, who appear utterly ignorant of it. 
" It is evident that if the text of the heavenly witnesses had been known 
from the beginning of Christianity the ancients would have eagerly seized 
it, inserted it in their creeds, quoted it repeatedly against the heretics, 
and selected it for the brightest ornament of every book that they wrote 
upon the subject of the Trinity." f 

Thus falls to the ground the strongest trinitarian pillar. Another not 
less obvious forgery is quoted from Sir Isaac Newton's words by the edi- 
tor of the Apocryphal New Testament. Newton observes " that what the 
Latins have done to this text {First Epistle of John, v.), the Greeks have 
done to that of St. Paul {Timothy iii. i6). For, by changing OS into 02, 
the abbreviation of ®€os (God), in the Alexandrian manuscript, from which 
their subsequent copies were made, they now read, " Great is the mystery 
of godliness, God manifested in the flesh j" whereas all the churches, for 
the first four or five centuries, and the authors of all the ancient versions, 
Jerome, as well as the rest, read : " Great is the mystery of godliness 
WHICH WAS manifested in the flesh." Newton adds, that now that the dis- 
putes over this forgery are over, they that read God made manifest in 
the flesh, instead of the godliness which was manifested in the flesh, 
think this passage " one of the most obvious and pertinent texts for the 

And now we ask again the question : Who were the first Christians ? 
Those who vk^ere readily converted by the eloquent simplicity of Paul, who 
promised them, with the name of Jesus, freedom from the narrow bonds of 
ecclesiasticism. They understood but one thing ; they were the " chil- 
dren of promise" {Galatians iv. 28). The "allegory" of the Mosaic 
Bible was unveiled to them ; the covenant " from the Mount Sinai which 
giindtreth to bondage" vidis Agar (Ibid., 24), the old Jewish synagogue, 
and she was " in bondage with her children " to Jerusalem, the new and 
the free, " the mother of us all." On the one hand the synagogue and 
the law which persecuted every one who dared to step across the narrow 

* "Elements of Theology," vol. ii., p. go, note. 
•j- Parson's " Letters to Travis," 8vo. , p. 402. 


path of bigotry and dogmatism ; on the other, Paganism * with its grand 
philosophical truths concealed from sight ; unveiling itself but to the few, 
and leaving the masses hopelessly seeking to discover who was the god, 
among this overcrowded pantheon of deities and sub-deities. To others, 
the apostle of circumcision, supported by all his followers, was promising, 
if they obeyed the " law," a life hereafter, and a resurrection of which 
they had no previous idea. At the same time he never lost an occasion 
to contradict Paul without naming him, but indicating him so clearly 
that it is next to impossible to doubt whom Peter meant. While he may 
have converted some men, who whether they had believed in the Mosaic 
resurrection promised by the Pharisees, or had fallen into the nihilistic 
doctrines of the Sadducees, or had belonged to the polytheistic heathen- 
ism of the Pagan rabble, had no future after death, nothing but a mourn- 
ful blank, we do not think that the work of contradiction, carried on so 
systematically by the two apostles, had helped much their work of prose- 
lytism. With the educated thinking classes they succeeded very little, 
as ecclesiastical history clearly shows. Where was the truth ; where 
the inspired word of God ? On the one hand, as we have seen, they 
heard the apostle Paul explaining that of the two covenants, " which 
things are an allegory," the old one from Mount Sinai, " which gendereth 
unto bondage," was Agar the bondwoman ; and Mount Sinai itself 
answered to "Jerusalem," which now is "in bondage" with her circum- 
cised children ; and the new covenant meant Jesus Christ — the " Jeru- 
salem which is above and free ; " and on the other Peter, who was 
contradicting and even abusing him." Paul vehemently exclaims, 
" Cast out the bondwoman and her son " (the old law and the syna- 
gogue). " The son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of 

* The term *' Paganism" is properly used by many modern writers with hesitation. 
Professor Alexander Wilder, in his edition of Payne Knight's " Symbolical Language of 
Ancient Art and Mythology," says : " It {' Paganism ') has degenerated into slang, and 
is generally employed with more or less of an opprobrious meaning. The correcter 
expression would have been 'the ancient ethnical worships,' but it would be hardly 
understood in its true sense, and we accordingly have adopted the term in popular use, 
but not disrespectfully. A religion which can develop a Plato, an Epictetus, and an 
Anaxagoras, is not gross, superficial, or totally unworthy of candid attention. Besides, 
many of the rites and doctrines included in the Christian as well as in the Jewish Insti- 
tute, appeared first in the other systems. Zoroastrianism anticipated far more than has 
been imagined. The cross, the priestly robes and symbols, the sacraments, the Sabbath, 
the festivals and anniversaries, are all anterior to the Christian era by thousands of 
years. The ancient worship, after it had been excluded from its former shrines, and 
from the metropolitan towns, was maintained for a long time by the inhabitants of 
humble localities. To this fact it owes its later designation. From being kept up in 
the Pagi, or rural districts, its votaries were denominated Pagans^ or provincials." 


the freewoman." " Stand fast, therefore, in the liberty wherewith Christ 
hath made us free; be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage. 
. . . Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall 
profit you nothing!" {Gal. v. 2). What do we find Peter writing? 
Whom does he mean by saying, " These who speak great swelling words 
of vanity. . . . While they promise them liberty, they themselves are 
servants of corruption, for of whom a man is overcome, of the same is he 
brought in bondage. . . . For if they have escaped the pollution of the 
world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour, they are again 
entangled therein, and overcome ... it had been better for them not to 
have known the way of righteousness, than after they have known it 
to turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them " (Second 

Peter certainly cannot have meant the Gnostics, for they, had never 
seen " the holy commandment delivered unto them ; " Paul had. They 
never promised any one " liberty " from bondage, but Paul had done so 
repeatedly. Moreover the latter rejects the " old covenant," Agar the 
bondwoman ; and Peter holds fast to it. Paul warns the people against 
the powers and dignities (the lower angels of the kabalists); and Peter, 
as will be shown further, respects them and denounces those who do not. 
Peter preaches circumcision, and Paul forbids it. 

Later, when all these extraordinary blunders, contradictions, dissen- 
sions and inventions were forcibly crammed into a frame elaborately 
executed by the episcopal caste of the new religion, and called Chris- 
tianity ; and the chaotic picture itself cunningly preserved from too 
close scrutiny by a whole array of formidable Church penances and 
anathemas, which kept the curious back under the false pretense of 
sacrilege and profanation of divine mysteries ; and millions of people had 
been butchered in the name of the God of mercy — then came the 
Reformation. It certainly deserves its name in its fullest parodoxical 
sense. It abandoned Peter and alleges to have chosen Paul for its only 
leader. And the apostle who thundered against the old law of bond- 
age ; who left fall liberty to Christians to either observe the Sabbath or set 
it aside ; who rejects everything anterior to John the Baptist, is now the 
professed standard-bearer of Protestantism, which holds to the old law 
more than the Jews, imprisons those who view the Sabbath as Jesus and 
Paul did, and outvies the synagogue of the first century in dogmatic in- 
tolerance ! 

But who then were the first Christians, may still be asked ? Doubt- 
less the Ebionites ; and in this we follow the authority of the best critics. 
" There can be little doubt that the author (of the Clemcnti7ie Homilies) 
was a representative of Ebionitic Gnosticism, which had once been the 


purestjorm of primitive Christianity. . . . " * And who were the Ebion- 
ites? The pupils and followers of the early Nazarenes, the kabalistic 
Gnostics. In the preface to the 'Codex Nazarceus, the translator says : 
" That also the Nazarenes did not reject . . . the yEons is natural. For 
of the Ebionites who acknowledged them (the ^ons), these were the in- 
structors." f 

We find, moreover, Epiphanius, the Christian Homer of The Heresies, 
telling us that " Ebion had the opinion of the Nazarenes, the form of the 
Cerinthians (who fable that the world was put together by angels), and 
the appellation of Christians." \ An appellation certainly more correctly 
applied to them than to the orthodox (so-called) Christians of the school 
of Irenjeus and the later Vatican. Renan shows the Ebionites num- 
bering among their sect all the surviving relatives of Jesus. John the 
Baptist, his cousin and precursor, was the accepted Saviour of the Naza- 
renes, and their prophet. His disciples dwelt on the other side of the 
Jordan, and the scene of the baptism of the Jordan is clearly and beyond 
any question proved by the author of Sod, the Son of the Man, to have 
been the site of the Adonis-worship. § " Over the Jordan and beyond the 
lake dwelt the Nazarenes, a sect said to have existed already at the birth 
of Jesus, and to have counted him among its number. They must have 
extended along the east of the Jordan, and southeasterly among the Arab- 
ians {Galat. i. 17, 21 ; ii. .11), and Sabreans in the direction of Bosra ; and 
again, they must have gone far north over the Lebanon to Antioch, also 
to the northeast to the Nazarian settlement in Beroea, where St. Jerome 
found them. In the desert the Mysteries of Adonis may have still pre- 
vailed ; in the mountains Aiai Adonai was still a cry." || 

" Having been united (conjunctus) to the Nazarenes, each (Ebionite) 
imparted to the other out of his own wickedness, and decided that Christ 
was of the seed of a man," writes Epiphanius. 

And if they did, we must suppose they knew more about their con- 
temporary prophet than Epiphanius 400 years later. Theodoret, as 
shown elsewhere, describes the Nazarenes as Jews who "honor the 
Anointed as a just man," and use the evangel called '■'■According to 
Peter." Jeroine finds the authentic and original evangel, written in 
Hebrew, by Matthew the apostle-publican, in the library collected at 
CcBsarea, by the martyr Paraphilius. " / received permission from the 
Nazarxans, who at Beroea of Syria used this (gospel) to translate it," he 

* "Super. Relig.," vol. ii., p. 5. f Norberg : Preface to '' Cod. Naz.," p. v. 

X Epiph. : " Contra Ebionitas." g See preface, from page i to 34. 

\ Ibid., p. 7, preface. 


writes toward the end of the fourth century. * " In the evangel vMoh 
the Nazarenes and Ebionites use," adds Jerome, "which recently I trans- 
lated from Hebrew into Greek, f and which is called by most persons the 
genuine Gospel of Matthew," etc. 

That the apostles had received a " secret doctrine" from Jesus, and 
that he himself taught one, is evident from the following words of Jerome, 
who confessed it in an unguarded moment. Writing to the Bishops 
Chromatins and HeHodorus, he complains that " a difficult work is 
enjoined, since this translation has been commanded me by your Felici- 
ties, which St. Matthew himself, the Apostle and Evangelist, did not 
WISH TO BE OPENLY WRITTEN. For if it had not been secret, he (Mat- 
thew) would have added to the evangel that which he gave forth was 
his ; but he made up this book sealed up in the Hebrew characters, 
which he put forth even in such a way that the book, written in Hebrew 
letters and by the hand of himself, might be possessed by the men most 
religious, who also, in the course of time, received it from those who pre- 
ceded them. But this very book they never gave to any one to be tran- 
scribed, and its text they related some one way and some another." \ 
And he adds further on the same page : " And it happened that this 
book, having been published by a disciple of Manichsus, named Seleucus, 
who also wrote falsely The Acts of the Apostles, exhibited matter not for 
edification, but for destruction ; and that this book was approved in a 
synod which the ears of the Church properly refused to listen to." § 

He admits, himself, that the book which he authenticates as being writ- 
ten "by the hand of Matthew ;" a book which, notwithstanding that he 

* Hieronymus: "De Virus.," illust., cap. 3. " It is remarkable that, while all church 
fathers say that Matthew wrote in Hebrew, the whole of them use the Greek text as 
the genuine apostolic writing, without mentioning what relation tire Hebrew Matthew 
has to our Greek one ! It had many peculiar additwns which are wanting in our 
evangel." (Olshausen : " Nachweis der Echtheit der sammtlichen Schriften des 
Neuen Test.," p. 32; Dunlap ; "Sod, the Son of the Man," p. 44.) 

■]- Hieronymus : '' Commen. to Matthew," book ii., ch. xii., 13. Jerome adds that 
it was written in the Chaldaic language, but with Hebrew letters. 

X " St. Jerome," v., 445 ; " Sod, the Son of the Man," p. 46. 

§ This accounts also for the rejection of the works of Justin Martyr, who used only 
this " Gospel according to the Hebrews," as also did most probably Titian, his disciple. 
At what late period was fully established the divinity of Christ we can judge by the mere 
fact that even in the fourth century Eusebius did not denounce this book as spurious, 
but only classed it with such as the Apocalypse of John ; and Credner (" Zur Gesch. 
Des Kan.," p. 120) shows Nicephorus inserting it, together with the Revelation, in his 
" Stichometry," among the Antilegomena. The Ebionites, the genuine primitive Chris- 
tians, rejecting the rest of the apostolic writings, made use only of this Gospel ("Adv. 
Hoer."i., 26), and the Ebionites, as Epiphanius declares, firmly believed, with the 
Nazarenes, that Jesus was but a man " of the seed of a man." 


translated it twice, was nearly unintelligible to him, for it was arcane 
or a secret. Nevertheless, Jerome coolly sets down every commentary 
upon it, except his own, as heretical. More than that, Jerome knew 
that this original Gospel of Matthew was the expounder of the only true 
doctrine of Christ ; and that it was the work of an evangelist who had 
been the friend and companion of Jesus. He knew that if of the two 
Gospels, the Hebrew in question and the Greek belonging to our present 
Scripture, one was spurious, hence heretical, it was not that of the Naza- 
renes ; and yet, knowing all this, Jerome becomes more zealous than ever 
in his persecutions of the " Hjeretics." Why? Because to accept it 
was equivalent to reading the death-sentence of the established Church. 
The Gospel according to the Hebrews was but too well known to have 
been the only one accepted for four centuries by the Jewish Christians, 
the Nazarenes and the Ebionites. And neither of the latter accepted the 
divinity of Christ. 

If the commentaries of Jerome on the Prophets, his famous Vulgate, 
and numerous polemical treatises are all as trustworthy as this version 
of the Gospel according to Matthew, then we have a divine revelation 

Why wonder at the unfathomable mysteries of the Christian religion, 
since it is perfectly human 1 Have we not a letter written by one of the 
most respected Fathers of the Church to this same Jerome, which shows 
better than whole volumes their traditionary policy ? This is what Saint 
Gregory of Nazianzen wrote to his friend and confidant Saint Jerome : 
" Nothing can impose better on a people than verbiage ; the less they 
understand the more they admire. Our fathers and doctors have often 
said, not what they thought, but what circumstances and necessity forced 
them to." 

But to return to our Sophia-Achamoth and the belief of the genuine, 
primitive Christians. 

After having produced Ilda-Baoth, Ilda from -hi, a child, and Baoth 
from ii-iia, the egg, or Mns, Baoth, a waste, a desolation, Sophia-Achamoth 
suffered so much from the contact with matter, that after extraordinary 
struggles she escapes at last out of the muddy chaos. Although unac- 
quainted with the pleroma, the region of her mother, she reached the 
middle space and succeeded in shaking off the material parts which 
have stuck to her spiritual nature ; after which she immediately built a 
strong barrier between the world of intelligences (spirits) and the world 
of matter. Ilda-Baoth, is thus the " son of darkness," the creator of our 
sinful world (the physical portion of it). He follows the example of 
Bythos and produces from himself six stellar spirits (sons). They are all 
in his own image, and reflections one of the other, which become darker 


as they successively recede from their father. With the latter, they all 
inhabit seven regions disposed like a ladder, beginning under the middle 
space, the region of their mother, Sophia-Achamoth, and ending with our 
earth, the seventh region. Thus they are the genii of the seven planetary 
spheres of which the lowest is the region of our earth (the sphere which 
surrounds it, our aether). The respective names of these genii of the 
spheres are Imie (Jehovah), Sabaoth, Adonai, Eloi, Ouraios, Astaphaios* 
The first four, as every one knows, are the mystic names of the Jewish 
" Lord God," f he being, as C. W. King expresses it, " thus degraded by the 
Ophites into the appellations of the subordinates of the Creator ; "the 
two last names are those of the genii of fire and water." 

Ilda-Baoth, whom several sects regarded as the God of Moses, was 
not a pure spirit ; he was ambitious and proud, and rejecting the spirit- 
ual light of the middle space offered him by his mother Sophia-Achamoth, 
he set himself to create a world of his own. Aided by his sons, the six 
planetary genii, he fabricated man, but this one proved a failure. It 
was a monster ; soulless, ignorant, and crawling on all fours on the 
ground like a material beast. Ilda-Baoth was forced to implore the help 
of his spiritual mother. She communicated to him a ray of her divine 
light, and so animated man and endowed him with a soul. And now 
began the animosity of Ilda-Baoth toward his own creature. Following 
the impulse of the divine light, man soared higher and higher in his aspi- 
rations ; very soon he began presenting not the image of his Creator 
Ilda-Baoth but rather that of the Supreme Being, the " primitive man," 
Ennoia, Then the Uemiurgus was filled with rage and envy ; and fixing 
his jealous eye on the abyss of matter, his looks envenomed with passion 
were suddenly reflected in it as in a mirror ; the reflection became ani- 
mate, and there arose out of the abyss Satan, serpent, Ophiomorphos — 
" the embodiment of envy and of cunning. He is the union of all that 
is most base in matter, with the hate, envy, and craft of a spiritual intel- 
ligence." J 

After that, always in spite at the perfection of man, Ilda-Baoth created 
the three kingdoms of nature, the mineral, vegetable, and animal, with all 
evil instincts and properties. Impotent to annihilate the Tree of Knowl- 
edge, which grows in his sphere as in every one of the planetary regions, 
but bent upon detaching "man" from his spiritual protectress, Ilda-Baoth 
forbade him to eat of its fruit, for fear it should reveal to mankind the 

* See King's "Gnostics," p. 31. 

\ This love, lao, or Jehovali is quite distinct from the God of the Mysteries, Iao, 
held sacred by all the nations of antiquity. We will show the difference presently. 
\ King's " Gnostics." 


mysteries of the superior world. But Sophia-Achanioth, who loved and 
protected the man whom she had animated, sent her own genius Ophis, in 
the form of a serpent to induce man to transgress the selfish and unjust 
conmiand. And " man " suddenly became capable of comprehending 
the mysteries of creation. 

Ilda-Baotli r&venged himself by punishing the first pair, for man, 
through his knowledge, had already provided for himself a companion out 
of his spiritual and material half. He imprisoned man and woman in a 
Jungeon of matter, in the body so unworthy of his nature, wherein man 
is still enthralled. But Achamoth protected him still. She established 
between her celestial region and " man," a current of divine light, and 
kept constantly supplying him with this spiritual illumination. 

Then follow allegories embodying the idea of dualism, or the struggle 
between good and evil, spirit and matter, which is found in every cos- 
mogony, and the source of which is again to be sought in India. The 
types and antit}'pes represent the heroes of this Gnostic Pantheon, bor- 
rowed from the most ancient mythopceic ages. But, in these personages, 
Opliis and Ophiomorphos, Sophia and Sophia-Achamoth, Adam-Kadmon, 
and Adam, the planetary genii and the divine .^ons, we can also recog- 
nize very easily the models of our bibhcal copies — the euhemerized pa- 
triarchs. The archangels, angels, virtues and powers, are all found, under 
other names, in the Vedas and the Buddhistic system. The Avestic 
Supreme Being, Zero-ana, or " Boundless Time," is the type of all these 
Gnostic and kabalistic " Depths," " Crowns," and even of the Chaldean 
En-Soph. The six Amshaspands, created through the "Word" of Or- 
mazd, the " First-Born," have their reflections in Bythos and his emana- 
tions, and the antitype of Ormazd — Ahriman and his devs also enter 
into the composition of Ilda-Baoth and his six material, though not wholly 
evil, planetary genii. 

Achamoth, afflicted with the evils which befall humanity, notwithstand- 
ing her protection, beseeches the celestial mother Sophia — her antitype — 
to prevail on the unknown Depth to send down Christos (the son and 
emanation of the " Celestial Virgin ") to the help of perishing humanity. 
Ilda-Baoth and his six sons of matter ate shutting out the divine light 
from mankind. Man must be saved. Ilda-Baoth had already sent his 
own agent, John the Baptist, from the race of Seth, whom he protects — as 
a prophet to his people ; but only a small portion listened to him — the 
Nazarenes, the opponents of the Jews, on account of their worshipping 
lurbo-Adunai.* Achamoth had assured her son, Ilda-Baoth, that the 

* lurbo and Adunai, according to the Ophites, are names of lao- Jehovah, one of the 
emanations of Ilda-Baoth. " lurbo is called by the Abortions (the Jews) Adunai " 
(■'Codex Nazarasus," vol. iii., p. 73). 


reign of Christos would be only temporal, and thus induced him to send 
the forerunner, or precursor. Besides that, she made him cause the birth 
of the Jiian Jesus from the Virgin Mary, her own type on earth, "for 
the creation of a material personage could only be the work of the Demi- 
urgus, not falling within the province of a higher power. As soon as 
Jesus was born, Christos, the perfect, uniting himself with Sophia (wisdom 
and spirituality), descended through the seven planetary regions, assum- 
ing in each an analogous form, and concealing his true nature fi'oni their 
genii, while he attracted into himself the sparks of divine light which they 
retained in their essence. Thus, Christos entered into the mati Jesus at 
the moment of his baptism in the Jordan. From that time Jesus began 
to work miracles ; before that, he had been completely ignorant of his 
mission." * 

Ilda-Baoth, discovering that Christos was bringing to an end his own 
kingdom of matter, stirred up the Jews against him, and Jesus was put to 
death, f When on the Cross, Christos and Sophia left his body and re- 
turned to their own sphere. The material body of the man Jesus was 
abandoned to the earth, but he himself was given a body made up of 
ather (astral soul). " Thenceforward he consisted of merely soul and 
spirit, which was the reason wh)' the disciples did not recognize him after 
the resurrection. In this spiritual state of a simulacrum, Jesus remained 
on earth for eighteen months after he had risen. During this last 
sojourn, " he received from Sophia that perfect knowledge, that true 
Gnosis, which he communicated to the very few among the apostles who 
were capable of receiving the same." 

" Thence, ascending up into the middle space, he sits on the right 
hand of Ilda-Baoth, but unperceived by him, and there collects all the 
souls which shall have been purified by the knowledge of Christ. When 
he has collected all the spiritual light that exists in matter, out of Ilda- 
Baoth's empire, the redemption will be accomplished and the world will 
be destroyed. Such is the meaning of the re-absorption of all the spir- 
itual light into the pleroma or fulness, whence it originally descended." 

* King: " The Gnostics and their Remains," p. 31. 

\ In the " Gospel of Nicodemus," Ilda-Baoth is called Satan by the pious and anony- 
mous author ; — evidently, one of the final flings at the half-crushed enemy. " As for 
me," says Satan, excusing himself to the prince of hell, " I tempted him (Jesus), and 
stirred up my old people, the Jews, against him" (chap. xv. 9). Of all examples of 
Christian ingratitude this seems almost the most conspicuous. The poor Jews are first 
robbed of their sacred books, and then, in a spurious " Gospel," are insulted by the repre- 
sentation of Satan claiming them as his "old people." If they were his people, and at 
the same time are " God's chosen people," then the name of this God must be written 
Satan and not Jehovah. This is logic, but we doubt if it can be regarded as compli 
mentary to the " Lord God of Israel." 


The foregoing is from the description given by Theodoret and adopted 
by King in his Gnostics, with additions from Epiphanius apd Irenaeus. 
But the former gives a very imperfect version, concocted partly from the 
descriptions of Irenasus, and partly from his own knowledge of the later 
Ophites, who, toward the end of the third century, had blended already 
with several other sects. Irenajus also confounds them very frequently, 
and the real theogony of the Ophites is given by none of them correctly. 
With the exception of a change in names, the above-given theogony is 
that of all the Gnostics, and also of the Nazarenes. Ophis is but the 
successor of the Egyptian Chnuphis, the Good Serpent with a lion's radi- 
ating head, and was held from days of the highest antiquity as an emblem 
of wisdom, or Thauth, the instructor and Saviour of humanity, the " Son 
of God." " Oh men, live soberly . . . win your immortality ! " exclaims 
Hermes, the thrice-great Trismegistus. " Instructor and guide of human- 
ity, I will lead you on to salvation." Thus the oldest sectarians regarded 
Ophis, the Agathodsemon, as identical with Christos ; the serpent being 
the emblem of celestial wisdom and eternity, and, in the present case, the 
antitype of the Egyptian Chnuphis-serpent. These Gnostics, the earliest 
of our Christian era, held : " That the supreme yEon, having emitted other 
yEons out of himself, one of them, a female, Prunnikos (concupiscence), 
descended into the chaos, whence, unable to escape, she remained sus- 
pended in the mid-space, being too clogged by matter to return above, and 
not falling lower where there was nothing in affinity with her nature. She 
then produced her son Ilda-Baoth, the God of the Jews, who, in his turn, 
produced seven ^ohs, or angels,* who created the seven heavens." 

In this plurality of heavens the Christians believed from the first, for 
we find Paul teaching of their existence, and speaking of a man "caught 
up to the third heaven" (2 Corin., xiii.). " Erom these seven angels 
Ilda-Baoth shut up all that was above him, lest they should know of any- 
thing superior to himself f They then created man in the image of their 
Father, | but prone and crawling on the earth like a worm. But the 
heavenly mother, Prunnikos, wishing to deprive Ilda-Baoth of the power 

* This is the Nazarene system ; the Spiritus, after uniting herself with Karabtanos 
{matter^ turbulent and senseless), brings forth seven badly-disposed stellars^ in the Orcus ; 
*' Seven Figures," which she bore " witless" ( "Codex Nazarseus," i., p. iiS). Justin 
Martyr evidently adopts this idea, for he tells us of "the sacred prophets, who say that 
one and the same spirit is divided into scv.en spirits (pneumata). " Justin ad Grsecos ; " 
"Sod," vol. ii., p. 52. In the Apocalypse the Holy Spirit is subdivided into "seven 
spirits before the throne," from the Persian Mithraic mode of classifying. 

f This certainly looks like the ^'Jealous God" of the Jews. 

X It is the Elohim (plural) who create Adam, and do not wish man to become "as 
one of cs." 


with which she had unwittingly endowed him, infused into mftn a celestial 
spark— the spirit. Immediately man rose upon his feet, soared in mind 
beyond the limits of the seven spheres, and glorified the Supreme Father, 
Him that is above Ilda-Baoth. Hence, the latter, full of jealousy, cast 
down his eyes upon the lowest stratum of matter, and begot a potency in 
the form of a serpent, whom they (the Ophites) call his son. Eve, obey- 
ing him as the son of God, was persuaded to eat of the Tree of Knowledge.* 

It is a self-evident fact that the serpent of the Genesis, who appears 
suddenly and without any preliminary introduction, must have been the 
antitype of the Persian Arch-Devs, whose head is Ash-Mogh, the " two- 
footed serpent of Hes." If the ^iW^-serpent had been deprived of his 
Hmbs before he had tempted woman unto sin, why should God specify as 
a punishment that he should go " upon his belly ? " Nobody supposes 
that he walked upon the extremity of his tail. 

This controversy about the supremacy of Jehovah, between the Pres- 
byters and Fathers on the one hand, and the Gnostics, the Nazarenes, 
and all the sects declared heterodox, as a last resort, on the other, lasted 
till the days of Constantine, and later. That the peculiar ideas of the 
Gnostics about the genealogy of Jehovah, or the proper place that had 
to be assigned, in the Christian-Gnostic Pantheon, to the God of the Jews, 
were at first deemed neither blasphemous nor heterodox is evident 
in the difterence of opinions held on this question by Clemens of Alex- 
andria, for instance, and Tertullian. The former, who seems to have 
known of Basilides better than anybody else, saw nothing heterodox or 
blamable in the mystical and transcendental views of the new Refor- 
mer. " In his eyes," remarks the author of The Gnostics, speaking of 
Clemens, " Basihdes was not a heretic, i.e., an innovator as regards the 
doctrines of the Christian Church, but a mere theosophic philosopher, 
who sought to express ancient truths under new forms, and perhaps to 
combine them with the new faith, the truth of which he could admit 
without necessarily renouncing the old, exactly as 'is the case with the 
learned Hindus of our day." f 

Not so with Irenasus and Tertullian.J The principal works of the 
latter against the Heretics, were written after his separation from the 
Catholic Church, when he had ranged himself among the zealous fol- 
lowers of Montanus ; and teem with unfairness and bigoted prejudice. § 

* Theodoret : " Hasret. ; " King's "Gnostics." 

f " Gnostics and their Remains," p. 78. 

I Some persons hold that he was Bishop of Rome ; others, of Carthage. 

§ His polemical work addressed against the so-called orthodox Church — the Cath- 
olic — notwithstanding its bitterness and usual style of vituperation, is far more fair, con- 
sidering that the " great African" is said to have been expelled from the Church of 

tertullian's abuse of basilides. 189 

He has exaggerated every Gnostic opinion to a monstrous absurdity, 
and his arguments are not based on coercive reasoning but simply on 
the blind stubbornness of a partisan fanatic. Discussing Basilides, the 
" pious, god-like, theosophic philosopher," as Clemens of Alexandria 
thought him, TertuUian exclaims : " After this, Basilides, the heretic, 
broke loose. * He asserted that there is a Supreme God, by name 
Abraxas, by whom Mind was created, whom the Greeks call Nous. 
From her emanated the \Vord ; from the Word, Providence ; from Prov- 
idence, Virtue and Wisdom ; from these two again, Virtues, Principal- 
ities, f ami Powers were made ; thence infinite productions and emis- 
sions of angels. Among the lowest angels, indeed, and those that 
made this world, he sets last of all the god of the Jews, whom he denies 
to be God himself, affirming that he is but one of the angels." \ 

It would be equally useless to refer to the direct apostles of Christ, 
and show them as- holding in their controversies that Jesus never made 
any difference between his " Father " and the " Lord-God " of Moses. 
For the Clementine Homilies, in which occur the greatest argumentations 
upon the subject, as shown in the disputations alleged to have taken 
place between Peter and Simon the Magician, are now also proved to 
have been falsely attributed to Clement the Roman. This work, if written 
by an Eblonite — as the author of Supernatural Religion declares in com- 
mon with some other commentators § — must have been written either far 
later than the Pauline period, generally assigned to it, or the dispute 

Rome. If we believe St. Jerome, it is but the envy and the unmerited calumnies of 
the early Roman clergy against TertuUian which forced him to renounce the Catholic 
Church and become a Montanisl. However, were the unlimited admiration of St. 
Cyprian, who terms TertuUian *' The Master," and his estimate of him merited, we 
would see less error and paganism in the Church of Rome. The expression of Vin- 
cent of Lerius, " that every word of TertuUian was a sentence, and every sentence a 
triumph over error, ''^ does not seem very happy when" we think of the respect paid 
to TertuUian by the Church of Rome, notwithstanding his partial apostasy and the 
errors in which the latter still abides and has even enforced upon the world as i?ifalli- 
ble dogmas. 

* Were not the views of the Phrygian Bishop Montanus, also deemed a HERESY 
by the Church of Rome ? It is quite extraordinary to see how easily the Vatican 
encourages the abuse of one heretic TertuUian, against another heretic Basilides, when 
the abuse happens to further her own object. 

f Does not Paul himself speak of "Principalities and Powers in heavenly 
places " (Ephesians iii. 10 ; i. 21), and confess that there be gods many and Lords many 
(Kurioi) ? And angels, powers (Dunameis), and Principalities? (See I Corinthians, 
viii. 5 ; and Epistle to Romans, viii. 38.) 

I TertuUian : " Praescript " 

§ Baur ; Credner ; HUgenfeld ; Kirchhofer ; Lechler ; Nicolas ; Ritschl ; Schweg- 
ler; Westcott, and Zeller ; see " Supernatural Religion," vol. ii., p. 2. 


about the identity of Jehovah with God, the " Father of Jesus," have 
been distorted by later interpolations. This disputation is in its very 
essence antagonistic to the early doctrines of the Ebionites. The latter, 
as demonstrated by Epiphanius and Theodoret, were the direct follow- 
ers of the Nazarene sect* (the Sabians), the " Disciples of John." He 
says, unequivocally, that the Ebionites believed in the jEons (emana- 
tions), that the Nazarenes were their mstructors, and that " each imparted 
to the other out of his own wickedness." Therefore, holding the same 
behefs as the Nazarenes did, an Ebionite would not have given even so 
much chance to the doctrine supported by Peter in the Homilies. The 
old Nazarenes, as well as the later ones, whose views are embodied in 
the Codex Nazarceus, never called Jehovah otherwise than Adonai, 
lurbo, the God of the Abortive \ (the orthodox Jews). They kept 
their beliefs and religious tenets so secret that even Epiphanius, writing 
as early as the end of the fourth century, J confesses his ignorance as to 
their real doctrine. " Dropping the name of Jesus," says the Bishop of 
Salamis, " they neither call themselves lessacns, nor continue to hold the 
name of the Jews, nor name themselves Christians, but Nazarenes . . . 
The resurrection of the dead is confessed by them . . . but concerning 
Christ, I cannot say whether they think him a mere man, or as the truth 
is, confess that he was born through the Jlofy Pneuma from the Vir- 


While Simon Magus argues in the Homilies from the standpoint of 

every Gnostic (Nazarenes and Ebionites included), Peter, as a true 
apostle of circumcision, holds to the old Law and, as a matter of course, 
seeks to blend his belief in the divinity of Christ with his old Faith in 
the "Lord God" and ex-protector of the "chosen people." As the 
author of Supernatural Religion shows, the Epitome, || " a blending of 
the other two, probably intended to purge them from heretical doc- 
trine " \ and, together with a great majority of critics, assigns to the 
Homilies, a date not earlier than the end of the third century, we may 
well infer that they must differ widely with their original, if there ever 
was one. Simon the Magician proves throughout the whole work that 

* See Epiphanius : " Contra Ebionitas." 

f The Ophites, for instance, made of Adonai the third son of Ilda-Baoth, a 
malignant genius, and, lilie his other five brothers, a constant enemy and adversary of 
man, whose divine and immortal spirit gave man the means of becoming the rival of 
these genii, 

X The Bishop of Salamis died A.D. 403. § " Epiphanius," i., 122, 123. 

II The "Clementines " are composed of three parts — to vfit : the Homilies, the Re- 
cognitions, and an Epitome. 

•[ " Supernatural Religion," vol. ii., p. 2. 


the Demiurgus, the Architect of the World, is not the highest Deity ; 
and he bases his assertions upon the words of- Jesus himself, who states 
repeatedly that " no man knew the Father." Peter is made in the 
Homilies to repudiate, with a great show of indignation, the assertion that 
the Patriarchs were not deemed worthy to know the Father ; to which 
Simon objects again by quoting the words of Jesus, who thanks the 
" Lord of Heaven and earth that what was concealed from the wise " 
he has " revealed to babes," proving very logically that according to 
these very words the Patriarchs could not have known the " Father." 
Then Peter argues, in his turn, that the expression, " what is concealed 
from the wise," etc., referred to the concealed mysteries of the creation.* 

This argumentation of Peter, therefore, had it even emanated from 
the apostle himself, instead of being a " religious romance," as the author 
of Supernatural Religion calls it, would prove nothing whatever in favor 
of the identity of the God of the Jews, with the " Father " of Jesus. At 
best it would only demonstrate that Peter had remained from first to last 
'■ an apostle of circumcision," a Jew faithful to his old law, and a defender 
of the Old Testament. This conversation proves, moreover, the weak- 
ness of the cause he defends, for we see in the apostle a man who, 
although in most intimate relations with Jesus, can furnish us nothing in 
the way of direct proof that he ever thought of teaching that the all-wise 
and all-good Paternity he preached was the morose and revengeful thun- 
derer of Mount Sinai. But what the Homilies do prove, is again our 
assertion that there was a secret doctrine preached by Jesus to the few 
who were deemed worthy to become its recipients and custodians. "And 
Peter said : ' We remember that our Lord and teacher, as commanding, 
said to us, guard the mysteries for me, and the sons of my house. Where- 
fore also he explained to his disciples, privately, the mysteries of the king- 
doms of the heavens.' " f 

If we now recall the fact that a portion of the Mysteries of the 
" Pagans " consisted of the awoppi^Ta, aporrheta, or secret discourses ; that 
the secret Logia or discourses of Jesus contained in the original Gospel 
according to Matthew, the meaning and interpretation of which St. Jerome 
confessed to be "a difficult task" for him to achieve, were of the same 
nature ; and if we remember, further, that to some of the interior or final 
Mysteries only a very select few were admitted ; and that finally it was 
from the number of the latter that were taken all the ministers of the holy 
" Pagan " rites, we will then clearly understand this expression of Jesus 
quoted by Peter : " Guard the Mysteries for me and the sons of my 

* " Homilies," xviii., 1-15. 

\ " Clementine Homilies;" "Supernatural Religion," vol. ii. 


house" i.e., of iny doctrine. And, if we understand it rightly, we cannot 
avoid thinking that this "secret" doctrine of Jesus, even the technical 
expressions of which are but so many duplications of the Gnostic and 
Neo-platonic mystic phraseology — that this doctrine, we say, was based 
on the same transcendental philosophy of Oriental Gnosis as the rest of 
the religions of those and earliest days. That none of the later Christian 
sects, despite their boasting, were the inheritors of it, is evident from the 
contradictions, blunders, and clumsy repatching of the mistakes of every 
preceding century by the discoveries of the succeeding one. These mis- 
takes, in a number of manuscripts claimed to be authentic, are sometimes 
so ridiculous as to bear on their face the evidence of being pious forgeries. 
Thus, for instance, the utter ignorance of some patristic champions of 
the very gospels they claimed to defend. We have mentioned the accu- 
sation against Marcion by Tertullian and Epiphanius of mutilating the 
Go.<:pel ascribed to Luke, and erasing from it that which is now proved 
to have never been in that Gospel at all. Finally, the method adopted 
by Jesus of speaking in parables, in which he only followed the example 
of his sect, is attributed in the Homilies to a prophecy of Isaiah ! Peter 
is made to remark : " For Isaiah said : ' I will open my mouth in para- 
bles, and I will utter things that have been kept secret from the founda- 
tion of the world.' " This erroneous reference to Isaiah of a sentence 
given in Psalms Ixxviii. 2, is found not only in the apocryphal Homilies, 
but also in the Sinaitic Codex. Commenting on the fact in the Super- 
natural Religion, the author states that "Porphyry, in the third century, 
twitted Christians with this erroneous ascription by their inspired evange- 
list to Isaiah of a passage from a Psalm, and reduced the Fathers to great 
straits." * Eusebius and Jerome tried to get out of the difficulty by 
ascribing the mistake to an " ignorant scribe ; " and Jerome even went 
to the length of asserting that the name of Isaiah never stood after the 
above sentence in any of the old codices, but that the name of Asaph was 
found in its place, only " ignorant men had removed it." f To this, the 
author again observes that " the fact is that the reading ' Asaph ' for 
' Isaiah ' is not found in any manuscript extant ; and, although ' Isaiah ' 
has disappeared from all but a few obscure codices, it cannot be denied 
that the name anciently stood in the text. In the Sinaitic Codex, which 
is probably the earliest manuscript extant . . . and which is assigned to 
the fourth century," he adds, " the prophet Isaiah stands in the text by 
the first hand, but is erased by the second." \ 

It is a most suggestive fact that there is not a word in the so-called 

* '* Supernatural Religion," p. 11. 

f Hieron.: " Opp.," vii., p. 270, ff. ; " Supernatural Religion," p. 11. 

X Ibid. 


sacred Scriptures to show that Jesus was actually regarded as a God by 
his disciples. Neither before nor after his death did they pay him divine 
honors. Their relation to him was only that of disciples and " master ; " 
by which name they addressed him, as the followers of Pythagoras and 
Plato addressed their respective masters before them. Whatever words 
may have been put into the mouths of Jesus, Peter, John, Paul, and 
others, there is not a single act of adoration recorded on their part, nor 
did Jesus himself ever declare his identity with his Father. He accused 
the Pharisees oi stoning their prophets, not of deicide. He termed him- 
self the son of God, but took care to assert repeatedly that they were 
all the children of God, who was the Heavenly Father of all. In preach- 
ing this, he but repeated a doctrine taught ages earlier by Hermes, 
Plato, and other philosophers. Strange contradiction ! Jesus, whom we 
are asked to worship as the one living God, is found, immediately after 
his Resurrection, saying to Mary Magdalene : " I am not yet ascended 
to my Father ; but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto 
my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God ! " {John 
XX. 17.) 

Does this look like identifying himself with his Father ? " My Father 
zx^Ayour Father, my God axiA your God," implies, on his part, a desire to 
be considered on a perfect equality with his brethren — nothing more. 
Theodoret writes : " The hseretics agree with us respecting the beginning 
of all things. . . . But they say there is not one Christ (God), but one 
above, and the other below. And this last formerly dwelt in many ; 
but the Jesus, they at one time say is from God, at another they 
call him a Spirit." * This spirit is the Christos, the messenger 
of life, who is sometimes called the Angel Gabriel (in Hebrew, the 
mighty one of God), and who took with the Gnostics the place of the 
Logos, while the Holy Spirit was considered Life, f With the sect of 
the Nazarenes, though, the Spiritus, or Holy Ghost, had less honor. 
While nearly every Gnostic sect considered it a Female Power, whether 
they called it Binah, nJ'^a, Sophia, the Divine Intellect, with the Naza- 
rene sect it was the Female Spiritus, the astral light, the genetrix of all 
things of matter, the chaos in its evil aspect, made turhido by the Demi- 
urge. At the creation of man, " it was light on the side of the Father, 
and it was light (material light) on the side of the mother. And this 
is the ' twojold man,' " J says the Sohar. " That day (the last one) will 
perish the seven badly-disposed stellars, also the sons of man, who have 
confessed the Spiritus, the Messias (false), the Deus, and the Mother 
of the Spiritus shall perish." § _ 

* Theodoret : " Ha:ret. Fab.," ii., vii. \ See " Irenxus," I., xii., p. 86. 

X " Ausziige aus dem Sohar," p. 12. § " Cod. Naz.," vol. ii., p. 149. 



Jesus enforced and illustrated his doctrines with signs and wonders ; 
and if we lay aside the claims advanced on his behalf by his deifiers, he 
did but what other kabalists did ; and only they at that epoch, when, for 
two centuries the sources of prophecy had been completely dried up, and 
from this stagnation of public " miracles " had originated the skepticism 
of the unbelieving sect of the Sadducees. Describing the " heresies " of 
those days, Theodoret, who has no idea of the hidden meaning of the 
word Christos, the anointed messenger, complains that they (the Gnostics) 
assert that this Messenger or Delegatus changes his body from time to 
time, " and goes into other bodies, and at each time is differently mani- 
fested. And these (the overshadowed prophets) use incantations and 
invocations of various demons and baptisms in the confession of their 
principles. . . . They embrace astrology and magic, and the mathematical 
error," (?) he says. * 

This " mathematical error," of which the pious writer complains, led 
subsequently to the rediscovery of the heliocentric system, erroneous as 
it may still be, and forgotten since the days of another "magician " who 
taught it — Pvthagoras. Thus, the wonders of healing and the thaums 
of Jesus, which he imparted to his followers, show that they were learn- 
ing, in their daily communication with him, the theory and practice of 
the new ethics, day by day, and in the famihar intercourse of intimate 
friendship. Their faith was progressively developed, like that of all 
neophytes, simultaneously with the increase of knowledge. We must 
bear in mind that Josephus, who certainly must have been welhinformed 
on the subject, calls the skill of expelHng demons " a science." This 
growth of faith is conspicuously shown in the case of Peter, who, from 
having lacked enough faith to support him while he could walk on the 
water from the boat to his Master, at last became so expert a thaumatur- 
gist, that Simon Magus is said to have offered him money to teach hini 
the secret of healing, and other wonders. And Phihp is shown to have 
become an yEthrobat as good as Abaris of Pythagorean memory, but less 
expert than Simon Magus. 

Neither in the Homilies nor any other early work of the apostles, is there 
anything to show that either of his friends and followers regarded Jesus 
as anything more than a prophet. The idea is as clearly established in 
the Clementines. Except that too much room is afforded to Peter to estab- 
lish the identity of the Mosaic God with the Father of Jesus, the whole 
work is devoted to Monotheism. The author seems as bitter against 
Polytheism as against the claim to the divinity of Christ.f He seems 

* Theodoret : " Ilseret. Fab.," ii., vii. 

f " Homilies," xvi., I5ff.;ii., 12; iii., 57-59; x., 19. Schliemann : " Die Clemen- 
tinem," p. 134 ff; " Supernatural Religion," vol. ii., p. 349. 


to be utterly ignorant of the Logos, and his speculation is confined to 
Sophia, the Gnostic wisdom. There is no trace in it of a hypostatic 
trinity, but the same overshadowing of the Gnostic " wisdom (Christos 
and Sophia) is attributed in the case of Jesus as it is in those of Adam, 
Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses. * These personages 
are all placed on one level, and called ' true prophets,' and the seven 
pillars of the world." More than that, Peter vehemently denies the fall 
of Adam, and with him, the doctrine of atonement, as taught by Christian 
theology, utterly falls to the ground, for he combats it as a blasphemy, f 
Peter's theory of sin is that of the Jewish kabalists, and even, in a certain 
way, Platonic. Adam not only never sinned, but, " as a true prophet, 
possessed of the Spirit of God, which afterwards was in Jesus, could not 
sin." \ In short, the whole of the work exhibits the. belief of the author 
in the kabahstic doctrine of permutation. The Kabala teaches the doc- 
trine of transmigration of the spirit. § " Mosah is the revolutio of Seth 
and Hebel." || 

" Tell me who it is who brings about the re-birth (the revolutio) ? " 
is asked of the wise Hermes. " God's Son, the o?ily ma?i, through the 
will of God," is the answer of the " heathen." •f 

" God's son " is the immortal spirit assigned to every human being. 
It is this divine entity which is the " only man" for the casket which con- 
tains our soul, and the soul itself, are but half-entities, and without its 
overshadowing both body and astral soul, the two are but an animal diiad. 
It requires a trinity to form the complete " man," and allow him to re- 
main immortal at every " re-birth," or revolutio, throughout the subse- 
quent and ascending spheres, every one of which brings him nearer to the 
refulgent realm of eternal and absolute Kght. 

"God's First-born, who is the 'holy Veil,' the 'Light of Lights,' 
it is he who sends the revolutio of the Delegatus, for he is the First 
Power" says the kabalist. ** 

" The pneuma (spirit) and the dunamis (power), which is from the 
God, it is right to consider nothing else than the Logos, who is also (?) 
First-begotten to the God," argues a Christian, ff 

" Angels and powers are in heaven ! " says Justin, thus bringing 
forth a purely kabalistic doctrine. The Christians adopted it from the 

* "Homilies," Hi., 20 f ; il, 16-18, etc. flbid., iii., 20 ff. 

t Schliemann : " Die Clementinem," pp. 130-176; quoted also in "Supernatural 
Religion," p. 342. 

§ We will speak of this doctrine further on. 
1 "Kabbala Denudata," vol. il, p. 155 ; " Vallis Rcgia." 
T[ " Hermes " X., iv., -21-23. ** Idra Magna : " Kabbala Denudata." 

ft Justin Martyr: " Apol," vol. ii., p. 74. 


Sohar and the h;eretical sects, and if Jesus mentioned them, it was not in 
the official synagogues that he learned the theory, but directly in the 
kabalistic teachings. In the Mosaic books, very little mention is made 
of them, and Moses, who holds direct communications with the " Lord 
God," troubles himself very little about them. The doctrine was a 
secret one, and deemed by the orthodox synagogue heretical. Josephus 
calls the Essenes heretics, saying : " Those admitted among the Essenes 
must swear to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than 
as he received them himself, and equally to preserve the books belong- 
ing to their sect, and the names of the angels. * The Sadducees did not 
believe in angels, neither did the uninitiated Gentiles, who limited their 
Olympus to gods and demi-gods, or " spirits." Alone, the kabalists and 
• leurgists hold to that doctrine from time immemorial, and, as a conse- 
quence, Plato, and Philo Judaeus after him, followed first by the Gnos- 
tics, and then by the Christians. 

Thus, if Josephus never wrote the famous interpolation forged by 
Eusebius, concerning Jesus, on the other hand, he has described in 
the Essenes all the principal features that we find prominent in the Naza- 
rene. When praying, they sought solitude, f " When thou prayest, 
enter into thy closet . . . and pray to thy Father which is in secret " 
{Matthew vi. 6). "Everything spoken by them (Essenes) is stronger 
than an oath. Swearing is shunned by them " [Josephus 11., viii., 6). "But 
I say unto you, swear not at all . . . but let your communication be yea, 
yea; nay, nay" {Matthew v. 34-37). 

The Nazarenes, as well as the Essenes and the Therapeutje, believed 
more in their own interpretations of the " hidden sense " of the more an- 
cient Scriptures, than in the later laws of Moses. Jesus, as we have 
shown before, felt but little veneration for the commandments of his pre- 
decessor, with whom Irenaeus is so anxious to connect him. 

The Essenes "enter into the houses of those whom they never saiv 
previously, as if they were their intimate friends" (Josephus II., viii., 4)- 
Such was undeniably the custom of Jesus and his disciples. 

Epiphanius, who places the Ebionite " heresy " on one level with that 
of the Nazarenes, also remarks that the Nazaraioi come next to the 
Cerinthians,J so much vituperated against by Irenseus. § 

* Josephus: "Wars," II., chap. 8. sec. 7. 

f See Josephus; Philo; Munk (35). Eusebius mentions their semneion, where 
they perform the mysteries of a retired life (" Ecclesiastic History," lib. ii., ch. 17). 

X " Epiphanius," ed. Petau, i., p. 117. 

^ Cerinthus is the same Gnostic — a contemporaiy of John the Evangelist — of whom 
IreniEus invented the following anecdote : " There are those who heard him (Poly- 
carp) say that John, the disciple of the Lord, going to bathe at Ephesus, and perceiving 


Munk, in his work on Palestine, affirms that there were 4,000 Essenes 
living in the desert ; that they had their mystical books, and predicted the 
future. * The Nabatheans, with very little difference indeed,' adhered to 
the same belief as the Nazarenes and the Sabeans, and all of them 
honored John the Baptist more than his successor Jesus. The Persian 
lezidi say that they originally came to Syria from Busrah. They use 
baptism, and believe in seven archangels, though paying at the same time 
reverence to Satan. Their prophet lezed, who flourished long prior to 
Mahomet, f taught that God will send a messenger, and that the latter 
would reveal to him a book which is already written in heaven from the 
eternity. X The Nabatheans inhabited the Lebanon, as their descendants 
do to the present day, and their religion was from its origin purely kab- 
alistic. Maimonides speaks of them as if he identified them with the Sab- 
eans. " I will mention to thee the writings . . . respecting the belief and 
institutions of the Sabeans,'' he says. "The most famous is the book The 
Agriculture of the Nabathaans, which has been translated by Ibn Waho- 
hijah. This book is full of heathenish foolishness. ... It speaks of the 
preparations of Talismans, the drawing down of the powers of the Spirits, 
Magic, Demons, and ghouls, which make their abode in the desert." § 

There are traditions among the tribes living scattered about beyond 
the Jordan, as there are many such also among the descendants of the 
Samaritans at Damascus, Gaza, and at Naplosa (the ancient Shechera). 
Many of these tribes have, notwithstanding the persecutions of eighteen 
centuries, retained the faith of their fathers in its primitive simplicity. 
It is there that we have to go for traditions based on historical truths, 
however disfigured by exaggeration and inaccuracy, and compare them 
with the religious legends of the Fathers, which they call revelation. Euse- 
bius states that before the siege of Jerusalem the small Christian commu- 
nity — comprising members of whom many, if not all, knew Jesus and his 
apostles personally — took refuge in the little town of Pella, on the oppo- 
site shore of the Jordan. Surely these simple people, separated for centu- 
ries from the rest of the world, ought to have preserved their traditions 
fresher than any other nations ! It is in Palestine that we have to search 
for the clearest waters of Christianity, let alone its source. The first 
Christians, after the death of Jesus, all joined together for a time, whether 

Cerinthus within, rushed forth from the bath-house . . . crying out, ' Let us fly, lest 
the bath-house fall down, Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, being within it ' " (Irenzeus : 
"Adv. Hoer. ," iii., 3, § 4). 

* Munk : " Palestine," p. 525 ; " Sod, the Son of the Man." 

f " Haxthausen," p. 229. 

% " Shahrastani ; " Dr. D. Chwolsohn : " Die Ssabier undder Ssabismus," ii. , p. 625. 

§ Maimonides, quoted in Dr. D. Chwolsohn: "Die Ssabier mid der Ssabismus," 
ii-> p. 458. 


they were Ebionites, Nazarenes, Gnostics, or others. They had no Chris- 
tian dogmas in those days, and their Christianity consisted in believing 
Jesus to be a prophet, this behef varying from seeing in him simply a 
"just man," * or a holy, inspired prophet, a vehicle used by Christos and 
Sophia to manifest themselves through. These all united together in 
opposition to the synagogue and the tyrannical technicalities of the Phar- 
isees, until the primitive group separated in two distinct branches — -which, 
we may correctly term the Christian kabalists of the Jewish Tanaim school, 
and the Christian kabalists of the Platonic Gnosis, f The former were 
represented by the party composed of the followers of Peter, and John, the 
author of the Apocalypse ; the latter ranged with the Pauline Christianity, 
blending itself, at the end of the second century, with the Platonic phil- 
osophy, and engulfing, still later, the Gnostic sects, whose symbols and 
misunderstood mysticism overflowed the Church of Rome. 

Amid this jumble of contradictions, what Christian is secure in confess- 
ing himself such? In the old Syriac Gospel according to Luke (iii. 22), 
the Holy Spirit is said to have descended in the likeness of a dove. 
" Jesua, full of the sacred Spirit, returned from Jordan, and the Spirit led 
him into the desert " (old Syriac, Luke iv. i, Tremellius). " The diffi- 
culty," says Dunlap, "was that the Gospels declared that John the Bap- 
tist saw the Spirit (the Power of God) descend upon Jesus after he had 
reached manhood, and if the Spirit then first descended upon him, there 
was some ground for the opinion of the Ebionites and Nazarenes who 
denied his preceding existence, and refused him the attributes of the 
Logos. The Gnostics, on the other hand, objected to the flesh, but con- 
ceded the Logos." \ 

John's Apocalypsis, and the explanations of sincere Christian bish- 
ops, Hke Synesius, who, to the last, adhered to the Platonic doctrines, 
make us think that the wisest and safest way is to hold to that sincere 
primitive faith which seems to have actuated the above-named bishop. 
This best, sincerest, and most unfortunate of Christians, addressing the 
" Unknown," exclaims : "Oh Father of the Worlds . . . Father of the 
^ons . . . Artificer of the Gods, it is holy to praise I" But Synesius 
had Hypatia for instructor, and this is why we find him confessing in all 
sincerity his opinions and profession of faith. " The rabble desires 

* " Ye have condemned and killed the just," says James in his epistle to the twelve 

f Porphyry makes a distinction between what ho calls "the Antique O"! Oriental 
philosophy " and the properly Grecian system, that of the Neo-platonists. King says 
that all these religions and systems are branches of one antique and common religion, 
the Asiatic or Buddhistic (" Gnostics and their Remains," p. l). 

X " Sod, the Son of the Man." 


nothing better than to be deceived. ... As regards myself, therefore, 
I will always be a philosopher with myself, but I must be priest with the 

" Holy is God the Father of all being, holy is God, whose wisdom is 
carried out into execution by his own Powers ! . . . Holy art Thou, who 
through the Word had created all ! Therefore, I believe in Thee, and 
bear testimony, and go into the life and light." * Thus speaks 
Hermes Trismegistus, the heathen divine. What Christian bishop 
could have said better than that ? 

The apparent discrepancy of the four gospels as a whole, does not 
prevent every narrative given in the New Testament — however much dis- 
figured — having a ground-work of truth. To this, are cunningly adapted 
details made to fit the later exigencies of the Church. So, propped up 
partially by indirect evidence, still more by blind faith, they have become, 
with time, articles of faith. Even the fictitious massacre of the " Inno- 
cents " by King Herod has a certain foundation to it, in its allegorical 
sense. Apart from the now-discovered fact that the whole story of such 
a massacre of the Innocents is bodily taken from the Hindu Bagaved- 
gitta, and Brahmanical traditions, the legend refers, moreover, allegori- 
cally, to an historical fact. King Herod is the type of Kansa, the tyrant 
of Madura, the maternal uncle of Christna, to whom astrologers pre- 
dicted that a son of his niece Devaki would deprive him of his throne. 
Therefore he gives orders to kill the male child that is born to her ; but 
Christna escapes his fury through the protection of Mahadeva (the great 
God) who causes the child to be carried away to another city, out of 
Kansa's reach. After that, in order to be sure and kill the right boy, on 
whom he failed to lay his murderous hands, Kansa has all the male new- 
born infants within his kingdom killed. Christna is also worshipped by 
the gopas (the shepherds) of the land. 

Though this ancient Indian legend bears a very suspicious resem- 
blance to the more modern biblical romance, Gaffarel and others attribute 
the origin of the latter to the persecutions during the Herodian reign of 
the kabalists and the Wise me?i, who had not remained strictly orthodox. 
The latter, as well as the prophets, were nicknamed the " Innocents," and 
the " Babes," on account of their holiness. As in the case of certain 
degrees of modern Masonry, the adepts reckoned their grade of initia- 
tion by a symbolic age. Thus Saul who, when chosen king, was "a 
choice and goodly man," and " from his shoulders upward was higher 
than any of the people," is described in Catholic versions, as "child 
oi one year when he began to reign," which, in its literal sense, is a palpa- 

* "Hermes Trismegistus," pp. S6, 87, 90. 


ble absurdity. But in i Samuel yi., his anointing by Samuel and initia- 
tion are described ; and at verse 6th, Samuel uses this significant lan- 
guage : "... the Spirit of the Lord will come upon thee and thou 
shalt prophesy with them, and shall be turned into another man." The 
phrase above quoted is thus made plain — he had received one 
degree of initiation and was symbolically described as " a child one 
year old." The Catholic Bible, from which the text is quoted, with 
charming candor says in a foot-note: "It is extremely difficult to 
explain " (meaning that Saul was a child of one year). But un- 
daunted by any 'difficulty the Editor, nevertheless, does take upon him- 
self to explain it, and adds : "A child of one year. That is, he was 
good and like an innocent child." An interpretation as ingenious as it 
is pious ; and which if it does no good can certainly do no harm. * 

If the explanation of the kabalists is rejected, then the whole sub- 
ject falls into confusion ; worse still — for it becomes a direct plagiarism 
from the Hindu legend. All the commentators have agreed that a lit- 
teral massacre of young children is nowhere mentioned in history ; and 
that, moreover, an occurrence hke that would have made such a bloody 
page in Roman annals that the record of it would have been preserved for us 
by every author of the day. Herod himself was subject to the Roman 
law ; and undoubtedly he would have paid the penalty of such a mon- 
strous crime, with his own life. But if, on the one hand, we have not 
the slightest trace of this fable in history, on the other, we find in the 

* It is the correct interpretation of the Bible allegories that makes the Catholic 
clergy so wrathful with the Protestants who freely scrutinize the Bible. How 
bitter this feeling has become, we can judge by the following words of the Reverend 
Father Parker of Hyde Park, New York, who, lecturing in St. Teresa's CathoUc 
Church, on the loth of December, 1S76, said: "To whom does the Protestant 
Church owe its possession of the Bible, which they wish to place in the hands of every 
ignorant person and child? To monkish hands, that laboriously transcribed it before 
the age of printing. Protestantism has produced dissension in Church, rebellions and 
outbreaks in State, unsoundness in social life, and will never be satisfied short of the 
downfall of the Bible ! Protestants must admit that the Roman Church has done 
more to scatter Christianity and extirpate idolatry than all their sects. From one pul- 
pit it is said that there is no hell, and from another that there is immediate and unmit- 
igated damnation. One says that Jesus Christ was only a man ; another that you 
must be plunged bodily into water to be baptized, and refuses the rites to infants. 
Most of them have no prescribed form of worship, no sacred vestments, and their 
doctrines are as undefined as their service is informal. The founder of Protestantism, 
Martin Luther, was the worst man in Europe. The advent of the Reformation was 
the signal for civil war, and from that time to this the world has been in a restless 
state, uneasy in regard to Governments, and every day becoming more skeptical. The 
ultimate tendency of Protestantism is clearly nothing less than the destruction of all 
respect for the Bible, and the disruption of government and society." Very plain talk 
this. The Protestants might easily return the compliment. 


official complaints of the Synagogue abundant evidence of the persecu- 
tion of the initiates. The Talmud also corroboraites it. 

The Jewish version of the birth of Jesus is recorded in the Sepher- 
Toldos Jeshu in the following words : . 

" Mary having become the mother of a Son, named Jehosuah, and 
the boy growing up, she entrusted him to the care of the Rabbi Elhanan, 
and the child progressed in knowledge, for he was well gifted with spirit 
and understanding. 

"Rabbi Jehosuah, son ofPerachiah, continued the education of Jeho- 
suah (Jesus) after Elhanan, and initiated him in the secret knowledge ; " 
but the King, Janneus, having given orders to slay all the initiates, Jeho 
suah Ben Perachiah, fled to Alexandria, in Egypt, taking the boy with him. 

While in Alexandria, continues the story, they were received in the 
house of a rich and learned lady (personified Egypt). Young Jesus 
found her beautiful, notwithstanding " a defect in her eyes,'' and declared 
so to his master. Upon hearing this, the latter became so angry that his 
pupil should find in the land of bondage anything good, that " he cursed 
him and drove the young man from his presence." Then follow a series 
of adventures told in allegorical language, which show that Jesus supple- 
mented his initiation in the Jewish Kabala with an additional acquisition 
of the secret wisdom of Egypt. When the persecution ceased, they 
both returned to Judea. * 

The real grievances against Jesus are stated by the learned author 
of Tela Ignea SatancB (the fiery darts of Satan) to be two in number : 
ist, that he had discovered the great Mysteries of their Temple, by 
having been initiated in Egypt ; and 2d, that he had profaned them by 
exposing them to the vulgar, who misunderstood and disfigured them. 
.This is what they say : f 

" There exists, in the sanctuary of the living God, a cubical stone, on 
which are sculptured the holy characters, the combination of which gives 
the explanation of the attributes and powers of the incommunicable 
name. This explanation is the secret key of all the occult sciences and 
forces in nature. It is what the Hebrews call the Schani hainphorash. 
This stone is watched by two lions of gold, who roar as soon as it is 
approached. I The gates of the temple were never lost sight of, and the 

* Eliphas Levi ascribes this narrative to the Talmudist authors of " Sota " and 
''Sanhedrin," p. ig, book of "Jenhiel." 

f This fragment is translated from the original Hebrew by Eliphas Levi in his " La 
Science des Esprits." 

X Those who know anything of the rites of the Hebrews must recognize in these 
lions the gigantic figures of the Cherubim, whose symbolical monstrosity was well cal-, 
culated to frighten and put to flight the profane. 


door of the sanctuary opened but once a year, to admit the High Pnest 
alone. But Jesus, who had learned in Egypt the 'great secrets' at the 
initiation, forged for himself invisible keys, and thus was enabled to pen- 
etrate into the sanctuary unseen. ... He copied the characters on the 
cubical stone, and hid them in his thigh ; * after which, emerging from 
the temple, he went abroad and began astounding people with his mira- 
cles. The dead were raised at his command, the leprous and the obsessed 
were healed. He forced the stones which lay buried for ages at the bot- 
tom of the sea to rise to the surface until they formed a mountain, from 
the top of which he preached." The Sepher Toldos states further that, 
unable to displace the cubical stone of the sanctuary, Jesus fabricated one 
of clay, which he showed to the nations and passed it off for the true 
cubical stone of Israel. 

This allegory, like the rest of them in such books, is written " inside 
and outside" — it has its secret meaning, and ought to be read two ways. 
The kabalistic books explain its mystical meaning. Further, the same 
Talmudist says, in substance, the following : Jesus was thrown in prison, f 
and kept there forty days ; then flogged as a seditious rebel ; then stoned 
as a blasphemer in a place called Lud, and finally allowed to expire upon 
a cross. "All this," explains Levi, "because he revealed to the people 
the truths which they (the Pharisees) wished to bury for their own use. 
He had divined the occult theology of Israel, had compared it with the 
wisdom of Egypt, and found thereby the reason for a universal religious 
synthesis." \ 

However cautious one ought to be in accepting anything about Jesus 
from Jewish sources, it must be confessed that in some things they seem 
to be more correct in their statements (whenever their direct interest in 
stating facts is not concerned) than our good but too jealous Fathers. 
One thing is certain, James, the " Brother of the Lord," is silent about 
the resun-ection. He terms Jesus nowhere "Son of God," nor even 
Christ-God. Once only, speaking of Jesus, he calls him the " Lord of 
Glory," but so do the Nazarenes when writing about their prophet /(7/i(7«a« 
bar Zacharia, or John, son of Zacharias (St. John Baptist). Their favo- 
rite expressions about their prophet are the same as those used by James 
when speaking of Jesus. A man " of the seed of a man," " Messenger of 
Life," of light, "my Lord Apostle," "King sprung of Light," and so on. 
,"FIave not the faith of our Z^/v/ Jesus Christ, the Lord of Glory" etc., 

* Ai"nobius tells the same story of Jesus, and narrates how he was accused of having 
robbed the sanctuary of the secret names of the Holy One, by means of which knowledge 
he performed all the miracles. 

f This is a translation of Eliphas Levi. % " La Science des Esprits," p. 37, 


says James in his epistle (ii. i), presumably addressing CJirist as God. 
" Peace to thee, my Lord, John Abo Sabo, Lord of Glory ! " says the 
Codex Nazaraus (ii., ig), known to address but a prophet. "Ye have 
condemned and killed the Just" says James (v. 6). " lohanan (John) is 
the Just one, he comes in the way oi justice" says Matthew (xxi. 32, 
Syriac text). 

James does not even call Jesus Messiah, in the sense given to the 
title by the Christians, but alludes to the kabalistic "King Messiah," 
who is Lord of Sabaoth * (v. 4), and repeats several times that the 
" Lord " will come, but identifies the latter nowhere with Jesus. "Be 
patient, therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord ... be 
patient, for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh " (v. 7, 8). And he 
adds: "Take, my brethren, the prophet (Jesus) who has spoken in the 
7iame of the Lord for an example of suffering, affliction, and of patience." 
Though in the present version the word " prophet " stands in the plural, 
yet this is a deliberate falsification of the original, the purpose of which 
is too evident. James, immediately after having cited the " prophets " as 
an example, adds : " Behold ... ye have heard of the patience of Job, 
3.ndL have seen the end of the Lord" — thus combining the examples of 
these two admirable characters, and placing them on a perfect equality. 
But we have more to adduce in support of our argument. Did not Jesus 
himself glorify the prophet of the Jordan? "What went ye out for to 
see ? A prophet ? Yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet. . . . 
Verily, I say unto you, among them that are born of -women there hath 
not risen a greater than John the Baptist." 

And of whom was he who spoke thus born ? It is but the Roman 
Catholics who have changed Mary, the mother of Jesus, into a goddess. 
In the eyes of all other Christians she was a woman, whether his own 
birth was immaculate or otherwise. According to strict logic, then, Jesus 
confessed John greater than himself. Note how completely this matter 
is disposed of by the language employed by the Angel Gabriel when 
addressing Mary : " Blessed art thou among women." These words are 
unequivocal. He does not adore her as the Mother of God, nor does he 
call her goddess ; he does not even address her as "Virgin," but he calls 
her woman, and only distinguishes her above other women as having had 
better fortune, through her purity. 

The Nazarenes were known as Baptists, Sabians, and John's Chris- 
tians. Their behef was that the Messiah was not the Son of God, but sim- 
ply a prophet who would follow John. "Johanan, the Son of the Abo 
Sabo Zachariah, shall say to himself, ' Whoever will believe in my justice 

* " Israelite Indeed," vol. iii., p. 61. 


and ray Baptism shall be joined to my association ; he shall share with 
nie the seat which is the abode of life, of the supreme Mano, and of living 
fire" {Codex NazarcEus, ii., p. 115). Origan remarks " there are some who 
said of John (the Baptist) that he was the anointed (Christus). * The 
Angel Rasiel of the kabalists is the Angel Gabriel of the Nazarenes, and 
it is the latter who is chosen of all the celestial hierarchy by the Chris- 
tians to become the messenger of the ' annunciation.' The genius sent 
by the 'Lord of Celsitude' is ^Ebel Zivo, whose name is also called 
Gabriel Legatus." f Paul must have had the sect of the Nazarenes in 
mind when he said : " And last of all he (Jesus) was seen of me also, as 
of one born out of due time" (i Coritith., xv. 8), thus reminding his listen- 
ers of the expression usual to the Nazarenes, who termed the Jews " the 
abortions, or born out of time." Paul prides himself of belonging to a 

When the metaphysical conceptions of the Gnostics, who saw in Jesus 
the Logos and the anointed, began to gain ground, the earliest Christians 
separated from the Nazarenes, who accused Jesus of perverting the doc- 
trines of John, and changing the baptism of the Jordan. § "Directly," 
says Milman, " as it (the Gospel) got beyond the borders of Palestine, 
and the name of 'Christ' had acquired sanctity and veneration in the 
Eastern cities, he became a kind of metaphysical itnpersonation, while the 
religion lost its purely moral cast and assumed the character of a specula- 
tive theogony." || The only half-original document that has reached us 
from the primitive apostolic days, is the Logia of Matthew. The real, 
genuine doctrine has remained in the hands of the Nazarenes, in this 
Gospel 0/ Afatthew zontaXmng the "Secret doctrine," the "Sayings of 
Jesus," mentioned by Papias. These sayings were, no doubt, of the same 
nature as the small manuscripts jilaced in the hands of the neophytes, 
who were candidates for the Initiations into the Mysteries, and which 
contained the Aporrheta, the revelations of some important rites and 
symbols. For why should Matthew take such precautions to make them 
"secret" were it otherwise ? 

Primitive Christianity had its grip, pass-words, and degrees of initia- 
tion. The innumerable Gnostic gems and amulets are weighty proofs of 
it. It is a whole symbolical science. The kabalists were the first to 
embellish the universal Logos,^ with such terms as " Light of Light," the 

* "Origen," vol. ii., p. 150. \ "Codex Nazarseus," vol. i., p. 23. 

X " In the way these call heresy I worship" (Acts xxiv. 14). 

§ "Codex Nazaraeus," vol. ii., p. 109. J "Milman," p. 200. 

T[ Dunlap says in " Sod, the Son of the Man : " " Mr Hall, of India, informs us 
that he has seen Sanscrit philosophical treatises in which the Logos continually occur," 
p. 39, foot-note. 


Messenger of Life and Light, * and we find these expressions adopted 
in toto by the Christians, with the addition of nearly all the ,Gnostic terms 
such as Pleroma (fulness), Archons, ^-Eons, etc. As to the "First-Born," 
the First, and the '-Only-Begotten," these are as old as the world. 
Origen shows the word ''Logos" as existing among the Brachmanes. 
"The Brachinaiics say that the God is Light, not such as one sees, nor 
such as the sun and fire ; but they have the God Logos, not the articu- 
late, the Logos of the Gnosis, through whom the highest mysteries of 
the Gnosis are seen by the wise." f The Acts and the fourth Gospel 
teem with Gnostic expressions. The kabalistic : " God's first-born 
emanated from the AEost High," together with that which is the " Spirit 
of the Anointing ;" and again " they called him the anointed of die 
Highest," \ are reproduced in Spirit and substance by the author of the 
Gospel according to John. "That was the true light," and " the light 
shineth in darkness." " And the word was rnade flesh." " And his 
fulness (pleroma) have all we received," etc. {John i. et seq.). 

The " Christ," then, and the " Logos" existed ages before Christian- 
ity ; the Oriental Gnosis was studied long before the days of Moses, and 
we have to seek for the origin of all these in the archaic periods of the 
primeval Asiatic philosophy. Peter's second Epistle and Jude's fragment, 
preserved in the New Testament, show by their phraseology that they 
belong to the kabalistic Oriental Gnosis, for they use the same expres- 
sions as did the Christian Gnostics who built a part of their system from 
the Oriental Kahala. " Presumptuous are they (the Ophites), self-willed, 
they are not afraid to speak evil of Dignities," says Peter (2d Epistle 
ii. 10), the original model for the later abusive Tertullian and Irensus. § 
" Likewise (even as Sodom and Gomorrah) also these filthy dreamers 
defile the flesh, despise Dominion" and speak evil of Dignities," says 
Jude, repeating the very words of Peter, and thereby expressions con- 
secrated in the Kahala. Dominion is the " Empire," the tenth of the 
kabalistic sephiroth.|| The Powers and Dignities are the subordinate 

* See John i. f Origen : " Philosophumena," xxiv. 

\ Kleuker : " Natur und Ursprung der Emanationslehre bei den Kabbalisten," pp. 
10, II ; see " Libri Slysterii." 

§ " These as natural brtite beasts." " The dog has turned to its own vomit again ; 
and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire " (22). 

I The types of the creation, or the attributes of the Supreme Being, are through the 
emanations of Adam Kadmou ; these are : ''The Crawn^ IVisdovi, Prudence, Magni- 
ficence, Severity, Beauty, Victory, Glory, Foundation, Empire. Wisdom is called 
yeh; Prudence, jfehovah ; Severity, Elokim ; Magnificence, El; Victory and Glory, 
S.\BA.OTH ; Empire or Dominion, Adomai. " Thus when the Nazarenes and other 
Gnostics of the more Platonic tendency twitted the Jews as "abortions who worship 


genii of the Archangels and Angels of the SoJiar. * These emana- 
tions are the very life and soul of the Kabala and Zoroastranism ; and 
the Talmud itself, in its present state, is all borrowed from the Zend- 
avesta. Therefore, by adopting the views of Peter, Jude, and other Jew- 
ish apostles, the Christians have become but a dissenting sect of the Per- 
sians, for they do not even interpret the meaning of all such Powers as 
the true kabalists do. Paul's warning his converts against the worship- 
ping of angels, shows how well he appreciated, even so early as his period, 
the dangers of borrowing from a metaphysical doctrine the philosophy of 
which could be rightly interpreted but by its well-learned adherents, the 
Magi and the Jewish Tanai'm. " Let no man beguile you of your reward 
iu a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels, intruding into those 
things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind," f is 
a sentence laid right at the door of Peter and his champions. In the 
Talmud, Michael is Prince of Water, who has seven inferior spirits sub- 
ordinate to him. He is the patron, the guardian angel of the Jews, as 
Daniel informs us (v. 21), and the Greek Ophites, who identified him with 
their Ophiomorphos, the personified creation of the envy and mahce of 
Ilda-Baoth, the Demiurgus (Creator of the material world), and under- 
took to prove that he was also Samuel, the Hebrew prince of the evil 
sjiirits, or Persian devs, were naturally regarded by the Jews as blas- 
phemers. But did Jesus ever sanction this belief in angels except in so 
far as hinting that they were the messengers and subordinates of God ? 
And here the origin of the later splits between Christian beliefs is directly 
traceable to these two early contradictory views. 

Paul, believing in all such occult powers in the world " unseen," but 
ever " present," says : "Ye walked according to the ^on of this world, 
according to the Archon (Ilda-Baoth, the Demiurg) that has the domina- 
tion of the air," and " We wrestle not against flesh and blood, but 
against the dominations, the po7uers ; the lords of darkness, the mischiev- 
ousness of spirits in the upper regions." This sentence, " Ye were dead 
in sin and error," for " ye walked according to the Archon," or Ilda- 
Baoth, the God and creator of matter of the Ophites, shows unequivocally 
that : ist, Paul, notwithstanding some dissensions with the more important 
doctrines of the Gnostics, shared more or less their cosmogonical views 
on the emanations ; and 2d, that he was fully aware that this Demiurge, 

their god Turbo, Adiinai,'''' we need not wonder at the wrath of those who had ac- 
cepted the old Mosaic system, but at that of Peter and Jude who claim to be followers 
of Jesus and dissent from the views of him who was also a Nazarene. 

* According to the " Kabala," Empire or Dominion is " the consuming fire, and 
his wife is the Temple or the Church." 

\ Colossians ii. 18. 


whose Jewish name was Jehovah, was not the God preached by Jesus. 
And now, if we compare the doctrine of Paul with the religious views of 
Peter and Jude, we find that, not only did they worship Michael, the 
Archangel, but that also they reverenced Satan, because the latter was 
also, before his fall, an angel ! This they do quite openly, and abuse the 
Gnostics* for speaking " evil" of him. No one can deny the following: 
Peter, when denouncing those who are not afraid to speak evil of ''dig- 
nities^' adds immediately, " Whereas angels, which are greater in power 
and might, bring Jiot railing accusations against them (the dignities) 
before the Lord" (ii. ii). Who are the dignities? Jude, in his general 
epistle, makes the word as clear as day. The dignities are the devils ! ! 
Complaining of the disrespect shown by the Gnostics to the -powers and 
dominions, Jude argues in the very words of Peter : " And yet, Michael, 
the Archangel, when contending with the devil, he disputed about the 
body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said. 
The Lord rebuke thee " (i. 9). Is this plain enough ? If not, then we 
have the Kabala to prove who were the dignities. 

Considering that Deuteronomy tells us that the " Lord " Himself 
buried Moses in a valley of Moab (xxxiv. 6), " and no man knoweth of 
his sepulchre unto this day," this biblical lapsus lingtca of Jude gives a 
strong coloring to the assertions of some of the Gnostics. They claimed 
but what was secretly taught by the Jewish kabalists themselves ; to 
wit : that the highest supreme God was unknown and invisible ; " the 
King of Light is a closed eye ; " that Ilda-Baoth, the Jewish second Adam, 
was the real Demiurge ; and that lao, Adonai, Sabaoth, and Eloi were 
the quaternary emanation which formed the unity of the God of the He- 
brews — Jehovah. Moreover, the latter was also called Michael and 
Samael by them, and regarded but as an angel, several removes from the 
Godhead. In holding to such a belief, the Gnostics countenanced the 
teachings of the greatest of the Jewish doctors, Hillel, and other Babylo- 
nian divines. Josephus shows the great deference of the official Synagogue 
in Jerusalem to the wisdom of the schools of Central Asia. The colleges 
of Sora, Pumbiditha, and Nahaidea were considered the headquarters of 
esoteric and theological learning by all the schools of Palestine. The 
Chaldean version of the Pentateuch, made by the well-known Babylonian 
divine, Onkelos, was regarded as the most authoritative of all ; and it is 
according to this learned Rabbi that Hillel and other Tanaim after him 
held that the Being who appeared to Moses in the burning bush, on 
Mount Sinai, and who finally buried him, was the angel of the Lord, 

* It is more likely that both abused Paul, who preached against this belief; and 
that the Gnostics were only a pretext. (See Peter's second Epistle.) 


Memro, and not the Lord Himself ; and that he whom the Hebrews of the 
Old Testament mistook for lahoh was but His messenger, one of His sons, 
or emanations. All this establishes but one logical conclusion — namely, 
that the Gnostics were by far the superiors of the disciples, in point of 
education and general information ; even in a knowledge of the religious 
tenets of the Jews themselves. While they were perfectly well-versed in 
the Chaldean wisdom, the well-meaning, pious, but fanatical as well as 
ignorant disciples, unable to fully understand or grasp the religious spirit 
of their own system, were driven in their disputations to such convincing 
logic as the use of " brute beasts," " sows," " dogs," and other epithets 
so freely bestowed by Peter. 

Since then, the epidemic has reached the apex of the sacerdotal hier- 
archy. From the day when the founder of Christianity uttered the warn- 
ing, that he who shall say to his brother, " Thou fool, shall be in danger 
ofliell-fire," all who have passed as its leaders, beginning with the ragged 
fishermen of Galilee, and ending with the jewelled pontiffs, have seemed 
to vie with each other in the invention of opprobrious epithets for their 
opponents. So we find Luther passing a final sentence on the Catholics, 
and exclaiming that " The Papists are all asses, put them in whatever 
form you like ; whether they are boiled, roasted, baked, fried, skinned, 
hashed, they will be always the same asses." Calvin called the victims 
he persecuted, and occasionally burned, "malicious barking dogs, full of 
bestiality and insolence, base corrupters of the sacred writings," etc. 
Dr. Warburton terms the Popish religion " an impious farce," and JMon- 
seigneur Dupanloup asserts that the Protestant Sabbath service is the 
"Devil's mass," and all clergymen are "thieves and ministers of the 

The same spirit of incomplete inquiry and ignorance has led the 
Christian Church to bestow on its most holy apostles, titles assumed by 
their most desperate opponents, the " Hasretics " and Gnostics. So we 
find, for instance, Paul termed the vase of election " Vas Electio?iis" a 
title chosen by Manes, * the greatest heretic of his day in the eyes of the 
Church, Manes meaning, in the Babylonian language, the chosen vessel 
or receptacle, f 

So with the Virgin Mary. They were so little gifted with originality, 
that they copied from the Egyptian and Hindu religions their several 

* The true name of Manes — who was a Persian by birth — was Cubricus. (See 
Epiph. "Life of Manes," Ha;ret. Ixv.) He was flayed alive at the instance of the 
Magi, by the Persian King Varanes I. Plutarch says that Manes or Manis means 
Masses or anointed. The vessel, or vase of election, is, therefore, the vessel full of 
that light of God, which he pours on one he has selected for his interpreter. 
\ See King's " Gnostics," p. 38. 


apostrophes to their respective Virgin-mothers, 
few examples will make this clear. 


Litany of our Lady Nari : 


{Also Devanaki.) 

1. Holy Nari — Mariama, 
Mother of perpetual fe- 

2. Mother of an incarnated 
God — Vishnu (Devan- 

3. Mother of Christna. 

4. Eternal Virginity — Kan- 

5. Mother — Pure Essence, 

6. Virgin most chaste — 

7. Mother Taumatra, of 
the five virtues or ele- 

8. Virgin Trigana (of the 
three elements, power 
or richness, love, and 

9. Mirror of Supreme Con- 
science — Ahancara. 

10. Wise Mother — Saras- 

11. Virgin of the white 
Lotos, Pedma or Kam- 

12. Womb of Gold — Hy- 

13. Celestial Light — Lak- 

14. Ditto. 

15. Queen of Heaven, and 
of the universe — Sakti. 

16. Mother soul of all 
beings — Paramatma. 

17. Devanaki is conceived 
without sin, and immacu- 
late herself. (According 
to the Brahmanic fancy. ) 



Litany of our Lady Lsis : 


I. Holy lsis, universal 
mother — Muth. 

2. Mother of 


The juxtaposition of a 

Roman Catholic. 
Litany of our La^y of 
Loretto : Virgin. * 

1. Holy Mary, mother of 
divine grace. 

2. Mother of God. 

3. Mother of Horus. 

4. Virgo generatrix — 

5. Mother-soul of the uni- 
verse — Anouke. 

6. Virgin sacred earth — 

7. Mother of all the vir- 
tues — Thmei, with the 
same qualities. 

8. Illustrious lsis, most 
powerful, merciful, just. 
{Book of the Dead.) 

g. Mirror of Justice and 
Truth — Thmei. 

10. Mysterious mother of 
the world — Buto (secret 

11. Sacred Lotos. 

12. Sistrum of Gold. 

13. Astarte (Syrian), As- 
taroth (Jewish). 

14. Argua of the Moon. 

15. Queen of Heaven, and 
of the universe — Sati. 

16. Model of all mothers 
— Athor. 

17. lsis is a Virgin Mother. 

3. Mother of Christ. 

4. Virgin of Virgms. 

5. Mother of Divine Grace. 

6. Virgin most chaste. 

7. Mother most pure. 
Mother undefiled. 
Mother inviolate. 
Mother most amiable. 
Mother most admirable. 

8. Virgin most powerful. 
Virgin most merciful. 
Virgin most faithful. 

9. Mirror of Justice. 

10. Seat of Wisdom. 

11. Mystical Rose. 

12. House of Gold. 

13. Morning Star. 

14. Ark of the Covenant. 

15. Queen of Heaven. 

16. Mater Dolorosa. 

17. Mary conceived with- 
out sin. (In accordance 
with later orders.) 


If the Virgin Mary has her nuns, who are consecrated to her and 
bound to live in chastity, so had Isis her nuns in Egypt, as Vesta had 
hers at Rome, and the Hindu Nari, " mother of the world hers." The 
virgins consecrated to her cultus — the Devadasi of the temples, whu 
were"^the nuns of the days of old — lived in great chastity, and were 
objects of the most extraordinary veneration, as the holy women of the 
goddess. Would the missionaries and some travellers reproachfully point 
to the modern Devadasis, or Nautch-girls ? For all response, we would 
beg them to consult the official reports of the last quarter century, cited 
in chapter II., as to certain discoveries made at the razing of convents, 
in Austria and Italy. Thousands of infants' skulls were exhumed from 
ponds, subterranean vaults, and gardens of convents. Nothing to match 
this was ever found in heathen lands. 

Christian theology, getting the doctrine of the archangels and angels 
directly from the Oriental Kabala, of which the Mosaic Bible is but an 
allegorical screen, ought at least to remember the hierarchy invented by 
the former for these personified emanations. The hosts of the Cherubim 
and Seraphim, with which we generally see the Catholic Madonnas sur- 
rounded in their pictures, belong, together with the Elohira and Beni 
Elohim of the Hebrews, to the third kabalistic world, Jezirah. This 
world is but one remove higher than Asiah. the fourth and lowest world, 
in which dwell the grossest and most material beings — the klippoih, who 
delight in evil and mischief, and whose chief is Belial ! 

Explaining, in his way, of course, the various " heresies " of the first 
two centuries, Irenseus says : " Our Haeretics hold . . . that Propator 
is known but to the only-begotten son, that is to the mind" (the nous). 
It was the Valentinians, the followers of the " profoundest doctor of the 
Gnosis," Valentinus, who held that "there was a perfect Ai6n, who 
existed before Bythos, or Buthon (the Depth), called Propator. This is 
again kabalistic, for in the Sohar of Simon Ben lochai, we read the fol- 
lowing : " Senior occiiltatus est et absco?iditus ; Microprosopus manifestus 
est, ei non manifestus" (Rosenroth : The Sohar Liber Mysteries, \v., \). 

In the rehgious metaphysics of the Hebrews, fhe Highest One is an 
abstraction ; he is "without form or being," "with no likeness with any- 
thing else." * And even Philo calls the Creator, the Logos who stands 
next God, " the second God." "The second God who is his wisdom." \ 
God is NOTHING, he is nameless, and therefore called Ain-Soph — the word 
Ain meaning nothing. \ But if, according to the older Jews, Jehovah is 
the God, and He manifested Himself several times to Moses and the 

* Franck: " Die Kabbala," p. 126. \ Philo : " Quaest. et Solut." 

% See Franck : " Die Kabbala," p. 153 ff. 


prophets, and the Christian Church anathematized the Gnostics who denied 
the fact — how comes it, then, that we read in the fourth gospel that '■'■No 
man hath seen God at any time, but the only-begotten Son ... he hath 
declared him ? " The very words of the Gnostics, in spirit and substance. 
This sentence of St. John — or rather whoever wrote the gospel now 
bearing his name — floors all the Petrine arguments against Simon Magus, 
without appeal. The words are repeated and emphasized in chapter vi. : 
" Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which is of God, he 
(Jesus) hath seen the Father" (46) — the very objection brought forward 
by Simon in the Homilies. These words prove that either the author of 
the fourth evangel had no idea of the existence of the Homilies, or that 
he was not John, the friend and companion of Peter, whom he contradicts 
point-blank with this emphatic assertion. Be it as it may, this sentence, 
hke many more that might be profitably cited, blends Christianity com- 
pletely with the Oriental Gnosis, and hence with the kabala. 

While the doctrines, ethical code, and observances of the Christian 
religion were all appropriated from Brahmanism and Buddhism, its cere- 
monials, vestments, and pageantry were taken bodily from Lamaism. 
The Romish monastery and nunnery are almost servile copies of similar 
religious houses in Thibet and Mongolia, and interested explorers of Budd- 
hist lands, when obliged to mention the unwelcome fact, have had no 
other alternative left them but, with an anachronism unsurpassed in reck- 
lessness, to charge the offense of plagiarism upon the religious system 
their own mother Church had despoiled. This makeshift has served its 
purpose and had its day. The time has at last come when this page of 
history must be written. 


*' Learn to know all, but keep thyself unknown." — Gnostic Maxim. 

**There is one God supreme over all gods, diviner than mortals, 
Whose form is not like unto man's, and as unlike his nature ; 
But vain mortals imagine that gods like themselves are begatteii 
With human sensations, and voice, and corporeal members." 

— Xenophanes : Clem. Al. Strom. ^ v. 14, § no. 

"TvcHlADES. — Can you tell me the reason, Philocles, why most men desire to lye, and delight not 
only to speak fictions themselves, but give busie attention to others who do ? 

" Philocles. — There be many reasons, Tychiades, which compell some to speak lyes, because they 
see 'tis profitable." — A Dialogue 0/ Lucian. 

" Spartan. — Is it to thee, or to God, that I must confess ? 

" Priest.— To God. 

" Spartan. — Then, man, stand back ! " — Plutarch : Retnarkahle Lacede»tonian Sayings, 

WE will now give attention to some of the most important Mysteries 
of the Kabala, and trace their relations to the philosophical 
myths of various nations. 

In the oldest Oriental Kabala, the Deity is represented as three cir- 
cles in one, shrouded in a certain smoke or chaotic exhalation. In the 
preface to the Sohar, which transforms the three primordial circles into 
Three Heads, over these is described an exhalation or smoke, neither 
black nor white, but colorless, and circumscribed within a circle. This 
is the unknown Essence.* The origin of the Jewish image may, perhaps, 
be traced to Hermes' Pimander, the Egyptian Logos, who appears within 
a cloud of a humid nature, with a smoke escaping from it. f In the Sohar 
the highest God is, as we have shown in the preceding chapter, and as 
in the case of the Hindu and Buddhist philosophies, a pure abstraction, 
whose objective existence is denied by the latter. It is Hakama, the 
" Supreme Wisdom, that cannot be understood by reflection," and that 
lies within and without the Cranium of Long Face \ (Sephira), the 
uppermost of the three " Heads." It is the " boundless and the infinite 
En-Soph," the No-Thing. 

The " three Heads," superposed above each other, are evidently taken 
from the three mystic triangles of the Hindus, which also superpose each 
other. The highest " head " contains the Trinity in Chaos, out of which 
springs the manifested trinity. En-Soph, the unrevealed forever, who is 

* " Kabbala Denudata ; " preface to the " Sohar," ii., p. 242. 

f See ChampoUion's " Egypte." % " Idra Rabba," vi., p. 58. 


boundless and unconditioned, cannot create, and therefore it seems to us 
a great error to attribute to him a " creative thought," as is commonly 
done by the interpreters. In every cosmogony this supreme Essence is 
passive ; if boundless, infinite, and unconditioned, it can have no thought 
nor idea. It acts not as the result of volition, but in obedience to its own 
nature, and according to the fatality of the laiv of which it is itself the 
embodiment . Thus, with the Hebrew kabalists, En-Soph is non-existent 
I't!, for it is incomprehensible to our finite intellects, and therefore cannot 
exist to our minds. Its first emanation was Sephira, the crown -ina. When 
the time for an active period had come, then was produced a natural 
expansion of this Divine essence from within outwardly, obedient to eter- 
nal and immutable law ; and from this eternal and infinite light (which to 
us is darkness) was emitted a spiritual substance.* This was the First 
Sephiroth, containing in herself the other nine ni-i^£0 Sephiroth, or intel- 
ligences. In their totality and unit_y they represent the archetypal 
man, Adam Kadmon, the TrpwToyovos, who in his individuality or unity is 
yet dual, or bisexual, the Greek Didumos, for he is the prototype of all 
humanity. Thus we obtain three trinities, each contained in a "head." 
In the first head, or face (the three-faced Hindu Trunurti), we find 
Sephira, the first androgyne, at the apex of the upper triangle, emit- 
ting Hackama, or Wisdom, a mascuhne and active potency — also called 
Jah, IT'— — and Binah, n3''a, or Intelligence, a female and passive potency, 
also represented by the name Jehovah mni. These three form the 
first trinity or " face " of the Sephiroth. This triad emanated Hesed, 
ion, or Mercy, a masculine active potency, also called El, from which 
emanated Geburah t^i, or Justice, also called Eloha, a feminine passive 
potency ; from the union of these two was produced Tiphereth n-Nsn, 
Beauty, Clemency, the Spiritual Sun, known by the divine name Elohim ; 
and the second triad, " face," or " head," was formed. These emanating, 
in their turn, the masculine potency Netzah, n:s3, Firmness, or Jehovah 
Sabaoth, who issued the feminine passive potency Hod, nin. Splendor, 
or Elohim Sabaoth ; the two produced Jesod, ■no-'. Foundation, who is 
the mighty living one El-Chai, thus yielding the third trinity or "head." 
The tenth Sephiroth is rather a duad, and is represented on the diagrams 
as the lowest circle. It is Malchuth or Kingdom, nisVxi, and Shekinah n5''a», 
also called Adonai, and Cherubim among the atigelic hosts. The first 
" Head" is called the Intellectual world ; the second " Head " is the Sen- 
suous, or the world of Perception , and the third is the Material or 
Physical world. 

" Before he gave any shape to the universe," says the Kabala, " before 

* Ii3ra Suta : " Sohar," ii. 


he produced any form, he was alone without any form and resemblance 
to anything else. Who, then, can comprehend him, how he was before 
the creation, since he was formless ? Hence, it is forbidden to represent 
him by any form, simiHtude, or even by his sacred name, by a single 
letter, or a single point. . . . The Aged of the Aged, the Unknown of 
the Unknown, has a form, and yet no form. He has a form whereby the 
universe is preserved, and yet has no form, because he cannot be com- 
prehended. When he first assumed a form (in Sephira, his first emana- 
tion), he caused nine splendid lights to emanate from it." * 

And now we will turn to the Hindu esoteric Cosmogony and defini- 
tion of " Him who is, and yet is not." 

" From him who is, f from this immortal Principle which exists in our 
minds but cannot be perceived by the senses, is born Purusha, the 
Divine male and female, who became Narayana, or the Divine Spirit 
moving on the water." 

Swayambhuva, the unknown essence of the Brahmans, is identical with 
En-Soph, the unknown essence of the kabalists. As with the latter, the 
ineffable name could not be pronounced by the Hindus, under the pen- 
alty of death. In the ancient primitive trinity of India, that which may 
be certainly considered as pre-Vedic, the germ which fecundates the 
mother-principle, the mundane egg, or the universal womb, is called Nara, 
the Spirit, or the Holy Ghost, which emanates from the primordial essence. 
It is like Sephira, the oldest emanation, called xhe primordial point, and the 
Halite Head, for it is the point of divine light appearing from within the 
fathomless and boundless darkness. In Mann it is " Nara, or the Spirit 
of God, which moves on Ayana (Chaos, or place of motion), and is called 
Narayana, or moving on the waters." \ In Hermes, the Egyptian, we 
read : " In the beginning of the time there was naught in the chaos." 
But when the " verbum," issuing from the void hke a "colorless smoke," 
makes its appearance, then " this verbum moved on the humid princi- 
ple." § And in Genesis we find : " And darkness was upon the face 
of the deep (chaos). And the Spirit of God movecl upon the face of the 
waters." In the Kabala, the emanation of the primordial passive principle 
(Sephira), by dividing itself into two parts, active and passive, emits 
Chochma-Wisdom and Binah-Jehovah, and in conjunction with these two 
acolytes, which complete the trinity, becomes the Creator of the abstract 
Universe ; the physical world being the production of later and still 
more material powers. || In the Hindu Cosmogony, Swayambhuva emits 

* Idra Suta: "Sohar," iii. , p. 28S a. f Ego sum qui sum (see "Bible"). 

\ See *• Institutes of Manu," translated by Sir William Jones. § ChampoUion. 
II We are fully aware that some Christian kabalists term En-Soph the "Crown," 


Nara and Nari, its bisexual emanation, and dividing its parts into two 
halves, male and female, these fecundate the mundane egg, within which 
develops Brahma, or rather Viradj, the Creator. "The starting-point of 
the Egyptian mythology," says Champollion, " is a triad . . . namely, 
Kneph, Neith, and Phtah ; and Ammon, the male, the father ; iSfuth, the 
female and mother ; and Khons, the son. 

The ten Sephiroth are copies taken from the ten Prddjapatis created 
by Viradj, called the " Lords of all beings," and answering to the bibli- 
cal Patriarchs. 

Justin Martyr explains some of the "heresies" of the day, but in a 
very unsatisfactory manner. He shoivs, howcc'er, the identity of all the 
world-religions at their starting-points. The first beginning opens inva- 
riably with the unknown and passive deity, producing from himself a cer- 

identify him with Sephira ; call En-Soph " an emanation from God," and make the ten 
Sephiroth comprise "En Soph" as a unity. They also very erroneously reverse the 
first two emanations of Sephira — Chochma and Binah. The {greatest kahalists have 
always held Chochma (Wisdom) as a male and active intelligence, Jah p;-, and placed 
it under the No. 2 on the right side of the triangle, whose apex is the crown, while 
Binah (Intelligence) or ri:"':> 's under No. 3 on the left hand. But the latter, being 
represented by its divine name as Jehovah rnn^> very naturally showed the God of 
Israel as only a third emanation, as well as a feminine, passive principle. Hence when 
the time came for the Talmudists to transform their multifarious deities into one living 
God, they resorted to their Masoretic points and combined to transform Jehovah into 
Adonai, " the Lord." This, under the persecution of the Mediaeval kabalists by the 
Church, also forced some of the former to change their female Sephiioth into male, and 
vice versa, so as to avoid being accused of di.srespect and blasphemy to Jehovah ; 
whose name, moreover, by mutual and secret agreement they accepted as a substitute 
for Jah, or the mystery name lAO. Alone the initiated knew of it, but later it gave 
rise to a great confusion among the uninitiated. It would be worth while — were it not 
for lack of space — to quote a few of the many passages in the oldest Jewish authorities, 
such as Rabbi Akiba, and the "Sohar," which corroborate our assertion. Chochma- 
Wisdom is a male prmciple everywhere, and Binah- Jehovah, a female potency. The 
writings of Irenceus, Theodoret, and Epiphanius, teeming with accusations against the 
Gnostics and •' Hgeresies," repeatedly show Simon Magus and Cerenthus making of 
Binah the feminine divine Spirit which inspired Simon. Binah is Sophia, and the 
Sophia of the Gnostics is surely not a male potency, but simply the feminine AVisdom, 
or Intelligence. (See any ancient "Arbor Kabbalistica," or Tree of the Sephiroth.) 
EliphasLevi, in the " Rituel dela Haute Magie," vol. i., pp. 223 and 231, places Choch- 
ma as No. 2 and asamale Sephiroth on the right hand of the Tree. In the " Kabala" 
the three male Sephiroth — Chochma, Chesed, Netsah — are known as the Pillar of Mercy ; 
and the three feminine on the left, namely, Binah, Geburah, Hod, are named the Pillar 
of Judgment ; while the four Sephiroth of the centre — Kether, Tiphereth, Jesod, and 
Malchuth — are called the Middle Pillar. And, as Mackenzie, in the " Royal Masonic 
Cyclopedia," shows, " there is an analogy in these three pillars to the three Pillars of 
Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty in a Craft Lodge of Masonry, while the En-Soph forms 
the mysterious blazing star, or mystic li^jht of the East " (p. 407). 


tain active power or virtue, "Rational," which is sometimes called 
Wisdom, sometimes the Son, very often God, Angel, Lord, and Logos.* 
The latter is sometimes applied to the very first emanation, but m several 
systems it proceeds from the first androgyne or double ray produced at 
the beginning by the unseen. Philo depicts this wisdom as male and 
female. But though its first manifestation had a beginning, for it pro- 
ceeded from Oulom \ (Aion, time), the highest of the ^:ons, when emitted 
from the Fathers, it had remained with him before all creations, for it is 
part of him. I Therefore, Philo Judseus calls Adam Kadmon "■mind'' 
(the Ennoia of Bythos in the Gnostic system). " The mind, let it be 
named Adam." § 

Strictly speaking, it is difficult to view the Jewish Book of Genesis 
otherwise than as a chip from the trunk of the mundane tree of universal 
Gosmogony, rendered in Oriental allegories. As cycle succeeded cycle, 
and one nation after another came upon the world's stage to play its brief 
part in the majestic drama of human life, each new people evolved from 
ancestral traditions its own religion, giving it a local color, and stamping 
it with its individual characteristics. While each of these religions had 
its distinguishing traits, by which, were there no other archaic vestiges, 
the physical and psychological status of its creators could be estimated, 
all preserved a common likeness to one prototype. This parent cult was 
none other than the primitive "wisdom-religion." The Israelitish Scrip- 
tures are no exception. Their national history — if they can claim any 
autonomy before the return from Babylon, and were anything more than 
migratory septs of Hindu pariahs, cannot be carried back a day beyond 
Moses ; and if this ex-Egyptian priest must, from theological necessity, be 
transformed into a Hebrew patriarch, we must insist that the Jewish nation 
was lifted with that smiling infant out of the bulrushes of Lake Moeris. 
Abraham, their alleged father, belongs to the universal mythology. Most 
likely he is but one of the numerous aliases oi Zeruan (Saturn), the king 
of the golden age, who is also called the old man (emblem of time). || 

It is now demonstrated by Assyriologists that in the old Chaldean 
books Abraham is called Zeru-an, or Zerb-an — meaning one very rich in 
gold and silver, and a mighty prince.^ He is also called Zarouan and 
Zarman — a decrepit old man. ** 

*Justin : "Cum. Trypho," p. 284. -I- A division indicative of time. 

\ Sanchoiiiat'iou calls time the oldest ^on, ProtogonoSy the *^ first-borny 
§ Philo Jiidasus : " Cain and his Birth," p. xvii. 

II Azrael, angel of death, is also Israel. Ab-ram means father of elevation, high' 
placed father,- for Saturn is the highest or outmost planet. 
1[ See (ienesis xiii. 2. 
** Saturn is generally represented as a very old man, with a sickle in his hand. 


The ancient Babylonian legend is that Xisuthriis (Hasisadra of the 
Tablets, or Xisuthrus) sailed with his ark to Armenia, and his son Sim 
became supreme king. Pliny says that Sim was called Zeruan ; and 
Sim is Shem. In Hebrew, his name writes izv, Shem — a sign. Assyria 
is held by the ethnologists to be the land of Shem, and Egypt called 
that of Ham. Shem, in the tenth chapter of Ge?tesis is made the father 
of all the children of Eber, of Elam (Oulam or Eilara), and Ashur (Assur 
or Assyria). The " Jiephelim" or fallen men, Gebe?-s, mighty men spoken 
of in Genesis (vi. 4), come from Oulam, "men of Shem." Even Ophir, 
which is evidently to be sought for in the India of the days of Hiram, is 
made a descendant of Shem. The records are purposely mixed up to 
make them fit into the frame of the Mosaic Bible. But Gettesis, from its 
first verse down to the last, has naught to do with the " chosen people ; " 
it belongs to the world's history. Its appropriation by the Jewish authors 
in the days of the so-called restoration of the destroyed books of the Is- 
raelites, by Ezra, proves nothing, and, until now, has been self-propped 
on an alleged divine revelation. It is simply a compilation of the uni- 
versal legends of the universal humanity. Bunsen says that in the 
"Chaldean tribe immediately connected with Abraham, we find remin- 
iscences of dates disfigured and misunderstood, as genealogies of single 
men, or indications of epochs. The Abrahamic recollections go back at 
least three millenia beyond the grandfather of Jacob." * 

Alexander Polyhistor says that Abraham was born at Kamarina or 
Uria, a city of soothsayers, and invented astronomy. Josephus claims 
the same for Terah, Abraham's father. The tower of Babel was built as 
much by the direct descendants of Shem as by those of the " accursed " 
Ham and Canaan, for the people in those days were " one," and the 
"whole earth was of one language ; " and Babel was simply an astrologi- 
cal tower, and its builders were astrologers and adepts of the primitive 
Wisdom-Religion, or, again, what we term Secret Doctrine. 

The Berosian Sybil says : Before the Tower, Zeruan, Titan, and 
Vapetosthe governed the earth, Zeru-an wished to be supreme, but his 
two brothers resisted, when their sister, Astlik, intervened and appeased 
them. It was agreed that Zeru-an should rule, but his male children 
should be put to death ; and strong Titans were appointed to carry this 
into effect. 

Sar (circle, saros) is the Babylonian god of the sky. He is also 
Assaros or Asshur (the son of Shem), and Zero — Zero-ana, the chakkra, 
or wheel, boundless time. Hence, as the first step taken by Zoroaster, 
while founding his new religion, was to change the most sacred deities 

* Bunsen : " Egypt's Place in Universal History," vol. v., p. 85, 


of the Sanscrit Veda into names of evil spirits, in his Zend Scriptures, 
and even to reject a number of them, we find no traces in the Avesta of 
Chakkra — the symboHc circle of the sky. 

Elam, another of the sons of Shem, is Oidam ttViy and refers to an 
order or cycle of events. In Ecclesiastes iii. ii, it is termed "world." 
In Ezekiel xxvi. 20, "of old time." In Genesis iii. 22, the word stands 
as " forever ;" and in chapter ix. 16, "eternal." Finally, the term is 
completely defined in Genesis vi. 4, in the following words : " There were 
nepliclim (giants, fallen men, or Titans) on the earth." The word is 
synonymous with ^on, atwv. In Proverbs viii. 23, it reads : " I was 
effused from Oulam, from Ras" (wisdom). By this sentence, the 
wise king-kabalist refers to one of the mysteries of the human spirit — the 
immortal crown of the man-trinity. While it ought to read as above, and 
Ije interpreted kabalistically to mean that the /(or my eternal, immortal 
Ego), the spiritual entity, was effused from the boundless and nameless 
eternity, through the creative wisdom of the unknown God, it reads in the 
canonical translation : " The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his 
way, before his works of old ! " which is unintelligible nonsense, without 
the kabalistic interpretation. When Solomon is made to say that /was 
" from the beginning . . . while, as yet, he (the Supreme Deity) had not 
noade the earth nor the highest part of the dust of the world ... I was 
there," and "when he appointed the foundations of the earth . . . then 
I was by him, as one brought up loith him," what can the kabalist mean 
by the " /," but his own divine spirit, a drop effused from that eternal 
fountain of light and wisdom — the universal spirit of the Deity ? 

The thread of glory emitted by En-Soph from the highest of the three 
kabalistic heads, through which " all things shine with light," the thread 
which makes its exit through Adam Primus, is the individual spirit of 
every man. " I was daily his (En-Soph's) delight, rejoicing always be- 
fore him . . . and my delights were with the sons of men,''' adds Solo- 
mon, in the same chajiter of the Proverbs. The immortal spirit delights 
in the sons of men, who, without this spirit, are but dualities (physical 
body and astral soul, or that life-principle which animates even the low- 
est of the animal kingdom). But, we have seen that the doctrine teaches 
that this spirit cannot unite itself with that man in whom matter and the 
grossest propensities of his animal soul will be ever crowding it out. 
Therefore, Solomon, who is made to speak under the inspiration of his 
own spirit, that possesses him for the time being, utters the following 
words of wisdom : " Hearken unto me, my son " (the dual man), 
" blessed are they who keep my ways. . . . Blessed is the man that 
heareth nie, watching daily at my gates. . . . For whoso findeth me, 
findeth life, and shall obtain favor of the Lord. . . . But he that 


sinneth against me wrongeth his own soul , . . and loves death " [Pro- 
verbs vii. 1-36). 

This chapter, as interpreted, is made by some theologians, like every- 
thing else, to apply to Christ, the " Son of God," who states repeatedly, 
that he who follows him obtains eternal life, and conquers death. But 
even in its distorted translation it can be demonstrated that it referred to 
anything but to the alleged Saviour. Were we to accept it in this sense, 
then, the Christian theology would have to return, nolens volens, to 
iVverroism and Buddhism ; to the doctrine of emanation, in short ; for 
Solomon says : " I was eft'used " from Oulam and Rasit, both of which 
are a part of the Deity ; and thus Christ would not be as their doctrine 
claims, God himself, but only an emanation of Him, like the Christos of 
the Gnostics. Hence, the meaning of the personified Gnostic ^on, 
the word signifying cycles or determined periods in the eternity and at 
the same time, representing a hierarchy of celestial beings — spirits. 
Thus Christ is sometimes termed the " Eternal ^.on." But the word 
"eternal" is erroneous in relation to the ^ons. Eternal is that which 
has neither beginning nor end ; but the " Emanations " or yEons, although 
having lived as absorbed in the divine essence from the eternity, when 
once individually emanated, must be said to have a beginning. They may 
be therefore endless in this spiritual life, never eternal. 

These endless emanations of the one First Cause, all of which were 
gradually transformed by the popular fancy into distinct gods, spirits, 
angels, and demons, were so little considered immortal, that all were 
assigned a limited existence. And this belief, common to all the peoples 
of antiquity, to the Chaldean Magi as well as to the Egyptians, and even 
in our day held by the Brahmanists and Buddhists, most triumphantly 
evidences the monotheism of the ancient religious systems. This doc- 
trine calls the life-period of all the inferior divinities, "one day of Para- 
brahma." After a cycle of fourteen milliards, three hundred and twenty- 
millions of human years — the tradition says — the trinity itself, with all the 
lesser divinities, will be annihilated, together with the universe, and cease 
to exist. Then another universe will gradually emerge from the pra- 
laya (dissolution), and men on earth will be enabled to comprehend 
SwAYAMBHUVA as he is. Alone, this primal cause will exist forever, in 
all his glory, filling the infinite space. What better proof could be adduced 
of the deep reverential feeling with which the "heathen" regard the one 
Supreme eternal cause of all things visible and invisible. 

This is again the source from which the ancient kabalists derived 
identical doctrines. If the Christians understood Genesis in their own 
way, and, if accepting the texts literally, they enforced upon the unedu- 
cated masses the belief in a creation of our world out of nothing ; and 


moreover assigned to it a heginning, it is surely not the Tanaim, the sole 
expounders of the hidden meaning contained in the Bible, who are to be 
blamed. No more than any other philosophers had they ever believed 
either in spontaneous, limited, or ex nihilo creations. The Kabala has 
survived to show that their philosophy was precisely that of the modern 
Nepal Buddhists, the Svubhavikas. They believed in the eternity and 
the indestructibility of matter, and hence in many prior creations and 
destructions of worlds, before our own. " There were old worlds 
which perished." * " From this we see that the Holy One, blessed be 
His name, had successively created and destroyed sundry worlds, before 
he created the present world ; and when he created this world he said : 
' This pleases me ; the previous ones did not please me.' "f Moreover, 
they believed, again like the Svabhavikas, now termed Atheists, that every 
thing proceeds (is created) from its own nature and that once that the 
first impulse is given by that Creative Force inherent in the " Self- 
created substance," or Sephira, everything evolves out of itself, following 
its pattern, the more spiritual prototype which precedes it in the scale of 
infinite creation. " The indivisible point which has no limit, and cannot 
be comprehended (for it is absolute), expanded from within, and formed 
a brightness which served as a garment (a veil) to the indivisible points. 
... It, too, expanded from within. . . . Thus, everything originated 
through a constant upheaving agitation, and thus finally the world 
originated." J 

In the later Zoroastrian books, after that Darius had restored both 
the worship of Ormazd and added to it the purer magianism of the primi- 
tive Secret ]Visdom — mnDi-mum, of which, as the inscription tells us, 
he was himself a hierophant, we see again reappearing the Zeru-ana, or 
boundless time, represented by the Brahmans in the chakkra, or a circle ; 
that we see figuring on the uplifted finger of the principal deities. 
Further on, we will show the relation in which it stands to the Pythago- 
rean, mystical numbers — the first and the last — which is a zero (0), 
and to the greatest of the Mystery-Gods lAO. The identity of this 
symbol alone, in all the old religions, is sufficient to show their common 
descent from one primitive Faith. § This term of "boundless time," 
which can be applied but to the one who has neither beginning nor end, is 

* Idra Suta ; " Sohar," iii., p. 292 b. \ Bereshith Rabba : " Parsha," ix. 

\ " Sohar," i., p. 20 a. 

§ " The Sanscrit j," says Max Miiller, "is represented by the s and h. Thus the 
geograpliical name ' hapta hendu,' which occurs in the ' Avesta,' becomes intelligible, 
if we retranslate the z and h into the Sanscrit J". Kor ' Sapta Sindhu,' or the seven 
rivers, is the old Vaidic name for India itself" (" Chips," vol. i., p. 81). The 
"Avesta " is the spirit of the " Vedas " — the esoteric meaning made partially known. 


called by the Zoroastrians Zeruana-Akarene, because he has always existed. 
"His glory," they say, is too exalted, his light too resplendent for either 
human intellect or mortal eyes to grasp and see. His primal emana- 
tion is eternal light which, from having been previously concealed in 
darkness, was called out to manifest itself, and thus was formed Ormazd, 
"the King of Life." He is the first-born of boundless time, but like his 
own antit)'pe, or preexisting spiritual idea, has lived within primitive 
darkness from all eternity. His Logos created the pure intellectual 
world. After the lapse of three grand cycles * he created the material 
world in six periods. The six Amshaspands, or primitive spiritual men, 
whom Ormazd created in his own miage, are the mediators between this 
world and himself. Mithras is an emanation of the Logos and the cliief 
of the twenty eight izeds, who are the tutelary angels over the spiritual 
portion of mankind — -the souls of men. The Ferouers are infinite in 
number. They are the ideas or rather the ideal conceptions of things 
which formed themselves in the mind of Ormazd or .Ahuramazda before 
he willed them to assume a concrete form. They are what Aristotle 
terms " privations " of forms and substances. The religion of Zarathus- 
tra, as he is always called in the Avesta, is one from which the ancient 
Jews have the most borrowed. In one of the Yashts, Ahuramazda, the 
Supreme, gives to the seer as one of his sacred names, Ahmi, "I am ;" 
and in another place, ahmi yat ahmi, " I am that I am," as Jehovah is 
alleged to have given it to Moses. 

This Cosmogony, adopted with a change of names in the Rabbinical 
Kabala, found its way, later, with some additional speculations of Manes, 
the half-Magus, half-Platonist, into the great body of Gnosticism. The 
real doctrines of the Basilideans, Valentinians, and the Marcionites can- 
not be correctly ascertained in the prejudiced and calumnious writings of 
the Fathers of the Church; but rather in what remains of the works of 
the Bardesanesians, known as the Nazarenes. It is next to impossible, 
now that all their manuscripts and books are destroyed, to assign to any 
of these sects its due part in dissenting views. But there are a few men 
still living who have preserved books and direct traditions about the 
Ophites, although they care little to impart them to the world. Among 
the unknown sects of Mount Lebanon and Palestine the truth has been 
concealed for more than a thousand years. And their diagram of the 
Ophite scheme differs with the description of it given by Origen and 
hence with the diagram of Matter, f 

* What is generally understood in the " Avesta " system as a thousand years, means, 
in the esoteric doctrine, a cycle of a duration known but to the initiates and which has 
an allegorical sense. 

f Matter : " Histoire Critique du Gnosticisme," pi. x. 


The kabalistic trinity is one of tlie models of the Christian one. " The 
ANCIENT whose name be sanctified, is with three heads, but which make 
only one." * Tria capita exsculpa sunt, unum intra alterum, et alterum 
supra alterum. Three heads are inserted in one another, and one over 
the other. The first head is the Concealed Wisdom {Sapientia Abscon- 
dita). Under this head is the ancient (Pythagorean Monad), the most 
hidden of mysteries ; a head which is no head [captU quod non est caput) ; 
no one can know what that is in this head. No intellect is able to com- 
prehend this wisdom, f This Senior Sanctissimus is surrounded by the 
three heads. He is the eternal light of the wisdom ; and the wisdom is 
the source from which all the manifestations have begun. These three 
heads, included in one head (which is no head) ; and these three are 
bent down (overshadow) short-face (the son) and through them all 
things shine with light." \ " En-Soph emits a thread from El or Al (the 
highest God of the Trinity), and the light follows the thread and enters, 
and passuig through makes its exit through Adam Primus (Kaduion), 
who is concealed until the plan for arranging {^statuni dispositionis) is 
ready ; it threads through him from his head to his feet ; and in him (in 
the concealed Adam) is the figure of A man." § 

" Whoso wishes to have an insight into the sacred unity, let him con- 
sider a flame rising from a burning coal or a burning lamp. He will see 
first a two-fold light — a bright white, and a black or blue light ; the white 
light is above, and ascends in a direct light, while the blue, or dark light, 
is below, and seems as the chair of the former, yet both are so intimately 
connected together that they constitute only one flame. The seat, how- 
ever, formed by the blue or dark light, is again connected with the burning 
matter which is u?ider it again. The white light never changes its color, 
it always remains white ; but various shades are observed in the lower 
light, whilst the lowest light, moreover, takes two directions ; above, it is 
connected with the white light, and below with the burning matter. Now, 
this is constantly consuming itself, and perpetually ascends to the upper 
light, and thus everything merges into a single unity." || 

Such were the ancient ideas of the trinity in the unity, as an ab- 
straction. Man, who is the microcosmos of the macrocosmos, or of the 

* Idra Suta: " Sohar," iii., p. 288. 

f Ibid., sect, ii. \ Ibid., vil. 

§ Jam vero quoniam hoc in loco recondita est ilia plane non utuntur, et tantum 
de parte lucis ejus particepant quze demittitur et ingreditur intra filum Ain Soph pro- 
tensum e Persona V^ (At-OoA) deorsum : intratque et perrumpit et transit per Adam 
primum occuUum usque in statum dispositionis transitque per eum a capite usque ad 
pedes ejus : et in co est figura hominis (" Kabbala Denudata," ii., p. 246). 

1 "Sohar," i., p. 51 a. 


archetypal heavenly man, Adam Kadmon, is likewise a trinity ; for he is 
body, soul, and spirit. 

" All that is created by the ' Ancient of the Ancients ' can live and 
exist only by a male and a female," says the Sohar. * He alone, to whom 
no one can say, " Thou," for he is the spirit of the White-Head in 
whom the " Three Heads " are united, is uncreated. Out of the sub- 
tile fire, on one side of the White Head, and of the "subtile air," on 
the other, emanates Shekinah, his veil (the femininized Holy Ghost). 
"This air," says Idra Rabba, " is the most occult (occultissimus) attribute 
of the Ancient of die Days, f The Ancienter of the Ancienter is the 
Concealed of the Concealed. J All things are Himself, and Himself is 
concealed on every way. § The cranium of the White-Head has no 
beginning, but its end has a shining reflection and a roundness which is 
our universe." 

" They regard," says Klenker, " the first-born as man and wife, in so 
far as his Hght includes in itself all other lights, and in so far as his 
spirit of life or breath of life includes all other life spirits in itself." | 
The kabalistic Shekinah answers to the Ophite Sophia. Properly 
speaking, Adam Kadmon is the Bythos, but in this emanation-system, 
where everything is calculated to perplex and place an obstacle to 
inquiry, he is the Source of Light, the first " primitive man," and at the 
same time Ennoia, the Thought of Bythos, the Depth, for he is 

The Gnostics, as well as the Nazarenes, allegorizing on the personifi- 
cation, said that the First and Second man loved the beauty of Sophia, 
(Sephira) the first woman, and thus the Father and the Son fecundated 
the heavenly " Woman " and, from primal darkness procreated the visi- 
ble light (Sephira is the Invisible, or Spiritual Light), " whom they 
called the Anointed Christum, or King Messiah."^ This Christus is 
the Adam of Dust before his fall, with the spirit of the Adonai, his 
Father, and Shekinah Adonai, his mother, upon him ; for Adam Primus 
is Adon, .A.donai, or Adonis. The primal existence manifests itself by 
its wisdom, and produces the Intelligible Logos (all visible creation). 
This wisdom was venerated by the Ophites under the form of a serpent. 
So far we see that the first and second life are the two Adams, or the 
first and the second man. In the former lies Eva, or the yet unborn 
spiritual Eve, and she is within Adam Primus, for she is a part of him- 
self, who is androgyne. The Eva of dust, she who will be called in 

* Book iii., p. 290. t " Idra Rabba," §§ 541, 542. 

t Ibid., iii., p. 36. § Ibid., p. 171. 

j "Nat. und Urspr. d. Emanationslehre b.d. Kabbalisten," p. ii. 

T "Iren^eus," p. 637. 


Genesis " the mother of all that live," is within Adam the Second- 
And now, from the moment of its first manifestation, the Lord Mano, 
the UnintelHgible Wisdom, disappears from the scene of action. It will 
manifest itself only as Shekinah, the grace ; for the Corona is " the 
innermost Light of all Lights," and hence it is darkness' s own sub- 
stance. * 

In the Kabala, Shekinah is the ninth emanation of Sephira, which 
contains the whole of the ten Sephiroth within herself. She belongs to 
the third triad and is produced together with Malchuth or " Kingdom," 
of which she is the female counterpart. Otherwise she is held to be 
higher than any of these ; for she is the " Divine Glory," the " veil," or 
" garment," of En-Soph. The Jews, whenever she is mentioned in the 
Targum, say that she is the glory of Jehovah, which dwelt in the tab- 
ernacle, manifesting herself hke a visible cloud ; the " Glory" rested over 
the Mercy-Seat in the Sanctum Sanctorum. 

In the Nazarene or Bardesanian System, which may be termed the 
Kabala within the Kabala, the Ancient of Days — Antiquus Altus, who 
is the Father of the Demiurgus of the universe, is called the Third Life, 
or Abatur ; and he is the Father of Fetahil, who is the architect of 
the visible universe, which he calls into existence by the powers of his 
genii, at the order of the " Greatest ; " the Abatur answering to the 
" Father " of Jesus in the later Christian theology. These two superior 
Lives then, are the crown within which dwfclls the greatest Ferho. " Be- 
fore any creature came into existence the Lord Ferho existed." \ This 
one is the First Life, formless and invisible ; in whom the living Spirit 
of Life exists, the Highest Grace. The two are one from eternity, 
for they are the I^ight and the cause of the Light. Therefore, they 
answer to the kabalistic concealed wisdom, and to the concealed She- 
kinah — the Holy Ghost. " This light, which is manifested, is the gar- 
ment of the Heavenly Concealed," says Idra Suta. And the " heavenly 
man " is the superior Adam. " No one knows his paths except Macro- 
prosopus" (Long-face) — the Superior active god. \ Not as I am written 
will I be read ; in this world my name will be written Jehovah and read 
Adonai,"§ say the Rabbins, very correctly. Adonai is the Adam Kad- 
raon ; he is Father and Mother both. By this double mediatorship 
the Spirit of the " Ancient of the Ancient " descends upon the Micropro- 
sopiis (Short-face) or the Adam of Eden. And the " Lord God breathes 
into his nostrils the breath of life." 

When the woman se])arates herself from her androgyne, and becomes 

* "Idra Suta," ix. ; " Kabbala Denudata ;" see Pythagoras: "Monad," 

\ " Codex Nazaraeus," i., p. 145. 

X " Idra Rabba," viii., pp. 107-109. § " Ausziige aus dem Sohar," p. II. 


a distinct individuality, the first story is repeated over again. Both the 
Father and Son, the two Adams, love her beauty ; and then follows the 
allegory of the temptation and fall. It is in the Kaba/a, as in the Ophite 
system, in which both the Ophis and the Ophiomorphos are emanations 
emblematized as serpents, the former representing Eternity, Wisdom, 
and Spirit (as in the Chaldean Magisni of Aspic-worship and Wisdom- 
Doctrine in the olden times), and the latter Cunning, Envy, and Matter. 
Both spirit and matter are serpents ; and Adam Kadmon becomes the 
Ophis who tempts himself — man and woman — to taste of the " Tree of 
Good and Evil," in order to teach them the mysteries of spiritual wis- 
dom. Light tempts Darkness, and Darkness attracts Light, for Dark- 
ness is matter, and " the Highest Light shines not in its Teneh-a." 
With knowledge comes the temptation of the Ophiomorphos, and he 
prevails. The dualism of every existing religion is shown forth by the 
fall. " I have gotten a man from the Lord" exclaims Eve, when the 
Dualism, Cain and Abel — evil and good — is born. " And the Adam 
knew Hua, his woman (astu), and she became pregnant and bore Ji^in, 
and she said : nini-rN o^n Tij^p! Kiniti ais Yava. — I have gained or 
obtained a husband, even Yava — Is, Ais — man." " Cum arbore peccati 
Deus creavit seailum." 

And now we will compare this system with that of the Jewish Gnos- 
tics — the Nazarenes, as well as with other philosophies. 

The ISH Amon, the pleroma, or the boundless circle within which lie 
" all forms," is the thought of the power divine j it works in silence, 
and suddenly light is begotten by darkness ; it is called the second life ; 
and this one produces, or generates the third. This third light is " the 
FATHER of all things that live," as Eua is the " mother of all that 
live." He is the Creator who calls inert matter into life, through his 
vivifying spirit, and, therefore, is called the ancient of the world. Abatur 
is the Father who creates the first Adam, who creates in his turn the 
second. Abatur opens a gate and walks to the dark water (chaos), and 
looking down into it, the darkness reflects the image of Himself . . . 
and lo ! a Son is formed — the Logos or Demiurge ; Fetahil, who is the 
builder of the material world, is called into existence. According to the 
Gnostic dogma, this was the Metatron, the Archangel Gabriel, or mes- 
senger of life ; or, as the biblical allegory has it, the androgynous Adam- 
Kadmon again, the Son, who, with his Father's spirit, produces the 
anointed, or Adam before his fall. 

When Swayambhuva, the " Lord who exists through himself," feels 
impelled to manifest himself, he is thus described in the Hindu sacred 

Having been impelled to produce various beings from his own divine 



substance, he first manifested the waters which developed withm them- 
selves a productive seed. 

The seed became a germ bright as gold, blazing like the luminary 
with a thousand beams ; and in that egg he was born himself, in the form 
of Brahma, the great principle of all the beings [Manu, book i., slokas 

The Egyptian Kneph, or Chnuphis, Divine Wisdom, represented by 
a serpent, produces an egg from his mouth, from which issues Phtha. 
In this case Phtha represents the universal germ, as well as Brahma, who 
is of the neuter gender, when the final a has a diaresis on it ; * otherwise 
it becomes simply one of the names of the Deity. The former was the 
model of the Three Lives of the Nazarenes, as that of the kabalistic 
" Faces," Pharazupha, which, in its turn, furnished the model for the 
Christian Trinity of Irenaeus and his followers. The egg was the primi- 
tive matter which served as a material for the building of the visible uni- 
verse ; it contained, as well as the Gnostic Pleroma, the kabalistic She- 
kinah, the man and wife, the spirit and life, " whose light includes all 
other lights" or life-spirits. This first manifestation was symbolized by- a 
serpent, which is at first divine wisdom, but, falling into generation, 
becomes polluted. Phtha is the heavenly man, the Egyptian Adam- 
Kadmon, or Christ, who, in conjunction with the female Holy Ghost, the 
ZoE, produces the five elements, air, water, fire, earth, and ether ; the 
latter being a servile copy from the Buddhist A'd, and his five Dhyana 
Buddhas, as we have shown in the preceding chapter. The Hindu 
Swayambhuva-Nara, develops from himself the mother-principle, enclosed 
within his own divine essence — Nari, the immortal Virgin, who, when 
impregnated by his spirit, becomes Taumitra, the mother of the five 
elements — air, water, fire, earth, and ether. Thus may be shown how 
from the Hindu cosmogony all others proceed. 

Knorr von Rosenroth, busying himself with the interpretation of the 
Kabala, argues that, " In this first state (of secret wisdom), the infinite 
God Himself can be understood as ' Father ' (of the new covenant). 
But the Light being let down by the Infinite through a canal into the 
'primal Adam,' or Messiah, and joined with him, can be applied to the 
name Son. And the influx emitted down from him (the Son) to the 
lower parts (of the universe), can be applied to the character of the Holy 
Ghost." f Sophia-Achamoth, the half-spiritual, half-material Life, which 
vivifies the inert matter in the depths of chaos, is the Holy Ghost of the 
Gnostics, and the Spiritus (female) of the Nazarenes. She is — be it re- 

* He is the universal and spiritual germ of all things, 
t "Ad. Kabb. Chr.," p. 6. 



membered— the sister of Christos, the perfect emanation, and both are 
children or emanations of Sophia, the purely spiritual and intellectual 
daughter of Bythos, the Depth. For the elder Sophia is Shekmah, the 
Face of God, " God's Shekinah, which is his image." * 

" The Son Zeus-Belus, or Sol-Mithra is an image of the Father, an 
emanation from the Supreme Light," says Movers. "He passed for 
Creator." \ 

" Philosophers say the first air is anima mundi. But the garment 
(Shekinah) is higher than the first air, since it is joined closer to the En- 
Soph, the Boundless." J Thus Sophia is Shekinah, and Sophia-Achamoth 
the ani77ia mundi, the astral light of the kabalists, which contains the 
spiritual and material germs of all that is. For the Sophia-Achamoth, 
like Eve, of whom she is the prototype, is " the mother of all that live." 

There are three trinities in the Nazarene system as well as in the 
Hindu philosophy of the ante and early Vedic period. While we see 
the few translators of the Kabala, the Nazarene Codex, and other abstruse 
works, hopelessly floundering amid the interminable pantheon of names, 
unable to agree as to a system in which to classify them, for the one 
hypothesis contradicts and overturns the other, we can but wonder at all 
this trouble, which could be so easily overcome. But even now, when 
the translation, and even the perusal of the ancient Sanscrit has become 
so easy as a point of comparison, they would never think it possible that 
every philosophy — whether Semitic, Hamitic, or Turanian, as they call it, 
has its key in the Hindu sacred works. Still facts are there, and facts 
are not easily destroyed. Thus, while we find the Hindu trimurti triply 
manifested as 

Nara (or Para-Pouroucha), Agni, 
Nari (Mariama), Vaya, 

Viradj (Brahma), Surya, 

and the Egyptian trinity as follows : 
Kneph (or Amon), Osiris, 

Maut (or Mut), Isis, 

Khons, Horus, 

the Nazarene System runs, 

Feiho (Ish-Amon), Mano, 

Chaos (dark water), Spiritus (female), 

Fetahil, Ledhaio, 


the Father, 


the Mother, 


the Son, 

Ra (Horus), the Father, 

Isis, the Mother, 

Malouli, the Son ; § 

Abatur, the Father, 

Netubto, the Mother, 

Lord Jordan, the Son. 

The first is the concealed or non-manifested trinity — a pure abstrac- 
tion. The other the active or the one revealed in the results of creation, 

* ** Sohar," p. 93. 

X "Kabbala Denudata," vol. ii., p. 236. 

\ " Movers," p. 265. 

§ ChampoUion, Junior: " Lettres." 


proceeding out of the former — its spiritual prototype. The third is the 
mutilated image of both the others, crystallized in the form of human 
dogmas, which vary according to the exuberance of the national mate- 
rialistic fancy. 

The Supreme Lord of splendor and of light, luminous and refulgent, 
before which no other existed, is called Corona (the crown) ; Lord Ferho, 
the unrevealed life which existed in the former from eternity ; and Lord 
Jordan — the spirit, the living water of grace. * He is the one through 
whom alone we can be saved ; and thus he answers to the Shekinah, the 
spiritual garment of En-Soph, or the Holy Ghost. These three constitute 
the trinity in abscondito. The second trinity is composed of the three 
lives. The first is the similitude of Lord Ferho, through whom he has 
proceeded forth ; and the second Ferho is the King of Light — Mano 
{Rex Lucis). He is the heavenly life and light, and older than the 
Architect of heaven and earth.f The second life is Ish Anion (Pleroma), 
the vase of election, containing the visible thought of the lordanus Alax- 
imus — the type (or its intelligible reflection), the prototype of the living 
water, who is the " spiritual Jordan." \ Third life, which is produced 
by the other two, is Abatur {Ab, the Parent or Father). This is the 
mysterious and decrepit " Aged of the Aged," the " Ancient Senem sui 
obtegentem et grandcevum mundi." This latter third life is the Father of 
the Demiurge Fetahil, the Creator of the world, whom the Ophites call 
Ilda-Baoth, § though F'etahil is the only-begotten one, the reflection of 
the Father, Abatur, who begets him by looking into the " dark water ; " || 
but the Lord Mano, " the Lord of loftiness, the Lord of all genii," is 
higher than the Father, in this kabalistic Codex — one is purely spiritual, 
the other material. So, or instance, while Abatur's "only begotten" 
one is the genius Fetahil, the Creator of the physical world, Lord Mano, 
the " I^ord of Celsitude," who is the son of Him, who is " the Father of 
all who preach the Gospel," produces also an " only-begotten " one, the 
Lord Lehdaio, "a just Lord." He is the Christos, the anointed, who 
l)ours out the "grace" of the Invisible Jordan, the Spirit of the Highest 

In the Arcanum, " in the assembly of splendor, lighted by Mano, to 
whom the scintillas of splendor owe their origin," the genii who live in 
light " rose, they went to the visible Jordan, and flowing water . . . they 
assembled for a counsel . . . and called forth the Only-Begotten Son 

* " Codex NazarjEus," vol. ii., pp. 47-57. f Ibid., vol. i. , p. 145. 
\ Ibid., vol. ii., p. 211. § Ibid., vol. i., p. 308. 

il Sophia-Achamoth also begets her son Ilda-Baoth, the Demiurge, by looking into 
chaos or matter, and by coming in contact with it. 


of an imperishable image, and who cannot be conceived by reflection, 
Lehdaio, the just Lord, and sprung from Lehdaio, the just lord, whom 
the life had produced by his word." * 

Mano is the chief of the seven .'^:ons, who are Mano {Rex Lucis) 
Aiar Zivo, Ignis Vivus, Lux, Vita, Aqua Viva (the living water of 
baptism, the genius of the Jordan), and Ipsa Vita, the chief of the six 
genii, which form with him the mystic seven. The Nazarene Mano is 
simply the copy of the Hindu first Manu — the emanation of Manu 
Swayambhuva — from whom evolve in succession the six other Manus, 
types of the subsequent races of men. We find them all represented by 
the apostle-kabalist John in the " seven lamps of fire " burning before 
the throne, which are the seven spirits of God," \ and in the seven angels 
bearing the seven vials. Again in Fetahil we recognize the original of 
the Christian doctrine. 

In the Revelation of Joannes Theologos it is said : " I turned and 
saw in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of 
man . . . his head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow ; 
and his eyes were as a flame of fire . . . and his feet hke unto fine brass, 
as if they burned in a furnace" (i. 13, 14, 15). Johti here repeats, as is 
well known, the words of Daniel and Ezekiel. " The Ancient of Days 
. . . whose hair was white as pure wool . . . etc." And " the appear- 
ance of a man . . . above the throne . . . and the appearance of fire, 
and it had brightness round about." J The fire being " the glory of the 
Lord." Fetahil is son of the man, the Third Life, and his upper part 
is represented as white as snow, while standing near the tlnone of the 
living fire he has the appearance of a flame. 

All these " apocalyptic " visions are based on the description of the 
" white head " of the Sohar, in whom the kabalistic trinity is united. 
The white head, " which conceals in its cranium the spirit," and which is 
environed by subtile fire. The " appearance of a man " is that of Adam 
Kadmon, through which passes the thread of light represented by the 
fire. Fetahil is the Vir JVbvissimis (the newest man), the son of Abatur,§ 
the latter being the " man," or the /Aird life, || now the third personage of 
the trinity, /o/in sees "one like unto the son of man," holding in his 
right hand seven stars, and standing between " seven golden candle- 
sticks" {Revelation i.). Fetahil takes his " stand on high," according to 
the will of his father, " the highest JVmvi who has seven sceptres,", and 

* " Codex Nazarjeus," vol. ii., p. 109. See " Sod, the Son of the Man," for trans- 

f Revelation iv. 5. % Ezekiel. § " Codex Nazarsus," voh ii., p. 127. 

H The first androgyne duad being considered a unit in all the secret computations, 
is, therefore, the Holy Ghost. 


seven genii, who astronomically represent the seven planets or stars. 
He stands " shining in the garment of the Lord's, resplendent by the 
agency of the genii," * He is the Son of his Father, Life, and his mother, 
Spirit, or Light, f The Logos is represented in the Gospel according to 
John as one in whom was '■'Life, and the life was the light of men" (i. 4). 
Fetahil is the Demiurge, and his father created the visible universe of 
matter through him. J In the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians (iii. g), 
God is said to have " created all things by Jesus." In the Codex the 
Parent-LiFE says: "Arise, go, our son first-begotten, ordained for all 
creatures." § "As the living father hath sent me," says Christ, "God 
sent his only-begotten son that we might live." || Finally, having per- 
formed his work on earth, Fetahil reascends to his father Abatur. " Et 
qui, relicto guetn procreavit mundo, ad Abatur suum pair em contendit." 1 
" My father sent me . . . I go to the Father," repeats Jesus. 

Laying aside the theological disputes of Christianity which try to 
blend together the Jewish Creator of the first chapter of Genesis with 
the " Father " of the New Testament, Jesus states repeatedly of his 
Father that " He is in secret." Surely he would not have so termed the 
ever-present "Lord God" of the Mosaic books, vvho showed Himself to 
Moses and the Patriarchs, and finally allowed all the elders of Israel 
to look on Himself. ** When Jesus is made to speak of the temple at 
Jerusalem as of his " Father's house," he does not mean the physical 
building, which he maintains he can destroy and then again rebuild in 
three days, but of the temple of Solomon ; the wise kabalist, who indi- 
cates in his Proverbs that every man is the temple of God, or of his 
own divine spirit. This term of the "Father who is in secret," we find 
used as much in the Kabala as in the Codex Nazara-us, and elsewhere. 
No one has ever seen the wisdom concealed in the "Cranium," and 
no one has beheld the "Depth" (Bythos). Simon, the Magician, 
preached "one Father unknown to all." f f 

We can trace this appellation of a " secret " God still farther back. 
In the Kabala the " Son " of the co?icealed Father who dwells in light 
and glory, is the "Anointed," the Seir-Anpin, who unites in himself all 
the Sephiroth, he is Christos, or the Heavenly man. It is through 
Christ that the Pneuma, or the Holy Ghost, creates "all things" 

* _" Codex Nazaraaus," vol. iii., p. 59. \ Ibid., vol. i., p. 285. 

X Ibid,, vol. i., p. 309. 

§Ibid., vol. i., p. 287. See "Sod, the Son of the Man," p. roi. 
I) John iv. 9. T[ " Codex Nazarasus," vol. ii., p. 123. 

** " Then went up Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders 
of Israel. And they saw the God of Israel^'' Exodus xxiv. 9, 10. 
ff Irenoius: " Clementine Homilies," I., x.\ii., p. 118. 


{Ephesians iii. 9), and produces the four elements, air, water, fire, and 
earth. This assertion is unquestionable, for we find Irensus basing on 
this fact his best argument for the necessity of there being four gospels. 
There can be neither more nor fewer than four — he argues. " For as 
there are four quarters of the world, and four general winds {KadoXlKo. 
irvevfj.aTa) . . . it is right that she (the Church) should have four pillars. 
From which it is manifest that the Word, the maker of all, he who sUteth 
upon the Cherubim ... as David says, supplicating his advent, ' Thou 
that sittest between the Cherubim, shine forth ! ' For the Cherubim also 
are four-faced and their faces are symbols of the working of the Son of 
God." * 

We will not stop to discuss at length the special holiness of the four- 
faced Cherubim, although we might, perhaps, show their origin in all 
the ancient pagodas of India, in the vehans (or vehicles) of their chief 
gods ; as likewise we might easily attribute the respect paid to them to 
the kabalistic wisdom, .which, nevertheless, the Church rejects with 
great horror. But, we cannot resist the temptation to remind the 
reader that he may easily ascertain the several significances attributed 
to these Cherubs by reading the Kabala. " When the souls are to leave 
their abode," says the Sohar, holding to the doctrine of the pre-exist- 
ence of souls in the world of emanations, " each soul separately 
appears before the Holy King, dressed in a sublime form, with the fea- 
tures in which it is to appear in this world. It is from this sublime form 
that the image proceeds " [Sohar, iii., p. 104 ab). Then it goes on to 
say that the types or forms of these faces are four in number — those of 
the angel or man, of the Hon, the bull, and the eagle." Furthermore, 
we may well express our wonder that Irenseus should not have re-en- 
forced his argument for the four gospels — by citing the whole Pantheon 
of the four-armed Hindu gods ? 

Ezekiel in representing his four animals, now called Cherubim, as 
types of the four symbolical beings, which, in his visions support the 
throne of Jehovah, had not far to go for his models. The Chaldeo- 
Babylonian protecting genii were familiar to him ; the Sed, Alap or 
Kirub (Cherubim), the bull, with the human face ; the Nirgal, human- 
headed hon ; Oustour the Sphinx-man ; and the Nathga, with its eagle's 
head. The religion of the masters — the idolatrous Babylonians and 
Assyrians — was transferred almost bodily into the revealed Scripture of 
the Captives, and from thence came into Christianity. 

Already, we find Ezekiel addressed by the likeness of the glory 
of the Lord, " as Son of man." This peculiar title is used repeatedly 

'Adv. Haes.,"lII., il, iS. 


throughout the whole book of this prophet, which is as kabalistic as 
the "roll of a book " which the " Glory " causes him to eat. It is writ- 
ten within and without ; and its real meaning is identical with that of 
the Apocalypse. It appears strange that so much stress should be laid 
on this pecuhar appellation, said to have been applied by Jesus to him- 
self, when, in the symbolical or kabalistic language, a prophet is so 
addressed. It is as extraordinary to see Irenaeus indulging in such 
graphic descriptions of Jesus as to show him, " the maker of all, sitting 
upon a Cherubim," unless he identifies him with Shekinah, whose usual 
place was among the Charoubs of the Mercy Seat. We also know that 
the Cherubim and Seraphim are titles of the " Old Serpent " (the ortho- 
dox Devil) the Seraphs being the burning or fiery serpents, in kabalistic 
symbolism. The ten emanations of Adam Kadmon, called the 
Sephiroth, have all emblems and titles corresponding to each. So, for 
instance, the last two are Victory, or Jehovah-Sabaoth, whose symbol 
is -the right column of Solomon, the Pillar Jachiii ; while glory is the 
left Pillar, or Boaz, and its name is " the Old Serpent," and also " Sera- 
phim and Cherubim." * 

The "Son of man" is an appellation which could not be assumed 
by any one but a kabalist. Except, as shown above, in the Old Testa- 
ment, it is used but by one prophet — Ezekiel, the kabalist. In their 
mysterious and mutual relations, the yEons or Sephiroth are represented 
in the Kahala by a great number of circles, and sometimes by the figure 
of a MAN, which is symbolically formed out of such circles. This man 
is Seir-Anpin, and the 243 numbers of which his figure consists relate 
to the different orders of the celestial hierarchy. The original idea of 
this figure, or rather the model, may have been taken from the Hindu 
Brahma, and the various castes typified by the several parts of his body, 
as King suggests in his G?iostics. In one of the grandest and most 
beautiful cave-temples at EUora, Nasak, dedicated to Vishvakarma, 
son of Brahma, is a representation of this God and his attributes. To 
one acquainted with Ezekiel's description of the "likeness of four 
living creatures," every one of which had four faces and the hands of 
a man under its wings, etc.,- f this figure at EUora must certainly appear 
absolutely biblical. Brahma is called the father of " man," as well as 
Jupiter and other highest gods. 

It is in the Buddhistic representations of Mount Meru, called by the 
Burmese My'e-nmo, and by the Siamese Sineru, that we find one of the 
originals of the Adam Kadmon, Seir-Anpin, the " heavenly man," and 
of all the ^ons, Sephiroth, Powers, Dominions, Thrones, Virtues, and 

* See King's "Gnostics." f Ezekiel i.-ii. 


Dignities of the Kabala. Between two pillars, whicli are connected by 
an arch, the key-stone of the latter is represented by a crescent. This is 
the domain in which dwells the Supreme Wisdom of A'di Buddha, the 
Supreme and invisible Deity. Beneath this highest central point comes 
the circle of the direct emanation of the Unknown— the circle of Brahma 
with some Hindus, of the first avatar of Buddha, according to others. 
This answers to Adam Kadraon and the ten Sephiroth. Nine of the 
emanations are encircled by the tenth, and occasionally represented by 
pagodas, each of which bears a name which expresses one of the chief 
attributes of the manifested Deity. Then below come the seven stages, 
or heavenly spheres, each sphere being encircled by a sea. These are 
the celestial mansions of the devatas, or gods, each losing somewhat in 
holiness and purity as it approaches the earth. Then comes Meru itself, 
formed of numberless circles within three large ones, typifying the trinity 
of man ; and for one acquainted with the numerical value of the letters in 
bibhcal names, like that of the " Great Beast," or that of Mithra fjiuOpas 
afipa^ai, and others, it is an easy matter to establish the identity of the 
Meru-gods with the emanations or Sephiroth of the kabahsts. Also the 
genii of the Nazarenes, with their special missions, are all found on this 
most ancient mythos, a most perfect representation of the symbolism of 
the "secret doctrine," as taught in archaic ages. 

King gives a few hints — though doubtless too insufficient to teach 
anything important, for they are based upon the calculations of Bishop 
Newton * — as to this mode of finding out mysteries in the value of letters. 
However, we find this great archaeologist, who has devoted so much time 
and labor to the study of Gnostic gems, corroborating our assertion. He 
shows that the entire theory is Hindu, and points out that the durga, or 
female counterpart of each Asiatic god, is what the kabalists term active 
Virtue \ in the celestial hierarchy, a term which the Christian Fathers 
adopted and repeated, without fully appreciating, and the meaning of 
which the later theology has utterly disfigured. But to return to Meru. 

* " Gnostics and their Remains." 

■)• "Although this science is commonly supposed to be peculiar to the Jewish Tal- 
mudists, there is no doubt that they borrowed the idea from a foreign source, and that 
from the Chaldeajis, the founders of magic art" says King, in the " Gnostics." The 
titles lao and Abraxas, etc., instead of being recent Gnostic figments, were indeed holy 
names, borrowed from the most ancient formulse of the East. Pliny must allude to 
them when he mentions the virtues ascribed by the Magi to amethysts engraved with 
the names of tlie sun and moon, names not expressed in either the Greek or Latin 
tontmes. In the " Eternal Sun," the ^'Airaxas," the " Adonai," of these gems, we 
recognize the very amulets ridiculed by the philosophic Pliny (" Gnostics," pp. 79, 80) ; 
Virtues (miracles) as employed by Irenseus. 


The whole is surrounded by the Maha Samut, or the great sea— the 
astral light and ether of the kabalists and scientists ; and within the cen- 
tral circles appears " the likeness of a man." He is the Achadoth of 
the Nazarenes, the twofold unity, or the androgyne man ; the heavenly 
incarnation, and a perfect representation of Seir-Anpin (short-face), the 
son of Arkh Ajipin (long-face). * This likeness is now represented in 
many lamaseries by Gautama-Buddha, the last of the incarnated avatars. 
Still lower, under the Meru, is the dwelling of the great Naga, who is 
called Rajah Naga, the king-serpent — the serpent of Genesis, the Gnostic 
Ophis — and the goddess of the earth, Bhumay Nari, or Yama, who waits 
upon the great dragon, for she is Eve, " the mother of all that live." Still 
lower is the eighth sphere, the infernal regions. The uppermost regions 
of Brahma are surrounded by the sun, moon, and planets, the seven stel- 
lars of the Nazarenes, and just as they are described in the Codex. 

" The seven impostor-D»mons who deceive the sons of Adam. The 
name of one is Sol ; of another Spiritus Vencreus, Astro ; of the third 
Nebii, Mercurius a false Messiah; . . . the name of a fourth is Sin 
Luna ; the fifth is Kiiin, Saturnus ; the sixth, Bel-Zeus ; the seventh, 
Nerig-J/tz;'j-. " \ Then there are " Seven Lives procreated," seven good 
Stellars, " which are from Cabar Zio, and are those bright ones who shine 
in their own form and splendor that pours from on high. ... At the 
gate of the House of Life the throne is fitly placed for the Lord of 
Splendor, and there are three habitations. " J , The habitations of the 
Triinurti, the Hindu trinity, are placed beneath the key-stone — the golden 
crescent, in the representation of Meru. " And there was under his feet 
(of the God of Israel) as it were a paved work of a sapphire-stone " 
{Exodus xxiv. lo). Under the crescent is the heaven of Brahma, all 
paved with sapphires. The paradise of Indra is resplendent with a thou- 
sand suns ; that of Siva (Saturn), is in the northeast ; his throne is formed 
of lapis-lazuli and the floor of heaven is of fervid gold. " When he sits 
on the throne he blazes with fire up to the loins." At Hurdwar, during 
the fair, in which he is more than ever Mahadeva, the highest god, the 
attributes and emblems sacred to the Jewish " Lord God," may be recog- 
nized one by one in those of Siva. The Binlang stone, § sacred to this 
Hindu deity, is an unhewn stone like the Beth-el, consecrated by the 
Patriarch Jacob, and set up by him "for a pillar," and hke the latter 

* So called to distinguish the short-face, who is exterior, " from the venerable sacred 
ancient " (the " Idra Rabba," iii., 36 ; v 54). Seir-Anpin is the "image of the Father." 
" He that hath seen me hath seen my Father " (John xiv. 9). 

f " Codex Nazaraius," vol. iii., p. 57. \ Ibid., vol. iii., p. 6l. 

^ This stone, of a sponge-like surface, is found in Narmada and seldom to be seen 
in other places. 


Binlang is anointed. We need hardly remind the student that the linga, 
the emblem sacred to Siva and whose temples are modelled after this 
form, is identical in shape, meaning, and purpose with the "pillars" set 
up by the several patriarchs to mark their adoration of the Lord God. 
In fact, one of these patriarchal hthoi might even now be carried in the 
Sivaitic processions of Calcutta, without its Hebrew derivation being sus- 
pected. The four arms of Siva are often represented with appendages 
like wings ; he has three eyes and a fourth in the crescent, obtained 
by him at the churning of the ocean, as Pancha Mukhti Siva has four 

In this god we recognize the description given by Ezekiel, in the first 
chapter of his book, of his vision, in which he beholds the " likeness of a 
man" in the four living creatures, who had "four faces, four wings," 
who had one pair of " straight feet . . . which sparkled like the color of 
burnished brass . . . and their rings were full of eyes round about them 
four." It is the throne and heaven of Siva that the prophet describes in 
saying "... and there was the likeness of a throne as the appearance 
of a sapphire stone . . . and I saw as the color of amber (gold) as the ap- 
pearance of fire around about . . . from his loins even upward, and from 
the appearance of his loins even downward, I saw as it were the appear- 
ance of fire" [Ezekieli. 27). " And his feet like unto fine brass, as if 
they burned in a furnace" {Revelation \. 15). "As for their faces . . , 
one had the face of a cherub, and the face of a lion . . . they also had 
the face of an ox and the face of an eagle" {Ezekiel \. 10, x. 14). This 
foiitfold appearance which we find in the two cherubims of gold on the 
two ends of the ark; these symbolic ioxix faces being adopted, moreover, 
later, one by each evangelist, as may be easily ascertained from the 
pictures of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,* prefixed to their respective 
gospels in the Roman Vulgate and Greek Bibles. 

"Taaut, the great god of the Phoenicians," says Sanchoniathon, "to 
express the character of Saturn or Kronos, made his image having four 
eyes . . . two before, two behind, open and closed, and four wings, two 
expanded, two folded. The eyes denote that the god sees in sleep, and 
sleeps in waking ; the position of the wings that he flies in rest, and rests 
in flying." 

The identity of Saturn with Siva is corroborated still more when we 
consider the emblem of the latter, the damara, which is an hour-glass, to 
show the progress of time, represented by this god in his capacity of a 
destroyer. The bull Nardi, the vehan of Siva and the most sacred em- 

* John has an eagle near him ; Luke, a bull ; Mark, a lion ; and Matthew, an 
angel— the kabalistic quaternary of the, Egyptian Tarot. 


bleiii of this god, is reproduced in the Egyptian Apis ; and in the bull 
created by Ormazd and killed Ahriman. The religion of Zoroaster, 
all based upon the " secret doctrine," is found held by the people of 
Eritene ; it was the religion of the Persians when they conquered the 
Assyrians. From thence it is easy to trace the introduction of this em- 
blem of Life represented by the Bull, in every religious system. The 
college of the Magians had accepted it with the change of dynasty;* 
Daniel is described as a Rabbi, the chief of the Babylonian astrologers 
and Magi ; f therefore we see the Assyrian little bulls and the attributes 
of Siva reappearing under a hardly modified form in the cherubs of the 
Talmudistic Jews, as we have traced the bull Apis in the sphinxes or 
cherubs of the Mosaic Ark ; and as we find it several thousand years 
later in the company of one of the Christian evangelists, Luke. 

Whoever has lived in India long enough to acquaint himself even 
superficially with the native deities, must detect the similarity between 
Jehovah and other gods besides Siva. As Saturn, the latter was 
always held in great respect by the Tahnudists. He was held in 
reverence by the Alexandrian kabalists as the direct inspirer of the law 
and the prophets ; one of the names of Saturn was Israel, and we will 
show, in time, his identity in a certain way with Abram, which Movers and 
others hinted at long since. Thus it cannot be wondered at if Valen- 
tinus, Basilides, and the Ophite Gnostics placed the dwelling of their 
Ilda-Baoth, also a destroyer as well as a creator, in the planet Saturn ; 
for it was he who gave the law in the wilderness and spoke through the 
prophets. If more proof should be required we will show it in the testi- 
mony of the canonical Bible itself. In Amos the " I^ord " pours vials 
of wrath upon the people of Israel. He rejects their burnt-offerings and 
will not listen to their prayers, but inquires of Amos, " have ye offered 
unto me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, O house of 
Israel?" "But ye have borne the tabernacles of your Moloch and 
Chiun your images, the star of your god" (v. 25, 26). Who are Moloch 
and Chiun but Baal — Saturn — Siva, and Chiun, Kivan, the same Saturn 
whose star the Israelites had made to themselves ? There seems no 
escape in this case ; all these deities are identical. 

The same in the case of the numerous Logoi. While the Zoroastrian 
Sosiosh is framed on that of the tenth Brahmanical Avatar, and the fifth 
Buddha of the followers of Gautama ; and we find the former, after having 
passed part and parcel into the kabalistic system of king Messiah, re- 
flected in the Apostle Gabriel of the Nazarenes, and yEbel-Zivo, the 
Legatus, sent on earth by the Lord of Celsitude and Light ; all of these — 

* See Matter, upon the subject. f Consult Book of Daniel, iv., v. 


Hindu and Persian, Buddhist and Jewish, the Christos of the Gnostics 
and the Philonean Logos — are found combined in '-the Word made 
flesh" of the fourth Gospel. Christianity includes all these systems, 
patched and arranged to meet the occasion. Do we take up the Avesta 
■ — we find there the dual system so prevalent in the Christian scheme. 
The struggle between Ahriman, * Darkness, and Ormazd, Light, has been 
going on in the world continually since the beginning of time. When the 
worst ariives and Ahriman will seera to have conquered the world and 
corrupted all mankind, then will appear the ^ff7'w?/r of mankind, Sosiosh. 
He will come seated upon a white horse and followed by an army of good 
genii equally mounted on milk-white steeds. \ And this we find faith- 
fully copied in the Revelation : " I saw heaven opened, and beheld a 
white horse ; and he that sal upon him was called faithful and true. . . . 
And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses " 
{^Revelation xix. 11, 14). Sosiosh himself is but a later YQxi\zx\ permu- 
tation of the Hindu Vishnu. The figure of this god may be found unto 
this day representing him as the Saviour, the " Preserver " (the preserv- 
ing spirit of God), in the temple of Rama. The picture shows him in his 
tenth incarnation- — the Kalki avatar, which is yet to come — as an armed 
warrior mounted upon a white horse. Waving over his head the sword 
destruction, he holds in his other hand a discus, made up of rings en- 
circled in one another, an emblem of the revolving cycles or great ages,J 
for Vishnu will thus appear but at the end of the Kaliyug, answering to 
the end of the world expected by our Adventists. " And out of his 
mouth goeth a sharp sword ... on his head were many crowns" 
{Revelation xix. 12). Vishnu is often represented with several crowns 
superposed on his head. " And I saw an angel standing on the Sun " 
(17). The white horse is the horse of the Sun.^ Sosiosh, the Persian 
Saviour, is also born of a virgin, || and at the end of days he will come as 
a Redeemer to regenerate the world, but he will be preceded by two 
prophets, who will come to announce him. ^ Hence the Jews who had 
Moses and Elias, are now waiting for the Messiah. " Then comes the 

* Ahriman, the production of Zoroaster, is so called in hatred of the Arias or 
Aryas, the Brahmans against whose dominion the Zoroastrians had revolted. Although 
an Arya (a noble, a sage) himself, Zoroaster, as in the case of the Devas whom he dis- 
graced from gods to the position of devils, hesitated not to designate this type of the 
spirit of evil under the name of his enemies, the Brahman-Aryas. The whole struggle 
of Ahura-mazd and Ahriman is but the allegory of the great religious and political war 
between Brahmanism and Zoroastrianism. 

\ " Nork," ii., 146. t '^^^- '^''' Maurice takes it also to mean the cycles. 

§ " Duncker," ii., 363 ; Spiegel's " Avesta," i., 32, 34, 

II See the " Book of Dehesh," 47. 

^ See King's translation of the " Zend Avesta," in his " Gnostics," p. 9. 


general resurrection, when the good will immediately enter into this 
happy abode — the regenerated earth ; and Ahriman and his angels 
(the devils),* and the wicked, be purified by immersion in a lake of 
molten metal. . . . Henceforward, all will enjoy unchangeable happi- 
ness, and, headed by Sosiosh, ever sing the praises of the Eternal One."f 
The above is a perfect repetition of Vishnu in his tenth avatar, for he 
will then throw the wicked into the infernal abodes in which, after purify- 
ing themselves, they will be pardoned — even those devils which rebelled 
against Brahma, and were hurled into the bottomless pit by Siva, \ as 
also the " blessed ones " will go to dwell with the gods, over the Mount 

Having thus traced the similarity of views respecting the Logos, Met- 
atron, and Mediator, as found in the Kabala and the Codex of the Chris- 
tian Nazarenes and Gnostics, the reader is prepared to appreciate the 
audacity of the Patristic scheme to reduce a purely metaphysical figure 
into concrete form, and make it appear as if the finger of prophecy had 
from time immemorial been pointing down the vista of ages to Jesus as 
the coming Messiah. A theomythos intended to symbolize the coming 
day, near the close of the great cycle, when the "glad tidings" from 
heaven should proclaim the universal brotherhood and common faith of 
humanity, the day of regeneration — was violently distorted into an ac- 
complished fact. 

" Why callest thou me good ? there is none good but one, that is 
God," says Jesus. Is this the language of a God ? of the second person 
in the Trinity, who is identical with the First ? And if this Messiah, or 
Holy Ghost of the Gnostic and Pagan Trinities, had come in his person, 
what did he mean by distinguishing between himself the "Son of man," 
and the Holy Ghost ? " And whosoever shall speak a word against the 
Son of man, it shall be forgiven him ; but unto him that blasphemeth 
against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven," he says.§ And how 
account for the marvellous identity of this very language, with the pre- 
cepts enunciated, centuries before, by the Kabahsts and the "Pagan" 
initiates ? The following are a few instances out of many. 

" No one of the gods, no man or Lord, can be good, but only God 
alone," says Hermes. || 

* The daevas or devils of the Iranians contrast with the devas or deities of India. 

f "Nork," ii., 146. 

|Tlie Bishop of Ephesus, 218 A.D. ; Eiisebius : " H. E." iii., 31. Origen stoutly 
maintained the doctrine of eternal punishment to be erroneous. He held that at the 
second advent of Christ even the devils among the damned would be forgiven. The 
eternal damnation is a later Christian thought. 

g Lulce xii. 10. ] " Hermes Trismegistus," vi. 55. 


"To be a good man is impossible, God alone possesses this privil- 
ege," repeats Plato, with a slight variation. * 

Six centuries before Christ, the Chinese philosopher Confucius said 
that his doctrine was simple and easy to comprehend {Lun-yii, chap. 5, 
§ ij). To which one of his disciples added: "The doctrine of our 
Master consists in having an invariable correctness of heart, and in 
doing toward others as we would that they should do to us." f 

" Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles," % 
exclaims Peter, long after the scene of Calvary. " There was a man sent 
from God, whose name was John," § says the fourth Gospel, thus placing 
the Baptist on an equality with Jesus. John the Baptist, in one of the 
most solemn acts of his life, that of baptizing Christ, thinks not that he 
is going to baptize a God, but uses the word man. "This is he of whom 
I said, after me cometh a man." || Speaking of himself, Jesus says, " You 
seek to kill me. a man that hath told you the truth, which / have heard 
of God." T Even the blind man of Jerusalem, healed by the great thau- 
raaturgist, full of gratitude and admiration for his benefactor, in narrat- 
ing the miracle does not call Jesus God, but simply says, "... a 7nan 
that is called Jesus, made clay." ** 

We do not close the list for lack of other instances and proofs, but 
simply because what we now say has been repeated and demonstrated 
by others, many times before us. But there is no more incurable evil 
than blind and unreasoning fanaticism. Few are the men who. like Dr. 
Priestley, have the courage to write, " We find nothing like divinity 
ascribed to Christ before Justin Martyr (a.d. 141), who, from being a 
philosopher, became a Christian." ff 

Mahomet appeared nearly six hundred years JJ after the presumed 
deicide. The Grjeco-Roman world was still convulsed with religious dis- 
sensions, withstanding all the past imperial edicts and forcible Christian- 
ization. While the Council of Trent was disputing about the Vulgate, the 
unity of God quietly superseded the trinity, and soon the Mahometans 
outnumbered the Christians. Why? Because their prophet never 
sought to identify himself with Allah. Otherwise, it is safe to say, he 
would not have lived to see his religion flourish. Till the present day 
Mahometanism has made and is now making more proselytes than Chris- 
tianity. Buddha Siddhartha came as a simple mortal, centuries before 
Christ. The religious ethics of this faith are now found to far exceed 

* Plato Protogoras ; " Cory," p. 274. 

f Panthier : " La Chine," ii., 375 ; " Sod, the Son of the Man," p. 97. 

% Acts ii. 22. § John i. 6. 1 Ibid., 30. If John viii. 40. ** Ibid., ix. 11. 

if Priestley : " History of Early Christianity," p. 2, sect. 2. 

\X Mahomet was born in 571 A.D. 


in moral beauty anything ever dreamed of by the TertuUlans and Au- 

The true spirit of Christianity can alone be fully found in Buddhism : 
partially, it shows itself in other "heathen" religions. Buddha never 
made of himself a god, nor was he deified by his followers. The Budd- 
hists are now known to far outnumber Christians ; they are enumerated 
at nearly 500,000,000. While cases of conversion among Buddhists, 
Brahmanists, Mahometans, and Jews become so rare as to show how sterile 
are the attempts of our missionaries, atheism and materialism spread 
their gangrenous ulcers and gnaw every day deeper 'at the very heart 
of Christianity. There are no atheists among heathen populations, and 
those few among the Buddhists and Brahmans who have become infected 
with materialism may always be found to belong to large cities densely 
thronged with Europeans, and or ly among educated classes. Truly says 
Bishop Kidder: "Were a wise man to choose his religion from those 
who profess it, perhaps Christianity would be the last religion he would 
choose ! " 

In an able httle pamphlet from the pen of the popular lecturer, J. 
M. Peebles, M.D., the author quotes, from the London AthencBum, an 
article in which are described the welfare and civilization of the inhabi- 
tants of Yarkand and Kashgar, " who seem virtuous and happy." 
" Gracious Heavens ! " fervently exclaims the honest author, who him- 
self was once a Universalist clergyman, " Grant to keep Christian mis- 
sionaries away from ' happy' and heathen Tartary ! " * 

From the earliest days of Christianity, when Paul upbraided the 
Church of Corinth for a crime " as is not so much as named among the 
Gentiles — that one should have his father's wife ; " and for their mak- 
ing a pretext of the " Lord's Sa|5per " for debauch and drunkenness 
(i Corinthians, v. i), the profession of the name of Christ has ever been 
more a pretext than the evidence of holy feeling. However, a correct 
form of this verse is: " Eveiywhere the lewd practice among you is 
heard about, such a lewd practice as is nowhere among the heathen 
nations — even the having or marrying of the father's wife. " The Per- 
sian influence would seem to be indicated in this language. The prac- 
tice existed " nowhere among the nations," except in Persia, where it 
was esteemed especially meritorious. Hence, too, the Jewish stories of 
Abraham marrying his sister, Nahor, his niece, Amram his father's sister, 
and Judah his son's widow, whose children appear to have been legiti- 
mate. The Aryan tribes esteemed endogamic marriages, while the 
Tartars and all barbarous nations required all alliances to be exagamous. 

* J. M. Peebles: " Jesus— Man, Myth, or God ? " 


There was but one apostle of Jesus worthy of that name, and that 
was Paul. However disfigured were his Epistles by dogmatic hands 
before being admitted into the Canon, his conception of the great and 
divine figure of the philosopher who died for his idea can still be traced 
in his addresses to the various Gentile nations. Only, he who would 
understand him better yet must study the Philonean Logos reflecting now 
and then the Hindu Sabda (logos) of the Mimansa school. 

As to the other apostles, those whose names are prefixed to the Gos- 
pels — we cannot well believe in their veracity when we find them attrib- 
uting to their Master miracles surrounded by circumstances, recorded, if 
not in the oldest books of India, at least in such as antedated Chris- 
tianity, and in the very phraseology of the traditions. Who, in his days of 
simple and bhnd credulity, but marvelled at the touching narrative given 
in the Gospels according to Mark and Luke of the resurrection of the 
daughter of Jairus ? Who has ever doubted its originality ? And yet 
the story is copied entirely from the Hari-Purana, and is recorded among 
the miracles attributed to Christna. We translate it from the French 
version : 

"The King Angashuna caused the betrothal of his daughter, the 
beautiful Kalavatti, with the young son of Varnadeva, the powerful King 
of Antarvedi, named Govinda, to be celebrated with great pomp. 

" But as Kalavatti was amusing herself in the groves with her com- 
panions, she was stung by a serpent and died. Angashuna tore his 
clothes, covered himself with ashes, and cursed the day when he was 

" Suddenly, a great rumor spread through the palace, and the following 
cries were heard, a thousand times repeated : '■ Pacya pilar am ; pacya 
gurum ! ' ' The Father, the Master ! ' Then Christna approached, 
smiUng, leaning on the arm of Ardj una. . . . ' Master !' cried Angashuna, 
casting himself at his feet, and sprinkling them with his tears, ' See 
my poor daughter ! ' and he showed him the body of Kalavatti, stretched 
upon a mat. . . . 

" ' Why do you weep ? ' replied Christna, in a gentle voice. ' Do 
you not see that she is steeping 1 Listen to the sound of her breathing, 
like the sigh of the night wind which rustles the leaves of the trees. 
See, her cheeks resuming their color, her eyes, whose lids tremble as if 
they were about to open ; her lips quiver as if about to speak ; she is 
sleeping, 1 tell you ; and hold ! see, she moves, Kalavatti ! Rise and 
walk ! ' 

" Hardly had Christna spoken, when the breathing, warmth, move- 
ment, and life returned httle by little, into the corpse, and the young 
girl, obeying the injunction of the demi-god, rose from her couch and 


rejoined her companions. But the crowd marvelled and cried out : 
' This is a god, since death is no more for him than sleep ? ' " * 

All such parables are enforced upon Christians, with the addition of 
dogmas which, in their extraordinary character, leave far behind them the 
wildest conceptions of heathenism. The Christians, in order to believe 
in a Deity, have found it necessary to kill their God, that they them- 
selves should live ! 

And now, the Supreme, unknown one, the Father of grace and 
mercy, and his celestial hierarchy are managed by the Church as though 
they were so many theatrical stars and supernumeraries under salary ! Six 
centuries before the Christian era, Xenophones had disposed of such 
anthropomorphism by an immortal satire, recorded and preserved by 
Clement of Alexandria : 

" There is one God Supreme 

Whose form is not like mito man's, and as unlike his nature ; 
But vain mortals imagine that gods like themselves are begotten 
With human sensations, and voice, and corporeal members ; 
So if oxen or lions had hands and could work in man's fashion, 
And trace out with chisel or brush their conception of Go'dhead 
Then would horses depict gods like horses, and oxen like oxen, 
Each kind the Divine with its own form and nature endowing." -j- 

And hear Vyasa — the poet-pantheist of India, who, for all the 
scientists can prove, may have lived, as Jacolliot has it, some fifteen 
thousand years ago — discoursing on Maya, the illusion of the senses : 

" All rehgious dogmas only serve to obscure the intelligence of 
man. . . . Worship of divinities, under the allegories of which is hidden 
respect for natural laws, drives away truth to the profit of the basest 
superstitions " ( Vyasa Maya). 

It was given to Christianity to paint us God Almighty after the model 
of the kabahstic abstraction of the "Ancient of Days." From old 
frescos on cathedral ceilings ; Catholic missals, and other icons and 
images, we now find him depicted by the poetic brush of Gustave Dor6. 
The awful, unknown majesty of Him, whom no " heathen " dared to 
reproduce in concrete form, is figuring in our own century in Dore's 
Illustrated Bible. Treading upon clouds that float in mid-air, darkness 
and chaos behind him and the world beneath his feet, a majestic old 
man stands, his left hand gathering his flowing robes about him, and his 
right raised in the gesture of command. He has spoken the Word, and 

"■ Translated from the " Haii-Purana," by Jacolliot : " Christna, et le Christ." 
f Clement : " Al. Strom. ," v. 14, § 1 10 ; translation given in " Supernatural Reli- 
gion," vol. i, p. 77. 


from his towering person streams an effulgence of Light — the Shekinah. 
As a poetic conception, the composition does honor to the artist, but 
does it honor God ? Better, the cliaos behind Him, than the figure 
itself ; for there, at least, we have a solemn mystery. For our part, we 
prefer the silence of the ancient heathens. With such a gross, anthropo- 
morphic, and, as we conceive, blasphemous representation of the First 
Cause, who can feel surprised at any iconographic extravagance in the rep- 
resentation of the Christian Christ, the apostles, and the putative Saints ? 
With the Catholics St. Peter becomes quite naturally the janitor of 
Heaven, and sits at the door of the celestial kingdom — a ticket-taker to 
the Trinity ! 

In a religious disturbance which recently occurred in one of the 
Spanish-American provinces, there were found upon the bodies of some 
of the killed, passports signed by the Bishop of the Diocese and 
addressed to St. Peter; bidding him " admit the bearer as a true son of 
the Church." It was subsequently ascertained that these unique docu- 
ments were issued by the Catholic prelate just before his deluded 
parishioners went into the fight at the instigation of their priests. 

In their immoderate desire to find evidence for the authenticity of 
the New Testament, the best men, the most erudite scholars even among 
Protestant divines, but too often fall into deplorable traps. We cannot 
believe that such a learned commentator as Canon West'cott could have 
left himself in ignorance as to Talmudistic and purely kabalistic 
writings. How then is it that we find him quoting, with such serene 
assurance as presenting " striking analogies to the Gospel of St.. John" 
passages from the work of The Pastor of Hernias, which are complete 
sentences from the kabalistic literature? "The view which Hermas 
gives of Christ's nature and work is no less harmonious with apostolic 
doctrine, and it offers striking analogies to the Gospel of St. John. 
. . . He (Jesus) is a rock higher than the mountains, able to hold 
the whole world, ancient, and yet having a new gate ! . . . He is 
older than creation, so that he took counsel with the Father about the 
creation which he made. . . . No one shall enter in unto him otherwise 
than by his Son." * 

Now while — as the author of Supernatural Religion well proves — there 

* This work, " The Pastor of Hermas," is no longer extant, but appears only in 
the " Stichometry " of Nicephorus ; it is now considered an apocrypha. But, in the days 
of Irenaaus, it was quoted as Holy Scripture (see "Sup. Religion," vol. i., p. 257) by 
the Fathers, held to be divinely inspired, and publicly read in the churches (Irenoeus : 
"Adv. Hsr.," iv. 20). When Tertullian became a Montanist he rejected it, after 
haviug asserted its divinity (Tertullian : " De Oral.," p, 12). 


is nothing in this which looks like a corroboration of the doctrine taught 
in the fourth gospel, he omits to state that nearly everything expressed 
by the pseudo-Hermas in relation to his parabolic conversation with the 
" Lord " is a plain quotation, with repeated variations, from the Sohar 
and other kabalistic books. We may as well compare, so as to leave 
the reader in no difficulty to judge for himself. 

" God," says Hernias, "planted the vineyard, that is, He created the 
people and gave them to His Son ; and the Son . . . himself cleansed 
their sins, etc. ; " i. e., the Son washed them in his blood, in commemo- 
ration of which Christians drink wine at the communion. In the Kahala 
it is shown that the Aged of the Aged, or '■^Long-Face" plants a vine- 
yard, the latter typifying mankind ; and a vine, meaning Life. The 
Spirit oi " King Messiah" is, therefore, shown as washing his garments 
in the 7vine from above, from the creation of the world. * Adam, or 
A-Dam is " blood." The life of the flesh is in the blood (nephesh — soul), 
Leviticus xvii. And Adam-Kadmon is the Only-Begotten. Noah also 
plants a vineyard — the allegorical hot-bed of future humanity. As a con- 
sequence of the adoption of the same allegory, we find it reproduced in 
the Nazarene Codex. Seven vines are procreated, which spring from 
lukabar Ziva, and Ferho (or Parclia) Raba waters them. | When the 
blessed will ascend among the creatures of Light, they shall see lavar- 
Zivo, Lord of Life, and the First Vine 1 J These kabalistic metaphora 
are thus naturally repeated in the Gospel according to John (xv. i) : "I 
am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman." In Genesis (xlix.), 
the dying Jacob is made to say, " The sceptre shall not depart from 
Judah (the lion's whelp), nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh 
(Siloh) comes. . . . Binding his colt unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto 
the choice vine, he washed his garments iii wine, and his clothes in the 
blood of grapes." Shiloh is "King Messiah," as well as the Shiloh in 
Ephraim, which was to be made the capital and the place of the sanc- 
tuary. In The Targum of Onkelos, the Babylonian, the words of Jacob 
read : "Until the King Messiah shall come." The prophecy has failed 
in the Christian as well as in the kabalistico-Jewish sense. The sceptre 
has departed from Judah, whether the Messiah has already or will come, 
unless we believe, with the kabalists, that Moses was the first Messiah, 
who transferred his soul to Joshua — Jesus. § 

Says Hermas : " And, in the middle of the plain, he showed me .i 
great white rock, which had risen out of the plain, and the rock was 

* " Sohar," xl., p. lo. f "Codex Nazaraeus," vol. iii., pp. 6o,6i. 

X Ibid., vol. ii. , p. 281 ; vol. iii., p. 59. 

§ We must remind the reader, in this connection, that Joshua and Jesus are one and 
the same name. In the Slavonian Bibles Joshua rta.d.%— lessus (or Jesus), Navin. 


higher than the mountains, rectangular, so as to be able to hold the whole 
world ; but that rock was old, having a gate hewn out of it, and the hew- 
ing out of the gate seemed to me to be recent." In the Sohar, we 
find : " To 40,000 superior worlds the white of the skull of His Head 
(of the. most Sacred Ancient in absconditus) is extended. * . . . When 
Seir (the first reflection and image of his Father, the Ancient of the An- 
cient) will, through the mystery of the seventy names of Metatron, de- 
scend into lezirah (the third world), he will open a new gate. . . . The 
Spiritus Decisorius will cut and divide the garment (Shekinah) into two 
parts, f ... At the coming of King Messiah, from the sacred cubical 
stone of the Temple a white light will be arising during forty days. This 
will expand, until // encloses the whole world. ... At that time King 
Messiah will allow himself to be revealed, and will be seen coming out 
of the gate of the garden of Odan (Eden). ' He will be revealed in the 
land Galil.'J; . . . When 'he has made satisfaction for the sins of 
Israel, he will lead them on through a new gate to the seat of judg- 
ment.' § At the Gate of the House of Life, the throne is prepared for 
the Lord of Splendor." || 

Further on, the conunentator introduces the following quotation : 
" This rock and this gate are the Son of God. ' How, Lord,' I said, ' is 
the rock old and the gate new ? ' ' Listen,' He said, ' and understand, 
thou ignorant man. The Soji of God is older than all of his creation, so 
that he was a Councillor with the Father in His works of creation ; and 
for this is he old.' " T 

Now, these two assertions are not only purely kabalistic, without 
even so much as a change of expression, but Brahmanical and Pagan 
likewise. " Vidi virum excellentem cxli terrceque conditore natu majorem. 
... I have seen the most excellent (superior) man, who is older by birth 
than the maker of heaven and earth," says the kabalistic Codex. ** The 
Eleusinian Dionysus, whose particular name was lacchos (laccho, lahoh) \\ 
— the God from whom the liberation of souls was expected — was con- 
sidered older than the Demiurge. At the mysteries of the Anthesteria at 
the lakes (the Liranae), after the usual baptism by purification of water, 
the Mystce. were made to pass through to another door (gate), and one 

* " Idra Rabba," vol. iii., § 41 ; the "Sohar." 

\ " Kabbala Denudata," vol. ii., p. 230 ; the "Book of the Babylonian Compan- 
ions," p. 35. 

X " Sohar Ex.," p. II. 

g " Midrash Hashirim ; " " Rabbi Akaba ; " " Midrash Koheleth," vol. ii., p. 45. 

I "Codex Nazarseus," vol. iii., p. 60. T[ " On the Canon," p. 178 ff. 

** Vol. ii. , p. 57 ; Norberg's "Onomasticon ; " " Sod, the Son of the Man," p. 103. 

tf " Preller,'' vol. i., p. 4S4 ; K. O. Muller : " History of Greek Literature," p. 
238; "Movers," p. 553. 


particularly for that purpose, which was called " the gate of Dionysus," 
and that of " ths purified." 

In the Sohar, the kabalists are told that the work-master, the Demi- 
urge, said to the Lord : " Let us make man after our image." * In the 
original texts of the first chapter of Genesis, it stands : " And the Elohim 
(translated as the Supreme God), who are the highest gods or powers, 
said : Let us make man in our (?) image, after our likeness." In the 
Vedas, Brahma holds counsel with Parabrahma, as to the best mode to 
proceed to create the world. 

Canon Westcott, quoting Hernias, shows him asking: '-And why is 
the gate new, Lord ? I said. ' Because,' he replied, ' he was manifested 
at the last of the days of the dispensation ; for this cause the gate was 
made new, in order that they who shall be saved might enter by it into 
the Kingdom of God.' " f There are two peculiarities worthy of note 
in this passage. To begin with, it attributes to " the Lord" a false state- 
ment of the same character as that so emphasized by the Apostle John , 
and which brought, at a later period, the whole of the orthodox Chris- 
tians, who accepted the apostolic allegories as literal, to such inconve- 
nient straits. Jesus, as Messiah, was not manifested at the last of the 
days ; for the latter are yet to come, notwithstanding a number of divinelj- 
inspired prophecies, followed by disappointed hopes, as a result, to tes- 
tify to his immediate coming. The belief that the " last times " had come, 
was natural, when once the coming of King Messiah had been acknowl- 
edged. The second peculiarity is found in the fact that the prophecy could 
have been accepted at all, when even its approximate determination 
is a direct contradiction of Mark, who makes Jesus distinctly state 
that neither the angels, nor the Son himself, know of that day or that 
hour. J We might add that, as the belief undeniably originated with the 
Apocalypse, it ought to be a self-evident proof that it belonged to the 
calculations peculiar to the kabalists and the Pagan sanctuaries. It was 
the secret computation of a cycle, which, according to their reckoning, 
was ending toward the latter part of the first century. It may also be 
held as a corroborative proof, that the Gospel according to Mark, as well 
as that ascribed to John, and the Apocalypse, were written by men, 
of whom neither was sufficiently acquainted with the other. The Logos 
was first definitely called petra (rock) by Philo ; the word, moreover, as 
we have shown elsewhere, means, in Chaldaic and Phcenician, " inter- 
preter." Justin Martyr calls him, throughout his works, " angel," and 
makes a clear distinction between the Logos and God the Creator. 

* "Sohar," vol. i., fol. 25. 

\ " Sirail.," vol. ix., p. 12 ; " Supernatural Religion," vol. i. , p. 257. 

\ Mark xiii. 32. 


"The Word of God is His Son . . . and he is also called Angel and 
Apostle, for he declares whatever we ought to know (interprets), and is 
sent to declare whatever is disclosed." * 

" Adan Inferior is distributed into its own paths, into thirty-two sides 
of paths, yet it is not known to any one but Seir. But no one knows 
the Superior Adan nor His paths, except that Long Face " — the 
Supreme God. f Seir is the Nazarene " genius," who is called ^bel 
Zivo ; and Gabriel Legatus — also "Apostle Gabriel." X The Nazarenes 
held with the kabalists that even the Messiah who was to come did not 
know the " Superior Adan," the concealed Deity ; no one except the 
Supreme God ; thus showing that above the Supreme Intelligible Deity, 
there is one still more secret and unrevealed. Seir-Anpin is the third 
God, while " Logos," according to Philo Judeeus, is the second one. § 
This is distinctly shown in the Codex. "The false Messiah shall say: 
" I am Deus, son of Deus ; my Father sent me here. ... I am the first 
Legate, I am /Ebel Zivo, I am come from on liigh ! But distrust him ; 
for he will not be ^bel Zivo. JEhsl Zivo will not permit himself to be 
seen in this age." || Hence the belief of some Gnostics that it was not 
^bel Zivo (Archangel Gabriel) who " overshadowed " Mary, but Ilda- 
Baoth, who formed the material body of Jesus ; Christos uniting himself 
with him only at the moment of baptism in the Jordan. 

Can we doubt Nork's assertion that " the Bereshith Rabba, the oldest 
part of the Midrash Rabboth, was known to the Church Fathers in a 
Greek translation ? " ^ 

But if, on the one hand, they were sufficiently acquainted with the 
different religious systems of their neighbors to have enabled them to 
build a new religion alleged to be distinct from all others, their ignor- 
ance of the Old Testament itself, let alone the more complicated ques- 
tions of Grecian metaphysics, is now found to have been deplorable. 
" So , for instance, in Matthew xxvii. 9 f , the passage from Zcchariah 
xi. 12, 13, is attributed to Jeremiah," says the author of Supernatu- 
ral Heligion. "In Mark i. 2, a quotation from Malachi iii. i, is as- 

* " Apolog.," vol. i., p. 63. f " Idra Rabba," x., p. 177. 

% "Codex Nazar^us," vol. i., p. 23. 

§ PMlo says that the Logos is the ivterpreier of the highest God, and argues, 
"that he must be the God of us imperfect beings " (" Leg. Alleg.," iii., t^ 73). Accord- 
ing to his opinion man was not made in the likeness of the most High God, the Father 
of all, but in that of the second God who is his word — Logos " (Pliilo : " Fragments," 
I ; ex. Euseb. "Praepar. Evang.," vii., 13). 

I " Codex Nazarseus," p. 57 ; " Sod, the Son of the Man," p. 59. 

•^ ■' Hundert und ein Frage," p. xvii. ; Dunlap : "Sod, the Son of the Man," p. 87 ; 
the author, who quotes Nork, says that parts of the " Midrashim " and the " Tar- 
gTim" of Onkelos, antedate the "New Testament." 


cribed to Isaiah. In i Corinthians, ii. 9, a passage is quoted as Holy 
Scripture, which is not found in the Old Testament at all, but which is 
taken, as Origen and Jerome state, from an apocryphal work, The Rev- 
elation of Elias (Origen : Tract, xxxv.), and the passage is similarly 
quoted by the so-called Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians (xxxiv.). 
How reliable are the pious Fathers in their explanations of divers here- 
sies may be illustrated in the case of Epiphanius, who mistook the 
Pythagorean sacred Tetrad, called in the Valentinian Gnosis, Kol-Arbas, 
for a heretic leader. * What with the involuntary blunders, and deliber- 
ate falsifications of the teachings of those who differed in views with 
them ; the canonization of the mythological Aura Placida (gentle 
breeze), into a pair of Christian martyrs — St. Aura and St. Placida ; f 
the deification of a spear and a cloak, under the names of SS. Longimus 
and Amphibolus ; \ and the Patristic quotations from prophets, of what 
was never in those prophets at all; one may well ask in blank amaze- 
ment whether the so-called religion of Christ has ever been other than 
an incoherent dream, since the death of the Great Master. 

So malicious do we find the holy Fathers in their unrelenting perse- 
cution of pretended " haresies,' ' § that we see them telling, without hesi- 
tation the most preposterous untruths, and inventing entire narratives, 
the better to impress their own otherwise unsupported arguments upon 
ignorance. If the mistake in relation to the tetrad had at first origin- 
ated as a simple consequence of an unpremeditated blunder of Hippo- 
lytus, the explanations of Epiphanius and others who fell into the same 
absurd error || have a less innocent look. When Hippolytus gravely 
denounces the great heresy of the Tetrad, Kol-Arbas, and states that 
the imaginary Gnostic leader is, " Kalorbasus, who endeavors to explain 

* Writing upon Ptolemseus and Heracleon, the author of" Supernatural Religion " 
(vol. ii., p. 217) says that " the inaccuracy of the Fathers keeps pace with their want of 
critical judgment," and then proceeds to illustrate this particularly ridiculous blunder 
committed by Epiphanius, in common with Hippolytus, TertuUian, and Philostrius. 
"Mistaking a passage of Irenoeus, 'Adv. Haer.,' i., p. 14, regarding the Sacred 
Tetrad (Kol-Arbas), Hippolytus supposes Irenseus to refer to another heretic leader." 
He at once treats the Tetrad as such a leader named " Colarbasus," and after deahng 
(vi., 4) with the doctrines of Secundus, and Ptolemasus, and Heracleon, he proposes, 
^ 5, to show, "what are the opinions held by Marcus and Colarbasus^'' these 
two being, according to him, the successors of the school of Valentinus (cf. Bunsen : 
"Hippolytus, U. S. Zeit.," p. 54 f ; " Ref. Omn. Ha:r.," iv., § 13). 

f See Godf. Higgins : " Anacalypsis." 

\ Inman : " Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism," p. 84. 

^ Meaning — holding up of different views. 

I " This absurd mistake," remarks the author of " Supernatural Religion," vol. ii., 
p. 218, "shows how little these writers knew of the Gnostics of whom they wrote, 
and how the one ignorantly follows the other." 


religion by measures and numbers," * we may simply smile. But when 
Epiphanius, with abundant indignation, elaborates upon the theme, 
" which is Heresy XV.," and pretending to be thoroughly acquainted with 
the subject, adds: "A certain Heracleon follows after Colorbasus, 
which is Heresy XVI.," | then he lays himself open to the charge of 
deliberate falsification. 

If this zealous Christian can boast so unblushingly of having caused 
" by his information seventy women, even of rank, to be sent into exile, 
through the seductions of some in whose number he had himself been 
drawn into joining their sect," he has left us a fair standard by which to 
judge him. C. W. King remarks, very aptly, on this point, that "it may 
reasonably be suspected that this worthy renegade had in this case saved 
himself from the fate of his fellow-religionists by turning evidence against 
them, on the opening of the persecution." \ 

And thus, one by one, perished the Gnostics, the only heirs to whose 
share had fallen a few stray crumbs of the unadulterated truth of primitive 
Christianity. All was confusion and turmoil during these first centuries, 
till the moment when all these contradictory dogmas were finally forced 
upon the Christian world, and examination was forbidden. For long ages 
it was made a sacrilege, punishable with severe penalties, often death, to 
seek to comprehend that which the Church had so conveniently elevated 
to the rank of divine mystery. But since biblical critics have taken upon 
themselves to " set the house in order," the cases have become reversed. 
Pagan creditors now come from every part of the globe to claim their 
own, and Christian theology begins to be suspected of complete bank- 
ruptcy. Such is the sad result of the fanaticism of the "orthodox" sects, 
who, to borrow an expression of the author of " The Decline and Fallot 
the Roman Empire," never were, like the Gnostics, " the most polite, the 
most learned, and most wealthy of the Christian name." And, if not all 
of them " smelt garlic," as Renan will have it, on the other hand, none 
of these Christian saints have ever shrunk from spilling their neighbor's 
blood, if the views of the latter did not agree with their own. 

And so all our philosophers were swept away by the ignorant and 
superstitious masses. The Philaletheians, the lovers of truth, and their 
eclectic school, perished ; and there, where the young Hypatia had taught 
the highest philosophical doctrines ; and where Ammonius Saccas had 
explained that " the whole which Christ had in view was to reinstate and 
restore to its primitive integrity the wisdom of the ancients— to reduce 

* " Ref. Omn. Haer.," iv., g 13. 

\ Epiph. : " Hser.," xxxvi. , § i. p. 262 (quoted in " Supernatural Religion "). See 
Volkmar's "Die Colorabasus-gnosis " in Niedner's " Zeitschr. Hist. Theol." 
X " Gnostics and their Remains," p. 1S2 f., note 3. 


within bounds the universally prevailing dominion of superstition . . . 
and to exterminate the various errors that had found their way into the 
different popular religions " * — there, we say, freely raved the oi ttoWol of 
Christianity. No more precepts from the mouth of the " God-taught 
philosopher," but others expounded by the incarnation of a most cruel, 
fiendish superstition. 

" If thy father," wrote St. Jerome, " lies down across thy threshold, if 
thy mother uncovers to thine eyes the bosom which suckled thee, trample 
on thy father's lifeless body, trample on thy mother's bosom, and, with 
eyes unmoistened and dry, fly to the Lord who calleth thee ! ! " 

This sentence is equalled, if not outrivalled, by this other, pronounced 
in a like spirit. It emanates from another father of the early Church, the 
eloquent Tertullian, who hopes to see all the " philosophers " in the 
gehenna fire of Hell. "What shall be the magnitude of that scene ! . . . 
How shall I laugh ! How shall I rejoice ! How shall I triumph when I 
see so many illustrious kings who were said to have mounted into heaven, 
groaning with Jupiter, their god, in the lowest darkness of hell ! Then 
shall the soldiers who have persecuted the name of Christ burn in more 
cruel fire than any they had kindled for the saints ! " f 

These murderous expressions illustrate the spirit of Christianity till 
this day. But do they illustrate the teachings of Christ ? By no means. 
As Eliphas Levi says, " The God in the name of whom we would trample 
on our mothei^'s bosom we must see in the hereafter, a hell gaping widely 
at his feet, and an exterminating sword in his hand. . . . Moloch burned 
children but a few seconds ; it was reserved to the disciples of a god who 
is alleged to have died to redeem humanity on the cross, to create a new 
Moloch whose burning stake is eternal ! " J 

That this spirit of true Christian love has safely crossed nineteen cen- 
turies and rages now in America, is fully instanced in the case of the rabid 
Moody, the revivalist, who exclaims : " I have a son, and no one but 
God knows how I love him ; but I would see those beautiful eyes dug out 
of his head to-night, rather than see him grow up to manhood and go 
down to the grave without Christ and without hope ! ! " 

To this an American paper, of Chicago, very justly responds : " This 
is the spirit of the inquisition, which we are told is dead. If Moody in 
his zeal would ' dig out ' the eyes of his darling son, to what lengths may 
he not go with the sons of others, whom he may love less ? It is the 
spirit of Loyola, gibbering in the nineteenth century, and prevented from 
lighting the fagot flame and heating red-hot the instruments of torture 
only by the arm of law." 

* Mosheim. f Tertullian : " Despectse," ch. xxx. 

j; Mosheim : " Eccles. Hist.," c. v., § 5. 


"The curtains of Yesterday drop down, the curtains of To-morrow roll up ; but Yesterday and To- 
morrow both areP — Sartor Resartus : Natural SupematuraHsm. 

" May we not then be permitted to examine the authenticity of the Bible ? which since the second cen- 
tury has been put forth as the criterion of scientific truth? To maintain itself in a position soexa]ted,it 
must challenge human criticism." — Conflict between Religion atid Science. 

"One kiss of Nara upon the lips of Nari and all Nature wakes." — Vina Snati (A Hindu Poet). 

WE must not forget that the Christian Church owes its present canon- 
ical Gospels, and hence its whole religious dogmatism, to the Sortes 
Sanctorum. Unable to agree as to which were the most divinely-inspired 
of the numerous gospels extant in its time, the mysterious Council of Nicea 
concluded to leave the decision of the puzzling question to miraculous 
-intervention. This Nicean Council may well be called mysterious. 
There was a mystery, first, in the mystical number of its 318 bishops, on 
which Barnabas (viii. 11, 12, [3) lays such a stress; added to this, there 
is no agreement among ancient writers as to the time and place of its 
assembly, nor even as to the bishop who presided. Notwithstanding 
the grandiloquent eulogium of Constantine,* Sabinus, the Bishop of 
Heraclea, affirms that "except Constantine, the emperor, and Eusebius 
Pamphilus, these bishops were a set of illiterate, simple creatures, that 
understood nothing ; " which is equivalent to saying that they were a set 
of fools. Such was apparently the opinion entertained of them by Pap- 
pus, who tells us of the bit of magic resorted to to decide which were the 
true gospels. In his Synodicon to that Council Pappus says, having 
" promiscuously put all the books that were referred to the Council for 
determination under a communion-table in a church, they (the bishops) 
besought the Lord that the inspired writings might get upon the table, 
while the spurious ones remained underneath, and it happened accord- 
ingly." But we are not told who kept the keys of the council chamber 
over night ! 

On the authority of ecclesiastical eye-witnesses, therefore, we are at 
liberty to say that the Christian world owes its " Word of God " to a 

* Socrates ; " Scol. Eccl. Hist.," b. I., c. ix. 


method of divination, for resorting to which the Church subsequently 
condemned unfortunate victims as conjurers, enchanters, magicians, 
witches, and vaticinators, and burnt them by thousands ! In treating of 
this truly divine phenomenon of the self-sorting manuscripts, the Fathers of 
the Church say that God himself presides over the Sortes. As we have 
shown elsewhere, Augustine confesses that he himself used this sort of 
divination. But opinions, like revealed religions, are liable to change. 
That which for nearly fifteen hundred years was imposed on Christendom 
as a book, of which every word was written under the direct supervision 
of the Holy Ghost ; of which not a syllable, nor a comma could be 
changed without sacrilege, is now being retranslated, revised, corrected, 
and chpped of whole verses, in some cases of entire chapters. And 
yet, as soon as the new edition is out, its doctors would have us accept 
it as a new " Revelation " of the nineteenth century, with the alternative 
of being held as an infidel. Thus, we see that, no more within than 
without its precincts, is the infallible Church to be trusted more than 
would be reasonably convenient. The forefathers of our modern divines 
found authority for the Sortes in the verse where it is said : " The lot 
is cast into the lap, but the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord ; " * 
and now, their direct heirs hold that " the whole disposing thereof is of 
the Devil." Perhaps, they are unconsciously beginning to endorse the 
doctrine of the Syrian Bardesanes, that the actions of God, as well as of 
man, are subject to necessity ? 

It was no doubt, also, according to strict "necessity" that the Neo- 
platonists were so summarily dealt with by the Christian mob. In those 
days, the doctrines of the Hindu naturalists and antediluvian Pyriho- 
nists were forgotten, if they ever had been known at all, to any but a few 
philosophers ; and Mr. Darwin, with his modern discoveries, had not even 
been mentioned in the prophecies. In this case the law of the survival 
of the fittest was reversed ; the Neo-platonists were doomed to destruc- 
tion from the day when they openly sided with Aristotle. 

At the beginning of the fourth century crowds began gatliering at the 
door of the acadeni)' where the learned and unfortunate Hypatia expound- 
ed the doctrines of the divine Plato and Plotinus, and thereby impeded 
the progress of Christian proselytism. She too successfully dispelled the 
mist hanging over the religious " mysteries " invented by the Fathers, 
not to be considered dangerous. This alone would have been sufficient 
to imperil both herself and her followers. It was precisely the teachings 

' " Proverbs," chap, xvi., p. 33. In ancient Egypt and Greece, and among Israel- 
ites, small sticks and balls called tlie " sacred divining lots " were used for this kmd of 
or.icle in the temples. According to the figures which were formed by the accidental 
juxtaposition of the latter, the priest interpreted the will of the gods. 


of this Pagan philosopher, which had been so freely borrowed b)' the Chris- 
tians to give a finishing touch to their otherwise incomprehensible 
scheme, that had seduced so many into joining the new religion ; and 
now the Platonic light began shining so inconveniently bright upon 
the pious patchwork, as to allow every one to see whence the 
"revealed" doctrines were derived. But there was a still greater peril. 
Hypatia had studied under Plutarch, the head of the Athenian school, 
and had learned all the secrets of theurgy. While she lived to instruct 
the multitude, no divine miracles could be produced before one who 
could divulge the natural causes by which they took place. Her doom 
was sealed by Cyril, whose eloquence she eclipsed, and whose authorit}', 
built on degrading superstitions, had to yield before hers, which was 
erected on the rock of immutable natural law. It is more than curious 
that Cave, the author of the Lives of the Fathers, should find it incredi- 
ble that Cyril sanctioned her murder on account of his "general charac- 
ter." A saint who will sell the gold and silver vessels of his church, and 
then, after spending the money, lie at his trial, as he did, may well be sus- 
pected of anything. Besides, in this case, the Church had to fight for 
her life, to say nothing of her future supremacy. Alone, the hated and 
erudite Pagan scholars, and the no less learned Gnostics, held in their 
doctrines the hitherto concealed wires of all these theological marion- 
ettes. Once the curtain should be lifted, the connection between the 
old Pagan and the new Christian religions would be exposed ; and then, 
what would have become of the Mysteries into which it is sin and blas- 
phemy to pry ? With such a coincidence of the astronomical allegories 
of various Pagan myths with the dates adopted by Christianity for the 
nativitv, crucifixion, and resurrection, and such an identityof rites and cere- 
monies, what would have been the fate of the new religion, had not the 
Church, under the pretext of serving Christ, got rid of the too-well- 
informed philosophers ? To guess what, if the coup d'etat had then 
failed, might have been the prevailing religion in our own century would 
indeed, be a hard task. But, in all probability, the state of things 
which made of the middle ages a period of intellectual darkness, which 
degraded the nations of the Occident, and lowered the European of those 
days almost to the level of a Papuan savage — could not have occurred. 
The fears of the Christians were but too well founded, and their 
pious zeal and prophetic insight was rewarded from the very first. In 
the demolition of the Serapeum, after the bloody riot between the 
Christian mob and the Pagan worshippers had ended with the interference 
of the emperor, a Latin cross, of a perfect Christian shape, was discov- 
ered hewn upon the granite slabs of the adytum. This was a lucky dis- 
covery, indeed ; and the monks did not fail to claim that the cross had 


been hallowed by the Pagans In a " spirit of prophecy." At least, Sozo- 
men, with an air of triumph, records the fact.* But, archceology and 
symbolism, those tireless and implacable enemies of clerical false pre- 
tences, have found in the hieroglyphics of the legend running around the 
design, at least a partial interpretation of its meaning. 

According to King and other numismatists and archasologists, the 
cross was placed there as the symbol of eternal life. Such a Tau, or 
Egyptian cross, was used in the Bacchic and Eleusinian Mysteries. Sym- 
bol of the dual generative power, it was laid upon the breast of the initiate, 
after his "new birth" was accomplished, and the Mysts had returned 
from their baptism in the sea. It was a mystic sign that his spiritual 
birth had regenerated and united his astral soul with his divine spirit, 
and that he was ready to ascend in spirit to the blessed abodes of light 
and glory — the Eleusinia. The Tau was a magic talisman at the same 
time as a religious emblem. It was adopted by the Christians through 
the Gnostics and kabalists, wlio used it largely, as their numerous gems 
testify, and who had the Tau (or handled cross) from the Egyptians, and 
the Latin cross from the Buddhist missionaries, who brought it from India, 
where it can be found until now, two or three centuries B.C. The 
Assyrians, Egyptians, ancient Americans, Hindus, and Romans had it in 
various, but very slight modifications of shape. Till very late in the 
medifeval ages, it was considered a potent spell against epilepsy and 
demoniacal possession ; and the " signet of the living God," brought down 
in St. John's vision by the angel ascending from the east to " seal the 
servants of our God in their foreheads," was but the same mystic Tau — 
the Egyptian cross. In the painted glass of St. Dionysus (France), this 
angel is represented as stamping this sign on the forehead of the elect ; 
the legend reads, signvm TAY. In King's Gnostics, the author reminds 
us that "this mark is commonly born by St. Anthony, an Egyptian 
recluse." f What the real meaning of the Tau was, is explained to us by 
the Christian St. John, the Egyptian Hermes, and the Hindu Brahmans. 
It is but too evident that, with the apostle, at least, it meant the "Ineffa- 
ble Name," as he calls this " signet of the living God," a few chapters 
further on, J the " Father's name written in their foreheads!' 

The Brahmdtma, the chief of the Hindu initiates, had on his head-gear 
two keys, symbol of the revealed mystery of life and death, placed cross- 

* Another untrustworthy, untruthful, and iterant writer, and ecclesiastical histo- 
rian of the fifth century. His alleged history of the strife between the Pagans, Neo- 
platonics, and the Christians of Alexandria and Constantinople, which extends from the 
year 324 to 439, dedicated by him to Theodosius, the younger, is full of deliberate falsi- 
fications. Edition of " Reading," Cantab, 1720, fol. Translated. Plon freres, Paris. 

\ " Gems of the Orthodox Christians," vol. i., p. 135. | Revelation xiv. I. 


like ; and, in some Buddhist pagodas of Tartary and Mongolia, the 
entrance of a chamber within the temple, generally containing the stair- 
case which leads to the inner daghoba, * and the porticos ot some Pra- 
chida f are ornamented with a cross formed of two fishes, and as found 
on some of the zodiacs of the Buddhists. We should not wonder at all 
at learning that the sacred device in the tombs in the Catacombs, at Rome, 
the " Vesica piscis," was derived from the said Buddhist zodiacal sign. 
How general must have been that geometrical figure in the world-sym- 
bols, may be inferred from the fact that there is a Masonic tradition that 
Solomon's temple was built on three foundations, forming the " triple 
Tau," or three crosses. 

In its mystical sense, the Egyptian cross owes its origin, as an em- 
blem, to the reahzation by the earliest philosophy of an androgynous 
dualism of every manifestation in nature, which proceeds from the abstract 
ideal of a likewise androgynous deity, while the Christian emblem is 
simply due to chance. Had the Mosaic law prevailed, Jesus should have 
been lapidated. \ The crucifix was an instrument of torture, and utterly 
common among Romans as it was unknown among Semitic nations. 
It was called the " Tree of Infamy." It is but later that it was adopted 
as a Christian symbol ; but, during the first two decades, the apostles 
looked upon it with horror. § It is certainly not the Christian Cross that 
John had in mind when speaking of the " signet of the living God," but 
the mystic Tau — the Tetragrammaton, or mighty name, which, on the 
most ancient kabalistic talismans, was represented by the four Hebrew 
letters composing the Holj- Word. 

The famous Lady EUenborough, known among the Arabs of Damas- 
cus, and in the desert, after her last marriage, as Hanoum Medjouy'e, had 
a talisman in her possession, presented to her by a Druze from Mount 
Lebanon. It was recognized by a certain sign on its left corner, to be- 
long to that class of gems which is known in Palestine as a '■'■Messianic" 
amulet, of the second or third century, B.C. It is a green stone of a pen- 
tagonal form ; at the bottom is engraved a fish ; higher, Solomon's seal ; || 

* Dagkoba is a small temple of globular form, in which are preserved the relics of 

f Prachidas are buildings of all sizes and forms, like our mausoleums, and are 
sacred to votive offerings to the dead. 

I The Talmudistic records claim that, after having been hung, he was lapidated and 
buried under the water at the junction of two streams. " Mishna Sanhedrin," voh vi., 
p. 4; " Talmud," of Babylon, same article, 43 a, 67 a. 

§ " Coptic Legends of the Crucifixion," MSS. xi. 

I The engraving represents the talisman as of twice the natural size. We are at a 
loss to understand why King, m his " Gnostic Gems," represents Solomon's seal as 
a five-pointed star, whereas it is six-pointed, and is the signet of Vishnu, in India. 


and still higher, the four Chaldaic letters— Jod, He, Vau, He, lAHO, which 
form the name of the Deity. These are arranged in quite an unusual 
way, running from below upward, in reversed order, and forming the 
Egyptian Tau. Around these there is a legend which, as the gem is 
not our property, we are not at liberty to give. The Tau, in its mysti- 
cal sense, as well as the crux atisata, is the Tree of Life. 

It is well known, that the earliest (Jnrisdan emblems — before it was 
ever attempted to represent the bodily appearance of Jesus — were the 
Lamb, the Good Shepherd, and the Fish. The origin of the latter em- 
blem, which has so puzzled the archteologists, thus becomes comprehen- 
sible. The whole secret lies in the easily- 
ascertained fact that, while in the Kabala, 
the King A-Iessiah is called "Interpreter," 
or Revealer of the mystery, and shown 
to be the fifth emanation, in the Talmud 
— for reasons we will now explain — the 
Messiah is very often designated as " Dag," 
or the Fish. This is an inheritance from 
the Chaldees, and relates — as the very 
name indicates — to the Babylonian Dag- 
on, the man-fish, who was the instructor and 
interpreter of the people, to whom he appeared. Abarbanel explains 
the name, by stating that the sign of his (Messiah's) coming "is the con- 
junction of Saturn and Jupiter in the sign Pisces." * Therefore, as the 
Christians were intent upon identifying their Christos with the Messiah 
of the Old Testament, they adopted it so readily as to forget that its true 
origin might be traced still farther back than the Babylonian Dagon. 
How eagerly and closely the ideal of Jesus was united, by the early 
Christians, with every imaginable kabalistic and Pagan tenet, may be 
inferred from the language of Clemens, of Alexandria, addressed to his 
brother co-religionists. 

When they were debating upon the choice of the most appropriate 
symbol to remind them of Jesus, Clemens advised them in the following 
words : " Let the engraving upon the gem of your ring be either a dove, 
or a ship running before the wind (the Argha)j or a fish." Was the good 
father, when writing this sentence, laboring under the recollection of 
Joshua, son of Nun (called Jesus in the Greek and Slavonian versions) ; 
or had he forgotten the real interpretation of these Pagan symbols ? 

* King {" Gnostics") gives the figure of a Cliristian symbol, very common during 
the middle ages, of three fishes interlaced into a triangle, and having the FIVE letters (a 
most sacred Pythagorean number) I. X. 0T2 engi'aved on it. The number five relates to 
the same kabalistic computation. 


Joshua, son of Nun, or Nave {Navis), could have with perfect propriety 
adopted the image of a ship, or even of a tish, for Joshua means Jesus, son 
of tfie fish-god ; but it was really too hazardous to connect the emblems 
of Venus, Astarte, and all the Hindu goddesses— the argka, dove, and 
Jish — with the " immaculate " birth of their god ! This looks very much 
as if in the early days of Christianity but little difference was made be- 
tween Christ, Bacchus, Apollo, and the Hindu Christna, the incarnation 
of Vishnu, with whose first avatar this symbol of the fish originated. 

In the Hari-ptirana, in the Bagaved-giita, as well as in several other 
books, the god Vishnu is shown as having assumed the form of a fish with 
a human head, in order to reclaim the VedasXaiV during the deluge. Hav- 
ing enabled Visvamitra to escape with all his tribe in the ark, Vishnu, 
pitying weak and ignorant humanity, remained with them for some time. 
It was this god who taught them to build houses, cultivate the land, and to 
thank the unknown Deity whom he represented, by building temples and 
instituting a regular worship ; and, as he remained half fish, half-man, all 
the time, at every sunset he used to return to the ocean, wherein he passed 
the night. 

" It is he," says the sacred book, " who taught men, after the diluvium, 
all that was necessary for their happiness. 

" One day he plunged into the water and returned no more, for the 
earth had covered itself again with vegetation, fruit, and cattle. 

"But he had taught the Brahmas the secret of all things" {Hari- 

So far, we see in this narrative the double of the story given by the 
Babylonian Berosus about Cannes, the fish-man, who is no other than 
Vishnu — unless, indeed, we have to believe that it was Chaldea which 
civilized India ! 

We say again, we desire to give nothing on our sole authority. There- 
fore we cite JacoUiot, who, however criticised and contradicted on other 
points, and however loose he may be in the matter of chronology (though 
even in this he is nearer right than those scientists who would have all 
Hindu books written since the Council of Nicea), at least cannot be 
denied the reputation of a good Sanscrit scholar. And he says, while 
analyzing the word Oan, or Cannes, that O in Sanscrit is an interjection 
expressing an invocation, as O, Swayambhuva ! O, God! etc; a.nd An 
Is a radical, signifying in Sanscrit a spirit, a being ; and, we presume, what 
the Greeks meant by the word Dcetnon, a semi-god. 

" What an extraordinary antiquity," he remarks, " this fable of Vishnu, 
disguised as a fish, gives to the sacred books of the Hindus ; especially 
in presence of the fact that the Vedas and iManu reckon more than twenty- 
five thousand years of existence, as proved by the most serious as the most 



authentic documents. Few peoples, says the learned Halhed, have their 
annals more authentic or serious than the Hindus." * 

We may, perhaps, throw additional light upon the puzzling question of 
the fish-symbol by reminding the reader that according to Genesis the first 
created of living beings, the first type of animal life, was the fish. " And 
the Elohira said : ' Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving 
creature that hath life ' . . . and God created great whales . . . and the 
morning and the evening were the _fi/ih dayP Jonah is swallowed by a - 
big fish, and is cast out again three days later. This the Christians regard 
as a premonition of the three days' sepulture of Jesus which preceded his 
resurrection — though the statement of the three days is as fanciful as much 
of the rest, and adopted to fit the well-known threat to destroy the temple 
and rebuild it again in three days. Between his burial and alleged resur- 
rection there intervened but one day — the Jewish Sabbath — as he was 
buried on Friday evening and rose to life at dawn on Sunday. However, 
whatever other circumstance may be regarded as a prophecy, the story of 
Jonah cannot be made to answer the purpose. 

" Big Fish " is Cetus, the latinized form of Keto-io;Ta) and keto is Dag- 
on, Poseidon, the female gender of it being Keton Atar-gatis — the Syrian 
goddess, and Venus, of Askalon. The figure or bust of Der-Keto or 
Astarte was generally represented on the prow of the ships. Jonah (the 
Greek lona, or dove sacred to Venus) fled to Jaffa, where the god Dagon, 
the man-fish, was worshipped, and dared not go to Nineveh, where the 
dove was revered. Hence, some commentators believe that when Jonah 
was thrown overboard and was swallowed by a fish, we must understand 
that he was picked up by one of these vessels, on the prow of which was 
the figure of Keto. But the kabalists have another legend, to this effect : 
They say that Jonah was a run-away priest from the temple of the goddess 
where the dove was worshipped, and desired to abolish idolatry and insti- 
tute monotheistic worship. That, caught near Jaffa, he was held pris- 
oner by the devotees of Dagon in one of the prison-cells of the temple, 
and that it is the strange form of the cell which gave rise to the allegory. 
In the collection of Mose de Garcia, a Portuguese kabalist, there is a draw- 
ing representing the interior of the temple of Dagon. In the middle 
stands an immense idol, the upper portion of whose body is human, and 
the lower fish-like. Between the belly and the tail is an aperture which 
can be closed like the door of a closet. In it the transgressors against 
the local deity were shut up until further disposal. The drawing m 
question was made from an old tablet covered with curious drawings 
and inscriptions in old Phoenician characters, describing this Venetian 

* " La Gendse de rHumanit^," p. 9. 


oubliette of biblical days. The tablet itself was found in an excavation a 
few miles from Jaffa. Considering the extraordinary tendency of Orien- 
tal nations for puns and allegories, is it not barely possible that the " big 
fish" by which Jonah was swallowed was simply the cell within the belly 
of Dagon ? 

It is significant that this double appellation of " Messiah " and 
•' Dag " (fish), of the Talmudists, should so well apply to the Hindu 
Vishnu, the " Preserving " Spirit, and the second personage of the 
Brahmanic trinity. This deity, having already manifested itself, is still 
regarded as the future Saviour of humanity, and is the selected 
Redeemer, who will appear at its tenth incarnation or avatar, like the 
Messiah of the Jews, to lead the blessed onward, and restore to them the 
primitive Vedas. At his first avatar, Vishnu is alleged to have appeared 
to humanity, in form like a fish. In the temple of Rama, there is a 
representation of this god which answers perfectly to that of Dagon, as 
given by Berosus. He has the body of a man issuing from the mouth 
of a fish, and holds in his hands the lost ViJa. Vishnu, moreover, is the 
water-god, in one sense, the Logos of the Parabrahm, for as the three 
persons of the manifested god-head constantly interchange their attri- 
butes, we see him in the same temple represented as reclining on the 
seven-headed serpent, Ananta (eternity), and moving, like the Spirit of 
God, on the face of the primeval waters. 

Vishnu is evidently the Adam Kadmon of the kabalists, for Adam is 
the Logos or the first Anointed, as Adam Second is the King Messiah. 

Lakmy, or Lakshmi, the passive or feminine counterpart of Vishnu, 
the creator and the preserver, is also called Ada Maya. She is the 
" Mother of the World," Damatri, the Venus Aphrodite of the Greeks ; 
also Isis and Eve. While Venus is born from the sea- foam, Lakmy 
springs out from the water at the churning of the sea ; when born, she is 
so beautiful that all the gods fall in love with her. The Jews, borrowing 
their types wherever they could get them, made their first woman after the 
pattern of Lakmy. It is curious that Viracocha, the Supreme Being in 
Peru, means, literally translated, " foam of the sea." 

Eugene Burnouf, the great authority of the French school, announces 
his opinion in the same spirit : " We must learn one day," he observes, 
" that all ancient traditions disfigured by emigration and legend, belong 
to the history of India." Such is the opinion of Colebrooke, Inman, 
King, Jacolliot, and many other Orientalists. 

We have said above, that, according to the secret computation pecu- 
liar to the students of the hidden science, Messiah is the fifth emanation, 
or potency. In the Jewish Kabala, where the ten Sephiroth emanate 
firom Adam Kadmon (placed below the crown), he comes fifth. So in 


the Gnostic system ; so in the Buddhistic, in which the fifth Buddha — 
Maitree, will appear at his last advent to save mankind before the final 
destruction of the world. If Vishnu is represented in his forthcoming 
and last appearance as the tenth avatar or incarnation, it is only because 
every unit held as an androgyne manifests itself doubly. The Buddhists 
who reject this dual-sexed incarnation reckon but five. Thus, while 
Vishnu is to make his last appearance in his tenth, Buddha is said to do 
the same in his fifth incarnation. * 

The better to illustrate the idea, and show how completely the real 
meaning of the avatars, known only to the students of the secret 
doctrine was misunderstood by the ignorant masses, we elsewhere give 
the diagrams of the Hindu and Chaldeo-Kabalistic avatars and emana- 
tions, f This basic and true fundamental stone of the secret cycles, 
shows on its very face, that far from taking their revealed Vedas and 
Bible literally, the Brahman-pundits, and the Tanaim — the scientists 
and philosophers of the pre-Christian epochs — speculated on the crea- 
tion and development of the world quite in a Darwinian way, both anti- 
cipating him and his school in the natural selection of species, gradual 
development, and transformation. 

We advise every one tempted to entei an indignant protest against 
this affirmation to read more carefully the books of Manu, even in the 
incomplete translation of Sir William Jones, and the more or less care- 
less one of JacoUiot. If we compare the Sanchoniathon Phoenician 
Cosmogony, and the record of Berosus with the Bhagavatta and Manu, 
we will find enunciated exactly the same principles as those now offered 
as the latest developments of modern science. We have quoted from 
the Chaldean and Phoenician records in our first volume ; we will now 
glance at the Hindu books. 

" When this world had issued out of darkness, the subtile elementary 
principles produced the vegetal seed which animated first the plants ; 
from the plants, life passed into fastastical bodies which were born w the 
ilus of the 7vaters ; then, through a series of forms and various animals, 
it reached man." \ 

" He (man, before becoming such) will pass successively through 
plants, worms, insects, fish, serpents, tortoises, cattle, and wild animals ; 
such is the inferior degree." 

" Such, from Brahma down to the vegetables, are declared the trans- 
migrations which take place in this world." § 

* The kabalistic Sephiroth are also ten in number, or five pairs. 
\ An avatar is a descent from on liigh upon earth of the Deity in some manifest 

\ " Bliagavatta." § " Manu," boolis i. and xiL 


In the Sanchoniathonian Cosmogony, men are also evolved out of 
the ilus of the chaos, * and the same evolution and transformation of 
species are shown. 

And now we will leave the rostrum to Mr. Darwin : " I believe that 
animals have descended from at most only four or five progenitors." f 

Again : " I should infer from analogy that probably all the organic 
beings which have ever lived on this earth, have descended from some 
one primordial form. J ... I view all beings, not as special creations, but 
as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the 
first bed of the Silurian system was deposited." § 

In short, they lived in the Sanchoniathonian chaos, and in the ilus 
of Manu. Vyasa and Kapila go still farther than Darwin and Manu. 
"They see in Brahma but the name of the universal germ ; they deny 
the existence of a First Cause ; and pretend that everything in nature 
found itself developed only in consequence of material and fatal 
forces," says Jacolliot. || 

Correct as may be this latter quotation from Kapila, it demands a 
few words of explanation. Jacolliot repeatedly compares Kapila and 
Veda Vyasa with Pyrrho and Littre. We have nothing against such a 
comparison with the Greek philosopher, but we must decidedly object to 
any with the French Comtist ; we find it an unmerited fling at the mem- 
ory of the great Aryan sage. Nowhere does this prolific writer state 
the repudiation by either ancient or modern Brahmans of God — the 
"unknown,''' universal Spirit ; nor does any other Orientalist accuse the 
Hindus of the same, however perverted the general deductions of our 
savants about Buddhistic atheism. On the contrary, Jacolliot states more 
than once that the learned Pundits and educated Brahmans have never 
shared the popular superstitions ; and affirms their unshaken belief in 
the unity of God and the soul's immortality, although most assuredly 
neither Kapila, nor the initiated Brahmans, nor the followers of the 
Vedanta school would ever admit the existence of an anthropomorphic 
creator, a " First Cause" in the Christian sense. Jacolliot, in his Indo- 
European and African Traditions, is the first to make an onslaught on 
Professor Miiller, for remarking that the Hindu gods were " masks 
without actors . . . names without being, and not beings without 
names." ^ Quoting, in support of his argument, numerous verses from 
the sacred Hindu books, he adds : " Is it possible to refuse to the 
author of these stanzas a definite and clear conception of the divine 

* See Cory's "Ancient Fragments." 

\ " Origin of Species," first edition, p. 484. % Ibid., p. 484, 

§ Ibid., pp. 488, 489. B " La Genese de I'Humanite," p. 339. 

% " T.aditions Indo-Europeennes et Africaiues," p. 291. 


force, of the Unique Being, master and Sovereign of the Universe ? . . . 
Were the altars then built to a metaphor ? " * 

The latter argument is perfectly just, so far as Max Miiller's nega- 
tion is concerned. But we doubt whether the French rationahst under- 
stands Kapila's and Vyasa's philosophy better than the German philolo- 
gist does the "theological twaddle," as the latter terms the Atharva- 
Vcda. Professor MuUer and JacoUiot may have ever so great claims to 
erudition, and be ever so familiar with Sanscrit and other ancient 
Oriental languages, but both lack the key to the thousand and one mys- 
teries of the old secret doctrine and its philosophy. Only, while the 
German philologist does not even take the trouble to look into this magi- 
cal and " theological twaddle," we find the French Indianist never losing 
an opportunity to investigate. Moreover, he honestly admits his incom- 
petency to ever fathom this ocean of mystical learning. In its existence 
he not only firmly believes, but throughout his works he incessantly calls 
the attention of science to its unmistakable traces at every step in 
India. Still, though the learned Pundits and Brahmans — his "revered 
masters " of the pagodas of Villenoor and Chulambruni in the Car- 
natic, f as it seems, positively refused to reveal to him the mysteries of 
the magical part of the Agrouchada-Parikshai, \ and of Brahmatma's 
triangle, § he persists in the honest declaration that everything is possible 
in Hindu metaphysics, even to the Kapila and Vyasa systems having 
been hitherto misunderstood. 

M. Jacolliot weakens his assertion immediately afterward with the fol- 
lowing contradiction : 

"We were one day inquiring of a Brahman of the pagoda of Ch^lam- 
brum, who belonged to the skeptical school of the naturalists of lyasa, 
whether he believed in the existence of God. He answered us, smiling: 
' Ahatn eva param Brahina' — I am myself a god. 

" ' What do you mean by that ? ' 

" ' I mean that every being on earth, however humble, is an immortal 
portion of the immortal matter.' " || 

The answer is one which would suggest itself to every ancient phil- 
osopher, Kabalist and Gnostic, of the early days. It contains the very 
spirit of the delphic and kabalistic commandment, for esoteric philosophy 

solved, ages ago, the problem of what man was, is, and will be. If persons 


* "Traditions Indo-Europeennes et Africaines," pp. 294, 295. 

f " Les Fils de Dieu," p. 32. % " Le Spiritisme dans le Monde," p. 78 and others. 

§ " Les Fils de Dieu," p. 272. While not at all astonished that Brahmans should 
have refused to satisfy M. Jacolliot's curiosity, we must add that the meaning of this 
sign is known to the superiors of every Buddhist lamasery, not alone to the Brahmans. 

II "La Geuese de I'Humanite,'' p. 339. 


believing the Bible verse which teaches that the " Lord God formed 
man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath 
of life," reject at the same time the idea that every atom of this dust, as 
ever}' particle of this " living soul," contains " God " within itself, then we 
pity the logic of that Christian. He forgets the verses which precede the 
one in question. God blesses equally every beast of the field and every 
living creature, in the water as in the air, and He endows them all with 
life, which is a breath of His own Spirit, and the soul of the animal. 
Humanity is the Adam Kadmon of the " Unknown," His microcosm, and 
His only representative on earth, and every man is a god on earth. 

AVe would ask this French scholar, who seems so familiar with every 
sloka of the books of Manu, and other Vedic writers, the meaning of this 
sentence so well known to him : 

" Plants and vegetation reveal a multitude of forms because of their 
precedent actions ; they are surrounded by darkness, but are nevertheless 
endowed with an interior soul, and feel equally pleasure and pain " 
[Manu, book i.). 

If the Hindu philosophy teach the presence of a degree of soul in 
the lowest forms of vegetable life, and even in every atom in space, how 
is it possible that it should deny the same immortal principle to man ? 
And if it once admit the immortal spirit in man, how can it logically 
deny the existence of the parent source — I will not say the first, but the 
eternal Cause? Neither rationalists nor sensualists, who do not compre- 
hend Indian metaphysics, should estimate the ignorance of Hindu meta- 
physicians by their own. 

The grand cycle, as we have heretofore remarked, includes the pro- 
gress of mankind from its germ in the primordial man of spiritual form 
to the deepest depth of degradation he can reach — each successive step 
in the descent being accompanied by a greater strength and grossness of 
the physical form than its precursor — and ends with the Flood. But 
while the grand cycle, or age, is running its course, seven minor cj'cles are 
passed, each marking the evolution of a new race out of the preceding one, 
on a new world. And each of these races, or grand types of humanity, 
breaks up into subdivisions of families, and they again into nations and 
tribes, as we see the earth's inhabitants subdivided to-day into Mongols, 
Caucasians, Indians, etc. 

Before proceeding to show by diagrams the close resemblance between 
the esoteric philosophies of all the ancient peoples, however geographic- 
ally remote from each other, it will be useful to briefly explain the real 
ideas which underlie all those symbols and allegorical representations and 
have hitherto so puzzled the uninitiated commentators. Better than any- 
thing, it may show that religion and science were closer knit than twins 


in days of old ; that they were one in two and two in one from the very 
moment of their conception. With mutually convertible attributes, science 
was spiritual and religion was scientific. Like the androgyne man of the 
first chapter of Genesis — ■" male and female," passive and active ; created 
in the image of the Elohim. Omniscience developed omnipotency, the 
latter called for the exercise of the former, and thus the giant had 
dominion given him over all the four kingdoms of the world. But, like 
the second Adam, these androgynes were doomed to "fall and lose their 
powers" as soon as the two halves of the duality separated. The fruit of 
the Tree of Knowledge gives death without the fruit of the Tree of Life. 
Man must know /izOTJ'd?^ before he can hope to know the ultimate genesis 
even of beings and powers less developed in their inner nature than him- 
self. So with religion and science ; united two in one they were infallible, 
for the spiritual intuition was there to supply the limitations of physical 
senses. Separated, exact science rejects the help of the inner voice, 
while religion becomes merely dogmatic theology — each is but a corpse 
without a soul. 

The esoteric doctrine, then, teaches, like Buddhism and Brahmanism, 
and even the persecuted Kahala, that the one infinite and unknown Essence 
exists from all eternity, and in regular and harmonious successions is 
either passive or active. In the poetical phraseology of Mann these con- 
ditions are called the " day " and the " night " of Brahma. The latter is 
either "awake" or "asleep." The Svubhavikas, or philosophers of the 
oldest school of Buddhism (which still exists in Nepaul), speculate but 
upon the active condition of this "Essence," which they call Svabhavat, 
and deem it foolish to theorize upon the abstract and "unknowable" 
power in its passive condition. Hence they are called atheists by both 
Christian theology and modern scientists ; for neither of the two are able 
to understand the profound logic of their philosophy. The' former will 
allow of no other God than the personified secondary powers which have 
blindly worked out the visible universe, and which became with them the 
anthropomorphic God of the Christians — the Jehovah, roaring amid 
thunder and lightning. In its turn, rationalistic science greets the Bud- 
dhists and the Sv&bhavikas as the " positivists " of the archaic ages. If 
we take a one-sided view of the philosophy of the latter, our materialists 
may be right in their own way. The Buddhists maintain that there is no 
Creator but an infinitude of creative powers, which collectively form the 
one eternal substance, the essence of which is inscrutable — hence not a 
subject for speculation for any true philosopher. Socrates invariably 
refused to argue upon the mystery of universal being, yet no one would 
ever have thought of charging him with atheism, except those who were 
bent upon his destruction. Upon inaugurating an active period, says the 


Secret Doctrine, an expansion of this Divine essence, from within out- 
wardly, occurs in obedience to eternal and immutable law, and the phe- 
nomenal or visible universe is the ultimate result of the long chain of 
cosmical forces thus progressively set in motion. In like manner, when 
the passive condition is resumed, a contraction of the Divine essence 
takes place, and the previous work of creation is gradually and progres- 
sively undone. The visible universe becomes disintegrated, its material 
dispersed ; and " darkness," solitary and alone, broods once more over 
the face of the " deep." To use a metaphor which will convey the idea 
still more clearly, an outbreathing of the "unknown essence" produces 
the world ; and an inhalation causes it to disappear. This process has 
been going on from all eternity, and our present universe is but one of an 
infinite series which had ?io beginning and will have no end. 

Thus we are enabled to build our theories solely on the visible mani- 
festations of the Deity, on its objective natural phenomena. To apply to 
these creative principles the term God is puerile and absurd. One might 
as well call by the name of Benvenuto Cellini the fire which fuses the 
metal, or the air that cools it when it is run in the mould. If the inner 
and ever-concealed spiritual, and to our minds abstract. Essence within 
these forces can ever be connected with the creation of the physical uni- 
verse, it is but in the sense given to it by Plato. It may be termed, at 
best, the framer of the abstract universe which developed gradually in the 
Divine Thought within which it had lain dormant. 

In Chapter VIII. we will attempt to show the esoteric meaning of 
Genesis, and its complete agreement with the ideas of other nations. The 
six days of creation will be found to have a meaning little suspected by 
the .multitude of commentators, who have exercised their abilities to the 
full extent in attempting to reconcile them by turns with Christian theology 
and un-Christian geology. Disfigured as the Old Testament is, yet in its 
symbolism are preserved enough of the original in its principal features 
to show the family likeness to the cosmogonies of older nations than 
the Jews. 

We here give the diagrams of the Hindu and the Chaldeo-Jewish cos- 
mogonies. The antiquity of the diagram of the former may be inferred 
from the fact that many of the Brahmanical [sagodas are designed and 
built on this figure, called the " Sri-Iantara " * And yet we find the high- 
est honors paid to it by the Jewish and mediaeval kabalists, who call it 
"Solomon's seal." It will be quite an easy matter to trace it to its origin, 
once we are reminded of the history of the king-kabalist and his trans- 
actions with King Hiram and Ophir — the country of peacocks, gold, and 
ivory — for which land we have to search in old India. 

* See " Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society," vol. xlii., p. 79. 






lutionary theory of modern science. 

The Chaldean Doctrine. 
The Upper Triangle 
Contains the Ineffable Name. It is En- 
Soph, the Boundless, the Infinite, whose 
name is known to no one but the initiated, 
and could not be pronounced aloud under 
the penalty of death. 

No more than Para-Brahma can En- 
Soph create, for he is in the same condi- 
tion of non-being as the former ; he is^ 
non-existent so long as he lies in his latent 
or passive state witliin Oulom (the bound- 
less and termless time) ; as such he is not 
the Creator of the visible universe, neither 
is he the Aur (Light). He will become 
the latter when the period of creation 
shall have compelled him to expand the 
Force within himself, according to the 
Law of which he is the embodiment and 

*' Whosoever acquaints himself with 
T "n the Mercaba and the lahgash (secret 
speech or incantation),* will learn the 
secret of secrets." 

* Lahgash is nearly identical in meanine with 
V&ch^ the hidden power of the Mantras. 

The Hindu Doctrine. 
The Upper Triangle 
Contains the Ineffable Name. It is the 
AUM — to be pronounced only mentally, 
under penalty of death. The Unrevealed 
Para-Brahma, the Passive-Principle ; the 
absolute and unconditioned " mukta," 
which cannot enter into the condition of a 
Creator, as the latter, in order to think, 
will^ and plan, must be bound and condi- 
tioned (baddha) ; hence, in one sense, be a 
finite being. "This (Para-Brahma) was 
absorbed in the non-being, imperceptible, 
without any distinct attribute, non-exist- 
ent for. our senses. He was absorbed in 
liis (to us) eternal (to himself) periodi- 
cal, sleep," for it was one of the *' Nights 
of Brahma." Therefore he is not the First 
but the Eternal Cause. He is the Soul 
of Souls, whom no being can comprehend 
in this state. But *' he who studies the 
secret Mantras and comprehends the 
VdiV^ (the Spirit or hidden voice of the 
Mantras, the active manifestation of the 
latent Force) will learn to understand him 
in his " revealed " aspect. 

Both " This " and En-Soph, in their first manifestation of Eight, emerg- 
ing from within Darkness, may be summarized in the Svabhavdt, the Eter- 
nal and the uncreated Self-existing Substance which produces all ; while 
everything which is of its essence produces itself out of its own nature. 

The Space Around the Upper Triangle. 
When the "Night of Brahma" was 
ended, and the time came for the Self- 
Existent to manifest Itself by revelation, 
it made its glory visible by sending forth 
from its Essence an active Power, which, 
female at first, subsequently becomes 

The Space Around the Upper Triangle. 
When the active period had arrived, 
En-Soph sent forth from within his own 
eternal essence, Sephira, the active 
Power, called the Primordial Point, and 
tlie Crown, Kcter. It is only through her 
that the " Un-bounded Wisdom" could 



androgyne. It is Aditi, the " Infinite," * 
the Boundless, or rather tlie " Un- 
bounded." Aditi is the "mother" of all 
the gods, and Aditi is the Father and the 
Son.f " Who will give us back to the great 
Aditi, that I may see father and mother ? " :j: 
It is in conjunction with the latter female. 
Force, that the Divine but latent Thought 
produces the gi"eat "Deep" — water. 
'■ Water is born from a transformation of 
light , . . and from a Tnodlfication of the 
water is born the earth," says Mann (book 

'' Ve are born of Aditi from the water, 
you who are born of the earth, hear ye all 
my call." § 

In this water (or primeval chaos) the 
** Infinite " androgyne, which, with the 
Eternal Cause, forms the first abstract 
Triad, rendered by Aum, deposited the 
germ of universal life. It is the Mundane 
Egg, in which took place the gestation of 
Purusha, or the manifested Brahma. The 
germ which fecundated the Mother Princi- 
ple (the water) is called Nara, the Divine 
Spirit or Holy Ghost, | and the waters 
themselves, are an emanation of the former, 
Nari, while the Spirit which brooded over 
it is called Narayana.*!" 

" In that egg, the great Power sat inac- 
tive a whole year of the Creator^ at the 
close of which, by his thought alone, he 
caused the egg to divide itself." ** The 
upper half became heaven, the lower, the 

* In "Rig-Veda Sanhita" the meaning is given 
by Max Miiller as the Absolute, "for it is derived 
from '' diti^ bond, and the negative particle ^." 

t " Hymns to the Maruts" L, 89, 10. 

t Ibid., I., 24, I. 

§ Ibid., X., 63, 2. 

B Thus is it that we find in all the philosophical 
theogonies, the Holy Ghost female. The numerous 
sects of the Gnostics had Sophia ; the Jewish kaba- 
lists and Talmudists, Shekinah (the garment of the 
Highest), which descended betv/een the two cheru- 
bim upon the Mercy Seat ; and we find even 
Jesus made to say. in an old text, '■'■Tsly Mother, 
the Holy Ghost, took me." 

"The waters are called nara, because they 
were the production of Nara, the Spirit of God " 
("Institutes of Manu," i. 10). 

T Narayana, or that which moves on the 

** "Manu," sloka 12. 

give a concrete form to his abstract 
Thought. Two sides of the upper trian- 
gle, the right side and the base, are com- 
posed of unbroken lines ; the third, the 
left side, is dotted. It is through the lat- 
ter that emerges Sephira. Spreading in 
every direction, she finally encompasses the 
whole triangle. In this emanation of the 
female active principle from the left side 
of the mystic triangle, is foreshadowed the 
creation of Eve from Ailam's left rib. 
Adam is the Microcosm of the Macrocosm, 
and is created in the image of the Elohiin. 
In the Tree of Life ^z'^-rm' tl^e triple 
triad is disposed in such a manner that the 
three male Sephiroth are on the right, the 
three female on the left, and the four 
uniting principles in the centre. From the 
Invisible Dew falling from the Pligher 
" Head " Sephira creates primeval water, 
or chaos taking shape. It is the first step 
toward the solidification of Spirit, which 
through various modifications will produce 
earth.* " It requires earth and water to 
make a living sotii^^' says Moses. 

When Sephira emerges like an active 
power fiom within the latent Deity, she is 
female ; when she assumes the office of a 
creator, she becomes a male ; hence, she 
is androgyne. She is the "Father and 
Mother Aditi," of the Hindu Cosmogony. 

* George Smith gives the first verses of tlie 
Akkadian Genesis as found in the Cuneiform Texts 
on the "Laleres Coctiles." There, also, we find 
Attu, the passive deity or En-Soph, Bel, the Creator, 
the Spirit of God (Sephira) moving on the face of 
the waters, hence water itself, and Hea the Univer- 
sal Soul or wisdom of the three combined. 

The first eight verses read thus : 

1. When above, were not raised the heavens ; 

2. and below on the earth a plant had not grown 

3. The abyss had not broken Its boundaries. 

4. I'he chaos (or water) Tiamat (the sea) was the 
producing mother of the whole of them, (This is 
the Cosmical Aditi and Sephira.) 

5. Those waters at the beginning were ordained 

6. a tree had not grown, a flower had not un- 

7. When the gods had not sprung up, any one 
of them ; 

8. a plant had not grown, and order did not ex- 

This was the chaotic or ante-genesis period. 



earth Cboth yet in their ideal, not their 
manifested form). 

Thus, this second triad, only another 

name for the first one (never pronounced 

aloud), and which is the real pre-Vedic 

' and primordial secret Trimurti, consisted 


Nara, Father-Heaven, 
Nari, Mother-Earth, 
Viradj, the Son^r Universe. 

The Trimurti, comprising Brahma, the 
Creator, Vishnu, the Preserver, and Siva, 
the Destroyer and Regenerator, belongs to 
a later period. It is an anthropomorphic 
afterthought, invented for the more popu- 
lar comprehension of the uninitiated 
masses. The Dikshita, tlie initiate, knew 
better. Thus, also, the profound allegory 
under the colors of a ridiculous fable, given 
in the Aytareya Brahjnana, * which re- 
sulted in the representations in some tem- 
ples of Brahm-Nara, assuming the form 
ofa bull, and his daughter, Aditi-Nari, that 
of a heifer, contains the same metaphysical 
idea as the " fall of man," or that of the 
Spirit into generation — matter. The All- 
pervading Divine Spirit embodied under 
the symbols of Heaven, the Sun, and 
Heat (fire) — the correlation of cosmic 
forces — fecundates Matter or Nature, the 
daughter of Spirit. And Para-Brahma 
himself has to submit to and bear the 
penance of the curses of the other gods 
(Elohim) for such an incest. (See corre- 
sponding column. ) According to the im- 
mutable, and, therefore, fatal law, both 
Nara and Nari are mutually Father and 
Mother, as well as Father and Daughter, f 
Matter, through infinite transformation, is 
the gradual product of Spirit. The unifi- 
cation of one Eternal Supreme Cause re- 
quired such a correlation ; and if nature be 

* See Hang's "Aytareya Brahmanam," of the 

t rhe same transformations are found in the 
cosmogony of every important nation. Thus, we 
see in the Eg^'ptian mythology, Isis and Osiris, 
sister and brother, man and wife ; and Horus. the 
Son of both, becoming the husband of his mother, 
Isis, and producing a son, Malouli. 

After brooding over the " Deep," the 
" Spirit of God " produces its own image 
in the water, the Universal Womb, sym- 
bolized in Mann by the Golden Egg. In 
the kabalistic Cosmogony, Heaven and 
Earth are personified by Adam Kadmon 
and the second Adam. The first Ineffable 
Triad, contained in the abstract idea of the 
" Three Heads," was a " mystery name." 
It was composed of En-Soph, Sephira, 
and Adam Kadmon, the Protogonos, the 
latter being identical with the former, 
when bisexual* In every triad there is 
a male, a female, and an androgyne. 
Adam-Sephira is the Crown (Keter). It 
sets itself to the work of creation, by first 
producing Chochmah, Male Wisdom, a 
masculine active potency, represented by 
,-;-, jah, or tlie Wheels of Creation, )3-;5!<, 
from which proceeds Binah, Intelligence, 
female and passive potency, which is Jeho- 
vah^ -""", whom we find in the Bible fig- 
uring as the Supreme. But this Jehovah 
is not the kabalistic Jodcheva. The 
binary is the fundamental corner-stone of 
Gnosis. As the binary is the Unity mul- 
tiplying itself and self-creating, the kaba- 
lists show the "Unknown" passive En- 
Soph, as emanating from himself, Sephira, 
which, becoming visible light, is said to 
produce Adam Kadmon. But, in the hid- 
den sense. Sephira and Adam are one and 
the same light, only latent and active, in- 
visible and visible. The second Adam, as 
the human tetragram, produces in his 
turn Eve, out of his side. It is this second 
triad, with which the kabalists have 
hitherto dealt, hardly hinting at the Su- 
preme and Ineffable One, and never com- 
mitting anything to writing. All knowl- 
edge concerning the latter was imparted 
orally. It is the second Adam, then, who 
is the unity represented by Jod, emblem 
of the kabalistic male principle, and, at 
the same time, he is Chochmah, Wisdom^ 
while Binah or Jehovah is Eve ; the first 

* When a female power, she is Sephira : when 
male, he is Adam Kadmon , for, as the former 
contains in herself the other nine J^ephiroth, so, in 
their totality, the latter, including Sephira, is cm- 
bodied in the Archetypal Kadmon, the rptoToyows. 



the product or effect of that Cause, in its 
turn it has to be fecundated by the came 
divine Ray which produced nature itself. 
The most absurd cosmogonical allegories, 
if analyzed without prejudice, will be found 
built on strict and logical necessarianism. 

** Being was born from not-being," says 
a verse in the Rig- Veda.'* The first being 
had to become androgyne and finite, by the 
very fact of its creation as a being. And 
thus even the sacred Trimurti, contain- 
ing Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva will have an 
end when the " night " of Para-Brahma 
succeeds the present *' day," or period of 
universal activity. 

The second, or rather the first, triad — 
as the highest one is a pure abstraction — 
is the intellectual world. The Vach which 
surrounds it is a more definite transforma- 
tion of Aditi. Besides its occult signifi- 
cance in the secret Mantram, Vach is 
personified as the active power of Brahma 
proceeding from him. In the Vedas she 
is made to speak of herself as the supreme 
and universal soul. ''I bore the Father 
on the head of the universal mind, and my 
origin is in the midst of the ocean ; and 
therefore do I pervade all beings. . . . 
Originating all beings, I pass like the breeze 
(Holy Ghost), I am above this heaven, 
beyond this earth ; and what is the Great 
One that am /." f Literally, Vach is 
speech, the power of awakening, through 
the metrical arrangement contained in the 
number and syllables of the Mantras, \ cor- 
responding powers in the invisible world. 
In the sacrificial Mysteries Vach stirs up 
the Brahma {Brahma jinvati), or the 
power lying latent at the bottom of every 
magical operation. It existed from eter- 
nity as the Yajna (its latent form), lying 
dormant in Brahma from "no-beginning," 
and proceeded forth from him as Vach (the 
active power). It is the key to the " Traiv- 

♦ Mandala I., SuUta 166, Max Miiller. 

t "Asiatic Researches," vol. viii., pp. 402, 403 ; 
Colebrooke's translation. 

X As in the Pythagorean numerical system every 
number on earth, or the world of the effects, corre- 
sponds to its invisible prototype in the world of 

Chochmah issuing from Keter, or the an- 
drogyne, Adam Kadmon, and the second, 
Binah, from ChochmaH. If we combine 
with Jod X.h& three letters which form the 
name of Eve, we will have the divine 
tetragram pronounced Ievo-hevah, Adam 
and Eve, ,-nn"'j Jehovah, male and female, 
or the idealization of humanity embodied 
in the first man. Thus is it that we can 
prove that, while the Jewish kabalists, in 
common with their initiated masters, the 
Chaldeans and the Hindus, adored the 
Supreme and Unknown God, in the .sacred 
silence of their sanctuaries, the ignorant 
masses of every nation were left to adore 
something which was certainly less than 
the Eternal Substance of the Buddhists, 
the so-called Atheists. As Brahma, the 
deity manifested in the mythical JManu^ or 
the first man (born of Swayanibhuva, or 
the Self-existent), is finite, so Jehovah, 
embodied in Adam and Eve, it. but a 
human god. He is the symbol of human- 
ity, a mixture of good with a portion of 
unavoidable evil ; of spirit fallen into mat- 
ter. In worshipping Jehovah, we simply 
worship nature, as embodied in man, half- 
spiritual and half-material, at best : we 
are Pantheists, when not fetich wor- 
shippers, like the idolatrous Jews, who 
sacrificed on high places, in groves, to the 
personified male and female principle, 
ignorant of Iao, the Supreme '* Secret 
Name " of the Mysteries. 

Shekinah is the Hindu Vach, and praised 
in the same terms as the latter. Though 
shown in the kabalistic Tree of Life as pro- 
ceeding from the ninth Sephiroth, yet 
Shekinah is the "veil" of En-Soph, and 
the "garment" of Jehovah. The "veil," 
for it succeeded for long ages in concealing 
the real supreme God, the universal Spirit, 
and masking Jehovah, the exoteric deity, 
made the Christians accept him as the 
"father" of the initiated Jesus. Yet the 
kabalists, as well as the Hindu Dikshita^ 
know the power of the Shekinah or 
Vach, and call it the "secret wisdom," 

The triangle played a prominent part in 



idya," the thrice sacred science which 
teaches the Yajus (the sacrificial Myste- 
ries). * 

Having done with the unrevealed triad, 
and the first triad of the Sephiroth, called 
the ** intellectual world," little remains to 
be said. In the great geometrical figure 
which has the double triangle in it, the 
central circle represents the world within 
the universe. The double triangle belongs 
to one of the most important, if it is not 
in itself the most important, of the mystic 
figures'in India. It is the emblem of the 
Trimurti three in one. The triangle with 
its apex upward indicates the male princi- 
ple, downward the female ; the two typify- 
ing, at the same time, spirit and matter. 
This world within the infinite universe is 
the microcosm within the macrocosm, as 
in the Jewish Kabala. It is the symbol of 
the womb of the universe, the terrestrial 
^%%i whose archetype is the golden mun- 
dane egg. It is from within this spiritual 
bosom of mother nature that proceed all 
the great saviours of the universe — the 
avatars of the invisible Deity. 

** Of him who is and yet is not, from the 
not-being, Eternal Cause, is born the being 
Pouroucha," says Manu, the legislator. 
Pouroucha is the *' divine male,'* the secotid 
god, and the avatar, or the Logos of Para- 
Brahma and his divine son, who in his 
turn produced Viradj, the son, or the ideal 
type of the universe. " Viradj begins the 
work of creation by producing the ten 
Pradjapati, ' the lords of all beings.' " 

According to the doctrine of Manu, the 
universe. is subjected to a periodical and 
never-ending succession of creations and 
dissolutions, which periods of creation are 
named Manvantara. 

'* It is the germ (which the Divine Spirit 
produced from its own substance) which 
never perishes in the being, for it be- 
comes the soul of Being, and at the 
period of pralaya (dissolution) it returns 
to al^sorb itself again hito the Divine 
Spirit, which itself rests from all eternity 

* See initial chap., vol i., word Yajna, 

the religious symbolism of every great 
nation; for everywhere it represented the 
thiee great principles— spirit, force, and 
matter; or the active (male), passive (fe- 
male), and the dual or correlative principle 
which partakes of both and binds the two 
together. It was the Arba or mystic 
*'four," * the mystery-gods, the Kabeiri, 
summarized in the unity of one supreme 
Deity. It is found in the Egyptian pyra- 
mids, whose equal sides tower up until 
lost in one crowning point. In the kaba- 
listic diagram the central circle of the 
Brahmanical figure is replaced by the cross ; 
the celestial perpendicular and the terres- 
trial horizontal base line, \ But the idea 
is the same : Adam Kadmon is the type 
of humanity as a collective totality within 
the unity of the creative God and the uni- 
versal spirit. 

*Eve is the trinity of nature, and Adam the unity 
of spirit ; the former the created material principle, 
the latter the ideal organ of the creative principle, or, 
in other words, this androgyne is both the principle 
and the Logos, for n is the male, and ^ the female ; 
and, as Levi expresses it, this first letter of the holy 
language, Aleph, represents a man pointing with one 
hand toward the sky, and with the other toward 
the ground. It is the macrocosm and the microcosm 
at the same time, and explains the double triangle 
of the Masons and the five-pointed star. While the 
male is active the female principle is passive, for it 
is SPIRIT and MATTER, the latter word meaning 
viother in nearly every language. The columns 
of Solomon's temple, Jachin and Boaz, are the em- 
blems of the androgyne ; they are also respec- 
tively male and female, white and black, square and 
round ; the male a unity, the female a binary. In 
the later kabalistic treatises, the active principle is 
pictured by the sword "^t, the passive by the 
sheath n«p3- See " Dogme et Rituel de la Haute 
Magie," vol. i. 

t The vertical line being the male principle, and 
the horizontal the female, out of the union of the 
two at the intersection point is formed the cross; 
the oldest symbol in the Egj'ptian history of gods. 
It is the key of Heaven in the rosy fingers of Neich, 
the celestial virgin, who opens the gate at dawn for 
the exit of her first-begotten, the radiant sun. It is 
the Stauros of the Gnostics, and the philosophical 
cross of the high-grade Masons. We find this symbol 
ornamenting the tee of the umbrella-shaped oldest 
pagodas in Thibet, China, and India, as we find it in 
the hand of Isis, in the shape of the " handled cross."' 
In one of the Chaitya caves, at Ajunta, it surmounts 
the three umbrellas in stone, and forms the centre 
of the vault. 



within Swayambliuva, the ' Self- Existent ' " 
{Institutes of Mami, book i.). 

As we have shown, neither the Svabha- 
vikas, Buddhist philosophers — nor the 
Brahmans believe in a creation of the 
universe ex nihilo^ but both believe in 
the Prakritij the indestructibility of mat- 

The evolution of species, and the suc- 
cessive appearance of various new types is 
very distinctly shown in Manu, 

*'From eaith, heat, and water, are born 
all creatures, whether animate or inani- 
mate, produced by the germ which the 
Divine Spirit drew from its own substance. 
Thus has Brahma established the series of 
transformations from the plant up to man, 
and from man up to the primordial es- 
sence. . , . Among them each succeeding 
being (or element) acquires the quality of 
the preceding ; and in as many degrees as 
each of them is advanced, with so many 
properties is it said to be endowed " 
{Maiiu, book i., sloka 20). * 

This, we believe, is the veritable theory 
of the modern evolutionists. 

* "When this world had emerged from obscuri- 
ty, the subtile elementary principles produced the 
vegetable germ which at first animated the plants ; 
from the plants, life passed through the fantastic 
organisms which were born in tlie ilus [boue) of 
the waters ; then through a series of forms and 
different animals, it at length reached man " 
(" Manu," book i. ; and " Bhagavatta "). 

Manu is a convertible type, which can by no 
means be explained as a personage. Manu means 
somedmes humanity, sometimes man. The Manu 
who emanated from the uncreated Swayambhuva 
i;^ without doubt, the type of Adam Kadmon. The 
Manu who is progenitor of the other six Manus is 
evidently identical with the Rishis, or seven prime- 
val sages who are the forefathers of the post-diiuvian 
races. He is — as we shall show in Chapter VIII. — 
Noah, and his six sons, or subsequent generations 
are the originals of the post-diluvian and mythical 
patriarchs of the Bible. 

"Of him who is formless, the non-ex- 
istent {also the eternal, but not First Cause), 
is born the heavenly man." But after he 
created the form of the heavenly man 
n5<is'?2li<i he " used it as a vehicle wherein 
to descend," says iht Kabaia. Thus Adam 
Kadmon is the avatar of the concealed 
power. After that the heavenly Adam 
creates or engenders by the combined 
power of the Sephiroth, the earthly Adam. 
The work of creation is also begun by 
Sephira in the creation of the ten Sephi- 
roth (who are the Pradjapatis of the 
Kabala, for they are likewise the Lords of 
all beings). 

The SoJuir asserts the same. According 
to the kabalistic doctrine there were old 
worlds (see Idra Suta : SoJiar, iii., p. 
292 b). Everything will return some day to 
that from which it first proceeded. *' All 
things of which this world consists, spirit as 
well as body, will return to their principal, 
and the roots from which they proceeded " 
{Sohar^ ii., 218 b). The kabalists also 
maintain the indestructibility of matter, 
albeit their doctrine is shrouded still more 
carefully than that of the Hindus. The 
creation is eternal, and the universe is the 
**garment," or " the veil of God" — She- 
kinah ; and the latter is immortal and 
eternal as Him within whom it has ever 
existed. Every world is made after the 
pattern of its predecessor, and each more 
gross and material than the preceding one. 
In the Kabala all were called sparks. 
Finally, our present grossly materialistic 
world was formed. 

In the Chaldean account of the period 
which preceded the Genesis of our world, 
Berosus speaks of a time when there 
existed nothing but darkness, and an abyss 
of waters, filled with hideous monsters, 
''produced of a two -fold principle. . 
These were creatures in which were com^ 
bined the limbs of every species of ani' 
mals. In addition to these fishes, rep 
tiles, serpents, with other monstrous ani 
mals, which assumed each other's shape 
and countenance." * 

* Cory's "Ancient Fragments.' ' 


In the first book of Manu, we read : " Know that the sum of i,ooo 
divine ages, composes the totality of one day of Brahma ; and that one 
night is equal to that day." One thousand divine ages is equal to 
4,320,000,000 of human years, in the Brahmanical calculations. 

"At the expiration of each night, Brahma, who has been asleep, 
awakes, and through the sole energy of the motion causes to emanate 
from himself the spirit, which in its essence is, and yet is not." 

" Prompted by the desire to create, the Spirit (first of the emanations) 
operates the creation and gives birth to ether, which the sages consider 
as having the faculty of transmitting sound. 

"Ether begets air whose property is tangible, and which is necessary 
to life. 

" Through a transformation of the air, light is produced. 

" From air and light, which begets heat, water is formed, and the 
water is the womb of all the living germs." 

Throughout the whole immense period of progressive creation, cover- 
ing 4,320,000,000 years, ether, air, water and fire (heat), are constantly 
forming matter under the never-ceasing impulse of the Spirit, or the unre- 
vealed God who fills up the whole creation, for he is in all, and all is in 
him. This computation, which was secret and which is hardly hinted 
at even now, led Higgins into the error of dividing every ten ages into 
6,000 years. Had he added a few more ciphers to his sums he might have 
come nearer to a correct explanation of the neroses, or secret cycles.* 

In the Sepher Jezireh, the kabalistlc Book of Creation, the author 
has evidently repeated the words of Manu. In it, the Divine Substance 
is represented as having alone existed from the eternity, boundless and 
absolute ; and emitted from itself the Spirit. " One is the Spirit of the 
living God, blessed be His Name, who liveth for ever ! Voice, Spirit, 
and AV'ord, this is the Holy Spirit;" f and this is the kabalistic abstract 
Trinity, so unceremoniously anthropomorphized by the Fathers. From 
this triple one emanated the whole Cosmos. First from one emanated 
number two, or Air, the creative element ; and then number three. 
Water, proceeded from the air ; Ether or Fire complete the mystic four, 
the Arba-il. \ "When the Concealed of the Concealed wanted to reveal 
Himself, he first made a point (primordial point, or the fi-rst Sephira, air 
or Holy Ghost), shaped it into a sacred form (the ten Sephiroth, or the 
Heavenly man), and covered it with a rich and splendid garment, that is 
the world." § " He maketh the wind His messengers, flaming Fire his 

* See Vol. I., chap, i., pp. 33, 34, of this work. 

f "Sepher Jezireh," chap. i. , Mishna ixth. 

X Ibid. § "Sohar," i., 2 a. 


servants," says the fezireh, showing the cosmical character of the later 
euhemerized angels, * and that the Spirit permeates every minutest atom 
of the Cosmos.f 

When the cycle of creation is run down, the energy of the manifested 
word is weakening. He alone, the Unconceivable, is unchangeable (ever 
latent), but the Creative Force, though also eternal, as it has been in the 
former from "no beginning," yet must be subject to periodical cycles of 
activity and rest ; as it had a beginning in one of its aspects, when it first 
emanated, therefore must also have an end. Thus, the evening suc- 
ceeds the day, and the night of the deity approaches. Brahma is grad- 
ually falling asleep. In one of the books of Sohar, we read the following : 

"As Moses was keeping a vigil on Mount Sinai, in company with the 
Deity, who was concealed from his sight by a cloud, he felt a great fear 
overcome him and suddenly asked : ' Lord, where art Thou . . . sleep- 
est thou, O Lord?' And tlie Spirit answered him: "I never sleep; 
were I to fall asleep for a moment before my time, all the Creation would 
cramble into dissolution in one instant.'" And Vaniadeva-Modely de- 
scribes the " Night of Brahma," or the second period of the Divine Un- 
known existence, thus : 

"Strange noises are heard, proceeding from every point. . . . These 
are the precursors of the Night of Brahma ; dusk rises at the horizon and 
the Sun passes away behind the thirtieth degree of Macara (sign of the 
zodiac), and will reach no more the sign of the Minas (zodiacal pisces, 
or fish). The gurus of the pagodas appointed to watch the ras-chakr 
(Zodiac), may now break their circle and instruments, for they are hence- 
forth useless. 

" Gradually light pales, heat diminishes, uninhabitable spots multiply 
on the earth, the air becomes more and more rarefied ; the springs of 
waters dry up, the great rivers see their waves exhausted, the ocean 
shows its sandy bottom, and plants die. Men and animals decrease in 
size daily. Life and motion lose their force, planets can hardly gravitate 
in space ; they are extinguished one by one, like a lamp which the hand 
of the chokra (servant) neglects to replenish. Sourya (the Sun) flick- 
ers and goes out, matter falls into dissolution (pralaya), and Brahma 
merges back into Dyaus, the Unrevealed God, and his task being accom 
plished, he falls asleep. Another day is passed, night sets in and con 
tinues until the future dawn. 

* " Seplier Jezireli," Mishna ix. , 10. 

f It is interesting to recall Hebrews i. 7, in connection mth this passage. "Who 
maketh his angels (messengers) spirits, and his ministers (servants, those who minister) 
a flame of fire." The resemblance is too striking for us to avoid the conclusion that the 
author of " Hebrews " was as familiar with the " Kabala " as adepts usually are. 


"And now again re-enter into the golden egg of His Thought, the 
germs of all that exist, as the divine Manu tells us. During His peace- 
ful rest, the animated beings, endowed with the principles of action, cease 
their functions, and all feeling (manas) becomes dormant. When they 
are all absorbed in the Supreme Soul, this Soul of all the beings sleeps 
in complete repose, till the day when it resumes its form, and awakes 
again from its primitive darkness." * 

If we now examine the ten mythical avatars of Vishnu, we find them 
recorded in the following progression : 

1. Matsya-Avatar : as a fish. It will also be his tenth and last avatar, 
at the end of the Kali-yug. 

2. Kurm-Avatar : as a tortoise. 

3. Varaha : as a boar. 

4. Nara-Sing : as a man-lion ; last animal stage. 

5. Vamuna : as a dwarf ; first step toward the human form. 

6. Parasu-Rama : as a hero, but yet an imperfect man. 

7. Rama-Chandra : as the hero of Ramaydna. Physically a perfect 
man ; his next of kin, friend and ally Hanouma, the monkey-god. The 
monkey endowed with speech, f 

8. Christna-Avatar : the Son of the Virgin Devanaguy (or Devaki) 
one formed by God, or rather by the manifested Deity Vishnu, who is 
identical with Adam Kadmon. J Christna is also called Kaneya, the 
Son of the Virgin. 

9. Gautama-Buddha, Siddhartha, or Sakya-muni. (The Buddhists 
reject this doctrine of their Buddha being an incarnation of Vishnu.) 

10. This avatar has not yet occurred. It is expected in the future, 
like the Christian Advent, the idea of which was undoubtedly copied 
from the Hindu. When Vishnu appears for the last time he will come as 
a "Saviour." According to the opinion of some Brahmans he will ap- 
pear himself under the form of the horse Kalki. Others maintain that he 
will be mounting it. This horse is the envelope of the spirit of evil, 
and Vishnu will mount it, invisible to all, till he has conquered it for 
the last time. The " Kalki- iVvataram, " or the last incarnation, divides 

* " The Sons of God ; " " The India of the Brahmans," p. 230. 

I May it not be that Hanouma is the representative of that link of beings half- 
man, half-monkeys, which, according to the theories of Messrs. Hovelacque and Schlei- 
cher, were arrested in their development, and fell, so to say, into a retrogressive evolu- 
tion ? 

X The Primal or Ultimate Essence has no name in India. It is indicated some- 
times as "That" and "This." "This (universe) was not originally anything. 
There was neither heaven, nor earth, nor atmosphere. That being non-exisfent re- 
solved ' Let me be.' " (Original Sanscrit Text.) Dr. Muir, vol. v., p. 366. 


Brahmanism into two sects. That of the Va'ihnAva" refuses to recognize 
the incarnations of their god Vishnu in animal forms Hterally. They 
claim that these must be understood as allegorical. 

In this diagram of avatars we see traced the gradual evolution and 
transformation of all species out of the ante-Silurian mud of Darwin 
and the ilus of Sanchoniathon and Berosus. Beginning with the Azoic 
time, corresponding to the ilus in which Brahma implants the creative 
germ, we pass through the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic times, covered by the 
first and second incarnations as the fish and tortoise ; and the Cenozoic, 
which is embraced by the incarnations in the animal and semi-human 
forms of the boar and man-lion ; and we come to the fifth and crowning 
geological period, designated as the " era of mind, or age of man, " 
whose symbol in the Hindu mythology is the dwarf— the first attempt of 
nature at the creation of man. In this diagram we should follow the 
main-idea, not judge the degree of knowledge of the ancient philosophers 
by the literal acceptance of the popular form in which it is presented to 
us in the grand epical poem oi Maha-Bharata and its chapter the Bagaved- 

Even the four ages of the Hindu chronology contain a far more philo- 
sophical idea than appears on the surface. It defines them according to 
both the psychological or mental and the physical states of man during 
their period. Crita-yug, the golden age, the "ageof joy, " or spiritual 
innocence of man ; Treta-yug, the age of silver, or that of fire — the period 
of supremacy of man and of giants and of the sons of God ; Dwapara-yug, 
the age of bronze — a mixture already of purity and impurity (spirit and 
matter) the age of doubt ; and at last our own, the Kali-yug, or age of 
iron, of darkness, misery, and sorrow. In this age, Vishnu had to incar- 
nate himself in Christna, in order to save humanity from the goddess 
Kali, consort of Siva, the all-annihilating — the goddess of death, destruc- 
tion, and human misery. Kali is the best emblem to represent the "fall 
of man ; " the falling of spirit into the degradation of matter, with all its 
terrific results. We have to rid ourselves of Kali before we can ever 
reach " Moksha, " or Nirvana, the abode of blessed Peace and Spirit. 

With the Buddhists the last incarnation is the fifth. When Maitree- 
Buddha comes, then our present world will be destroyed ; and a new 
and a better one will replace it. The four arms of every Hindu Deity 
are the emblems of the four preceding manifestations of our earth from 
its invisible state, while its head typifies the fifth and last Kalki-Kw'iXsx, 
when this would be destroyed, and the power of Budh — Wisdom (with 
the Hindus, of Brahma), will be again called into requisition to manifest 
itself — as a Logos — to create the future world. 

In this diagram, the male gods typify Spirit in its deific attributes, 


while their female counterparts — the Salzti, represent the active energies 
of these attributes. The Durga (active virtue), is a subtile, invisible 
force, which answers to Shekinah — the garment of En-Soph. She is the 
Sakti through which the passive " Eternal " calls forth the visible universe 
from its first ideal conception. Every one of the three personages of 
the exoteric Trimurti are shown as using their Sakti as a Vehan (vehi- 
cle). Each of them is for the time being the form which sits upon the 
mysterious wagon of Ezekiel. 

Nor do we see less clearly carried out in this succession of avatars, 
the truly philosophical idea of a simultaneous spiritual and physical 
evolution of creatures and man. From a fish the progress of this dual 
transformation carries on the physical form through the shape of a tor- 
toise, a boar, and a man-lion ; and then, appearing in the dwarf of 
humanity, it shows Parasu Rama physically, a perfect, spiritually, an 
undeveloped entity, until it carries mankind personified by one god-like 
man, to the apex of physical and spiritual perfection — a god on earth. 
In Christna and the other Saviours of the world we see the philosophical 
idea of the progressive dual development understood and as clearly 
expressed in the Sohar. The '■ Heavenly man," who is the Protogonos, 
Tikkun, the first-born of God, or the universal Form and Idea, engen- 
ders Adam. Hence the latter is god-born in humanity, and endowed 
with the attributes of all the ten Sephiroth. These are : Wisdom, 
Intelligence, Justice. Love, Beauty, Splendor, Firmness, etc. They make 
him the Foundation or basis, "the tnighty living one," ^nVx, and the 
crown of creation, thus placing him as the .\lpha and Omega to reign 
over the " kingdom " — Malchuth. " Man is both the import and the 
highest degree of creation," says the Sohar. " As soon as man was 
created, everything was complete, including the upper and nether 
worlds, for everything is comprised in man. He unites in himself all 
forms " (iii., p. 48 a). 

But this does not relate to our degenerated mankind ; it is only occa- 
sionally that men are born who are the types of what man should be, 
and yet is not. The first races of men were spiritual, and their proto- 
plastic bodies were not composed of the gross and material substances 
of which we see them composed now-a-day. The first men were created 
with all the faculties of the Deity, and powers far transcending those of 
the angelic host ; for they were the direct emanations of Adam Kad- 
mon, the primitive man, the Macrocosm ; while the present humanity is 
several degrees removed even from the earthly Adam, who was the 
Microcosm, or " the little world." Seir Anpin, the mystical figure 
of the Man, consists of 243 numbers, and we see in the circles which 
follow each other that it is the angels which emanated from the " Primi- 


tive Man," not the Sephiroth from angels. Hence, man was intended 
from the first to be a being of both a progressive and retrogressive nature. 
Beginning at the apex of the divine cycle, he gradually began receding 
from the centre of Light, acquiring at every new and lower sphere of being 
(worlds each inhabited by a different race of human beings) a more solid 
physical form and losing a portion of his divine faculties. 

In the " fall of Adam " we must see, not the personal transgression 
of man, but simply the law of the dual evolution. Adam, or "Man," 
begins his career of existences by dwelling in the garden of Eden, 
" dressed in the celestial garment, which is a garment of heavenly 
light" {Sohar, ii,, 229 b) ; but when expelled he is "clothed" by God, 
or the eternal law of Evolution or necessarianism, with coats of skin. 
But even on this earth of material degradation — in which the divine 
spark (Soul, a corruscation of the Spirit) was to begin its physical pro- 
gression in a series of imprisonments from a stone up to a man's body — 
if he but exercise his will and call liis deity to his help, man can trans- 
cend the powers of the angel. " Know ye not that we shall judge 
angels?" asks Paul (i Corinthians, vi. 3). The real man is the Soul 
(Spirit), teaches the Sohar. " The mystery of the earthly man is after 
the mystery of the heavenly man . . . the wise can read the mysteries 
in the human face " (ii., 76 a). 

This is still another of the many sentences by which Paul must be 
recognized as an initiate. For reasons fully explained, we give far more 
credit for genuineness to certain Epistles of the apostles, now dismissed 
as apocryphal, than to many suspicious portions of the Acts. And we 
find corroboration of this view in the Epistle of Paul to Seneca. In 
this message Paul styles Seneca "my respected master," while Seneca 
terms the apostle simply " brother." 

No more than the true religion of Judaic philosophy can be judged by 
the absurdities of the exoteric Bible, have we any right to form an 
opinion of Brahmanism and Buddhism by their nonsensical and some- 
times disgusting popular forms. If we only search for the true essence 
of the philosophy of both Mann and the Kabala, we will find that 
Vishnu is, as well as Adam Kadmon, the expression of the universe 
itself; and that his incarnations are but concrete and various embodi- 
ments of the manifestations of this " Stupendous Whole." " I am the 
Soul, O, Arjuna. I am the Soul which exists in the lieart of all beings ; 
and I am the beginning and the middle, and also the end of existing 
things," says Vishnu to his disciple, in Bagaved-gitta (ch. x., p. 71). 

"I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. ... I am the 
first and the last, " says Jesus to John {Rev. i. 6, 17). 

Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva are a trinity in a unity, and, like the 


Christian trinity, they are mutually convertible. In the esoteric doc- 
trine they are one and the same manifestation of him " whose name is too 
sacred to be pronounced, and whose power is too majestic and mfinite to 
be imagined." Thus by describing the avatars of one, all others are 
included in the allegory, with a^change of form but not of substance. It 
is out of such manifestations that emanated the many worlds that were, and 
that will emanate the one — which is to come. 

Coleman, followed in it by other Orientalists, presents the seventh 
avatar of Vishnu in the most caricatured way. * Apart from the fact 
that the Ramayana is one of the grandest epic poems in the world — the 
source and origin of Homer's inspiration — this avatar conceals one of 
the most scientific problems of our modern day. The learned Brahmans 
of India never understood the allegory of the famous war between men, 
giants, and monkeys, otherwise than in the light of the transformation of 
species. It is our firm belief that were European academicians to seek 
for information from some learned native Brahmans, instead of unani- 
mously and incontinently rejecting their authority, and were they, like 
Jacolliot — against whom they have nearly all arrayed themselves — to 
seek for light in the oldest documents scattered about the country in 
pagodas, they might learn strange but not useless lessons. Let any one 
inquire of an educated Brahman the reason for the respect shown to mon- 
keys — the origin of which feeling is indicated in the story of the valorous 
feats of Hanouma, the generalissimo and faithful ally of the hero of Rama- 
yana,! ^'""^ ^^ would soon be disabused of the erroneous idea that the 
Hindus accord deific honors to a wxov^ty-god. He would, perhaps, learn 
— were the Brahman to judge him worthy of an explanation — that the 
Hindu sees in the ape but what Manu desired he should : the transforma- 
tion of species most directly connected with that of the human family — a 
bastard branch engrafted on their own stock before the final perfection 
of the latter. \ He might learn, further, that in the eyes of the educated 

* Coleman's "Hindu Mythology." 

f The siege and subsequent surrender of Lanca (Isle of Ceylon) to Rama is placed 
by the Hindu chronology — based upon the Zodiac — at 7,500 to 8,000 years B.C., and the 
following or eighth incarnation of Vishnu at 4,800 B.C. (from the book of the Historical 
Zodiacs of the Brahmans). 

\ A Hanoverian scientist has recently published a work entitled Ueber die Aufiosung 
der Arten dinck Naturliche Jucht Wahl, in which he shows, with great ingenuity, that 
Darwin was wholly mistaken in tracing man back to the ape. On the contrary, he 
maintains that it is the ape which has evolved from man. That, in tlie beginning, man- 
kind were, morally and physically, the types and prototypes of our present race and of 
human dignity, by their beauty of form, regularity of feature, cranial development, 
nobility of sentiments, heroic impulses, and grandeur of ideal conceptions. This is a 
purely Brahmanic, Buddhistic, and kabalistic philosophy. His book is copiously illus- 


"heathen " the spiritual or i?iner man is one thing, and his terrestrial, pliys- 
ical casket another. That physical nature, the great combination of 
physical correlations of forces ever creeping on toward perfection, has to 
avail herself of* the material at hand ; she models and remodels as she 
proceeds, and finishing her crowning work in man, presents him alone as 
a fit tabernacle for the overshadowing of the Divine spirit. But the latter 
circumstance does not give man the right of life and death over the ani- 
mals lower than himself in the scale of nature, or the right to torture 
them. Quite the reverse. Besides being endowed with a soul — of which 
every animal, and even plant, is more or less possessed — man has his im- 
mortal rational soul, or nous, which ought to make him at least equal in 
magnanimity to the elephant, who treads so carefully, lest he should crush 
weaker creatures than himself It is this feeling which prompts Brahman 
and Buddhist alike to construct hospitals for sick animals, and even insects, 
and to prepare refuges wherein they may finish their days. It is this same 
feeling, again, which causes tlie Jain sectarian to sacrifice one-half of his 
life-time to brushing away from his path the helpless, crawling insects, 
rather than recklessly depi'ive the smallest of life ; and it is again 
from this sense of highest benevolence and charity toward the weaker, 
however abject the creature may be, that they honor one of the natural 
modifications of their own dual nature, and that later the popular belief 
in metempsychosis arose. No trace of the latter is to be found in the 
Vedas ; and the true interpretation of the doctrine, discussed at length 
in Manu and the Buddhistic sacred books, having been confined from the 
first to the learned sacerdotal castes, the false and foolish popular ideas 
concerning it need occasion no surprise. 

Upon those who, in the remains of antiquity, see evidence that 
modern times can lay small claim to originality, it is common to charge 
a disposition to exaggerate and distort facts. But the candid reader will 
scarcely aver that the above is an example in point. There were evolu- 
tionists before the day when the mythical Noah is made, in the Bible, to 
float in his ark ; and the ancient scientists were better informed, and had 
their theories more logically defined than the modern evolutionists. 

Plato, Anaxagoras, Pythagoras, the Eleatic schools of Greece, as well 
as the old Chaldean sacerdotal colleges, all taught the doctrine of the 

trated with diagrams, tables, etc. He says that the gradual debasement and degrada- 
tion of man, morally and physically, can be readily traced throughout the ethnological 
transformations down to our times. And, as one portion has already degenerated into 
apes, so the civilized man of the present day will at last, under the action of the inevit- 
able law of necessity, be also succeeded by like descendants. If we may judge of the 
future by the actual present, it certainly does seem possible that so unspiritual and 
materiaUstic a body as our physical scientists should end as siniia rather than as seraphs. 


dual evolution ; the doctrine of the transmigration of souls referring only 
to the progress of man from world to world, after death here. Every 
philosophy worthy of the name, taught that the spirit of man, if not the 
soul, yi3.s preexistent. "The Essenes," says Josephus, "believed that 
the souls were immortal, and that they descended from the ethereal 
spaces to be chained to bodies." * In his turn, Philo Judasus says, the 
" air is full of them (of souls) ; those which are nearest the earth, de- 
scending to be tied to mortal bodies, ■n-aXivS^pofji.ovat aj^is, return to other 
bodies, being desirous to live in them." f In the Sohar, the soul is made 
to plead her freedom before God : " Lord of the Universe ! I am happy 
in this world, and do not wish to go into another world, where I shall be 
a handmaid, and be exposed to all kinds of pollutions." \ The doctrine 
of fatal necessity, the everlasting immutable Law, is asserted in the 
answer of the Deity : " Against thy will thou becomest an embryo, and 
against thy will thou art born." § Light would be incomprehensible 
without darkness, to make it manifest by contrast ; good would be no 
good without evil, to show the priceless nature of the boon ; and so, 
personal virtue could claim no merit, unless it had passed through the 
furnace of temptation. Nothing is eternal and unchangeable, save the 
Concealed Deity. Nothing that is finite — whether because it had a 
beginning, or must have an end — can remain stationary. It must either 
progress or recede ; and a soul which thirsts after a reunion with its 
spirit, which alone confers upon it immortality, must purify itself through 
cyclic transmigrations, onward toward the only Land of Bliss and Eternal 
Rest, called in the Sohar, "The Palace of Love," nanx Vmn ; in the 
Hindu religion, " Moksha ; " among the Gnostics, the " Pleroma of 
eternal Light ; " and by the Buddhists, Nirvana. The Christian calls it 
the " Kingdom of Heaven," and claims to have alone found the truth, 
whereas he has but invented a new name for a doctrine which is coeval 
with man. 

The proof that the transmigration of the soul does not relate to man's 
condition on this earth after death, is found in the Sohar, notwithstand- 
ing the many incorrect renderings of its translators. "All souls which 
have alienated themselves in heaven from the Holy One — blessed be His 
Name — have thrown themselves into an abyss at their very existence, 
and have anticipated the time when they are to descend on earth. || . . . 

* " De Bel. Jud.," vol. ii., p. 12. f " De Somniio," p. 455 d. 

\ " Sohar," vol. ii. , p. 96. 

§ "Mishna;" " Aboth," vol. iv., p. 29; Mackenzie's "Royal Masonic Cyclopse- 
aia," p. 413. 

I] "Sohar," vol. iii., p. 6i b. 


Come and see when the soul reaches the abode of Love. . . . The soul 
could not bear this light, but for the luminous mantle which she puts on. 
For, just as the soul, when sent to this earth, puts on an earthl)' garment 
to preserve herself here, so she receives above a shining garment, in 
order to be able to look without injury into the mirror, whose light pro- 
ceeds from the Lord of Light." * Moreover, the Sohar teaches that the 
soul cannot reach the abode of bliss, unless she has received the " holy 
kiss," or the re-union of the soul with the substance from which she 
emanated — spirit. All souls are dual, and, while the latter is a feminine 
principle, the spirit is masculine. While imprisoned in body, man is a 
trinity, unless his pollution is such as to have caused his divorce from 
the spirit. " Woe to the soul which prefers to her divine husband 
(spirit), the earthly wedlock with her terrestrial body," records a te.xt of 
the Book of the Keys. \ 

These ideas on the transmigrations and the trinity of man, were held 
by many of the early Christian Fathers. It is the jumble made by the 
translators of the New Testament and ancient philosophical treatises 
between soul and spirit, that has occasioned the many misunderstandings. 
It is also one of the many reasons why Buddha, Plotinus, and so many 
other initiates are now accused of having longed for the total extinction 
of their souls — " absorption unto the Deity," or " reunion with the uni- 
versal soul," meaning, according to modern ideas, annihilation. The 
animal soul must, of course, be disintegrated of its particles, before it is 
able to link its purer essence forever with the immortal spirit. But the 
translators of both the Acts and the Epistles, who laid the foundation 
of the Kingdom of Heaven, and the modern commentators on the 
Buddhist Sutra of the Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness, have 
muddled the sense of the great apostle of Christianity, as of the great 
reformer of India. The former have smothered the word \\i\>\mo%, so that 
no reader imagines it to have any relation with soul ; and with this con- 
fusion of soul and spirit together, Bible readers get only a perverted 
sense of anything on the subject ; and the interpreters of the latter have 
failed to understand the meaning and object of the Buddhist four degrees 
of Dhy4na. 

In the writings of Paul, the entity of man is divided into a trine — flesh, 
psychical existence or sold, and the overshadowing and at the same time 
interior entity or Spirit. His phraseology is very definite, when he 
teaches the ariastasis, or the continuation of life of those who have died. 
He maintains that there is a psychical body which is sown in the 
corruptible, and a spiritual body that is raised in incorruptible sub- 

* Ibid., vol. i., p. 65 b. \ Hermetic work. 


stance. "The first man is of the earth earthy, the second man from 
heaven." Even James (iii. 15) identifies the soul by saymg that its 
"wisdom descendeth not from the above but is \.mei\.na.\, psychical, 
demoniacal" (see Greek text). Plato, speaking of the Soul {psuch'e), ob- 
serves that " when she allies herself to the nous (divine substance, a god, 
as psuche is a goddess), she does everythmg aright and felicitously ; but 
the case is otherwise when she attaches herself to Annoia." What Plato 
calls nous, Paul terms the Spirit ; and Jesus makes the heart what Paul 
says of the flesh. The natural condition of mankind was called ni 
Greek aTroo-racna ; the new condition avacrTacris. In Adam came the 
former (death), in Christ the latter (resurrection), for it is he who first 
publicly taught mankind the " Noble Path " to Eternal life, as Gautama 
pointed the same Path to Nirvana. To accomplish both ends there was 
but one way, according to the teachings of both. " Poverty, chastity, 
contemplation or inner prayer ; contempt for wealth and the illusive joys 
of this world." 

" Enter on this Path and put an end to sorrow ; verily the Path has 
been preached by me, who have found out how to quench the darts of 
grief. You yourselves must make the effort ; the Buddhas are only 
preachers. The thoughtful who enter the Path are freed from the bon- 
dage of the Deceiver (Mara). * 

" Enter ye in at the strait gate : for wide is the gate, and broad is the 
way that leadeth to destruction. . . . P"ollo\v me. . . . Every one that 
heareth these sayings and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a fool- 
ish man " {Matthew vii. and viii. ). " / can of mine own self do nothing " 
{John V. 30). " The care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, 
choke the word" {Afatthew xiii. 22), say the Christians; and it is only 
by shaking off" all delusions that the Buddhist enters on the " Path " 
which will lead him " away from the restless tossing waves of the ocean 
of life," and take him "to the calm City of Peace, to the real joy and 
rest of Nirvana." 

The Greek philosophers are alike made misty instead of mystic by 
their too learned translators. The Egyptians revered the Divine Spirit, 
the One-Only One, as NouT. It is most evident that it is from that word 
that Anaxagoras borrowed his denominative nous, Or, as he calls it, NoJs 
avTOKparrj'S — the Mind or Spirit self-potent, the apx^r?;; Kti'Tjo-eaJS. " All 
things," says he, " were in chaos ; then came NoBs and introduced order." 
He also denominated this NoC; the One that ruled the many. In his 
idea Nous was God ; and the Logos was man, the emanation of the for- 
mer. The external powers perceived phenome/ia ; the i7^?« alone recog- 

* " Dhamma-pada," slokas 276 et seq. 


nized noiimena or subjective things. This is purely Buddhistic and 

Here Socrates took his clew and followed it, and Plato after him, 
with the whole world of interior knowledge. Where the old lonico- 
Italian world culminated in Anaxagoras, the new world began with 
Socrates and Plato. Pythagoras made the Soul a self-moving unit, with 
three elements, the nous, the phreii and the thumos ; the latter two, 
shared with the brutes ; the former only, being his essential self. So the 
charge that he taught transmigration is refuted ; he taught no more than 
Gautama-Buddha ever did, whatever the popular superstition of the 
Hindu rabble made of it after his death. Whether Pythagoras borrowed 
from Buddha, or Buddha from somebody else, matters not ; the esoteric 
doctrine is the same. 

The Platonic School is even more distinct in enunciating all this. 

The real selfhood was at the basis of all. Socrates therefore taught 
that he had a Sat/xdviov [daimonion), a spiritual something which put him 
in the road to wisdom. He himself knew nothing, but this put him in 
the way to learn all. 

Plato followed him with a full investigation of the principles of being. 
There was an Agathon, Supreme God, who produced in his own mind a 
paradeigma of all things. 

He taught that in man was " the immortal principle of the soul," a 
mortal body, and a '• separate mortal kind of soul," which was placed in 
a separate receptacle of the body from the other ; the immortal part was 
in the head { xix., xx.) the other in the trunk (xliv.). 

Nothing is plainer than that Plato regarded the interior man as con- 
stituted of two parts — one always the same, formed of the same entity as 
Deity, and one mortal and corruptible. 

" Plato and Pythagoras," says Plutarch, " distribute the soul into two 
parts, the rational (noetic) and irrational {agnoia) ; " that that part of 
the soul of man which is rational, is eternal ; for though it be not God, 
yet it is the product of an eternal deity, but that part of the soul which 
is divested of reason {agnoia) dies." 

" Man," says Plutarch, " is compound ; and they are mistaken who think 
him to be compounded of two parts only. For they imagine that the 
understanding is a part of the soul, but they err in this no less than those 
who make the soul to be a part of the body, for the understanding {nous) 
as far exceeds the soul, as the soul is better and diviner than the body. 
Now this composition of the soul (i/^x*?) with the understanding (voCs) 
makes reason ; and with the body, passion ; of which the one is the be- 
ginning or principle of pleasure and pain, and the other of virtue and 
vice. Of these three parts conjoined and compacted together, the earth 


has given the body, the moon the soul, and the sun the understanding to 
the generation of man. 

"Now of the deaths we die, the one makes man two of three, and the 
other, one of (out of) two. The former is in the region and jurisdiction 
of Demeter, whence the name given to the Mysteries reXuv resembled that 
given to death, rckivrav. The Athenians also heretofore called the de- 
ceased sacred to Demeter. As for the other death it is in the moon or 
region of Persophone. And as with the one the terrestrial, so with the 
other the celestial Hermes doth dwell. This suddenly and with violence 
plucks the soul from the body ; but Proserpina mildly and in a long time 
disjoins the understanding from the soul. For this reason she is called 
Monogenes, only-begotten, or rather begetting one alone ; for the better 
part of man becomes alone when it is separated by her. Now both the 
one and the other happens thus according to nature. It is ordained by 
Faith that every soul, whether with or without understanding (voCs), when 
gone out of the body, should wander for a time, though not all for the same, 
in the region lying between the earth and moon. For those that have been 
unjust and dissolute suffer there the punishment due to their offences ; 
but the good and virtuous are there detained till they are purified, and 
have, by expiation, purged out of them all the infections they might have 
contracted from the contagion of the body, as if from foul health, living in 
the mildest part of the air, called the Meadows of Hades, where they must 
remain for a certain prefixed and appointed time. And then, as if they 
were returning from a wandering pilgrimage or long exile into their coun- 
try, they have a taste of joy, such as they principally receive who are ini- 
tiated into Sacred Mysteries, mixed with trouble, admiration, and each 
one's proper and peculiar hope." 

The dxmonium of Socrates was this vov%, mind, spirit, or understand- 
ing of the divine in it. " The toCs of Socrates," says Plutarch, " was pure 
and mixed itself with the body no more than necessity required. . . . Every 
soul hath some portion of voCs, reason, a man cannot be a man without it ; 
but as much of each soul as is mixed with flesh and appetite is changed 
and through pain or pleasure becomes irrational. Every soul doth not mix 
herself after one sort ; some plunge themselves into the body, and so, in 
this life their whole frame is corrupted by appetite and passion ; others 
are mixed as to some part, but the purer part [nous] still remains with- 
out the body. It is not drawn down into the body, but it swims above and 
touches (overshadows) the extremest part of the man's head ; it is like a 
cord to hold up and direct the subsiding part of the soul, as long as it 
proves obedient and is not overcome by the appetites of the flesh. The 
part that is plunged into the body is called soul. But the incorruptible 
part is called the nous and the vulgar think it is within them, as they 


likewise imagine the image reflected from a glass to be in that glass. But 
the more intelligent, who know it to be without, call it a Daemon " (a 
god, a spirit). 

"The soul, like to a dream, flies quick away, which it does not imme- 
diately, as soon as it is separated from the body, but afterward, when it is 
alone and divided from the understanding [nous) . . . The soul being 
moulded and formed by the understanding {nous), and itself moulding and 
forming the body, by embracing it on every side, receives from it an im- 
pression and form ; so that although it be separated both from the under- 
standing and the body, it nevertheless so retains still its tigure and re- 
semblance for a long time, that it may, with good right, be called its 

" And of these souls the moon is the element, because souls resolve 
into her, as the bodies of the deceased do into earth. Those, indeed, who 
have been virtuous and honest, living a quiet and philosophical life, with- 
out embroiling themselves in troublesome affairs, are quickly resolved ; 
because, being left by the nous, understanding, and no longer using the 
corporeal passions, they incontinently vanish away. " 

We find even Irenteus, that untiring and mortal enemy of every 
Grecian and "heathen" heresy, explain his belief in the trinity of man. 
The perfect man, according to his views, consists o{ flesh, sotil, and spirit 
"... carne, anima, spiritu, altero quidem figurante, spiritu, altero quod 
formatur, carne. Id vero quod inter haec est duo, est anima, quae 
aliquando snbsequens spiritum elevatur ab eo, aliquando autem consen- 
tient carni in terrenas concupiscentias " [Irenaiis v., i). 

And Origen, in his Sixth Epistle to the Romans, says : " There is a 
threefold partition of man, the body or flesh, the lowest part of our 
nature, on which the old serpent by original sin inscribed the law of sin, 
and by which we are tempted to vile things, and as oft as we are over- 
come by temptations are joined fast to the Devil ; the spirit, in or by 
which we express the likeness of the divine nature in which the very Best 
Creator, from the archetype of his own mind, engraved with his finger 
(that is, his spirit), the eternal law of honesty ; by this we are joined (con- 
glutinated) to God and made one with. God. In the third, the soul me- 
diates between these, which, as in a factious republic, cannot but join with 
one party or the other, is solicited this way and that and is at liberty to 
choose the side to which it will adhere. If, renouncing the flesh, it betakes 
itself to the party of the spirit it will itself become spiritual, but if it cast 
itself down to the cupidities of the flesh it will degenerate itself into 

Plato (in Laws x.) defines soul as " the motion that is able to move 
itself. " " Soul is the most ancient of all things, and the commencement 


of motion." " Soul was generated prior to bod}^ -nd body is posterior 
and secondary, as being, according to nature, ruled over by the ruling 
soul." " The soul which administers all things thaf are moved in every 
way, administers likewise the heavens." 

" Soul then leads everything in heaven, and on earth, and in the sea, 
by its movements — the names of which are, to will, to consider, to take 
care of, to consult, to form opinions true and false, to be in a state of joy, 
sorrow, confidence, fear, hate, love, together with all such primary move- 
ments as are allied to these . . . being a goddess herself, she ever takes as 
an ally Nous, a god, and disciplines all things correctly and happily ; but 
when with Annoia — not 7ious — it works out everything the contrary. " 

In this language, as in the Buddhist texts, the negative is treated as 
essential existence. Annihilation comes under a similar exegesis. The 
positive state, is essential being but no manifestation as such. When the 
spirit, in Buddhistic parlance, entered nirvana, it lost objective existence 
but retained subjective. To objective minds this is becoming absolute 
nothing ; to subjective, NO-thing, nothing to be displayed to sense. 

These rather lengthy quotations are necessary for our purpose. 
Better than anything else, they show the agreement between the oldest 
"Pagan" philosophies — not "assisted by the light of divine revelation," 
to use the curious expression of Laboulaye in relation to Buddha — and 
the early Christianity of some Fathers. Both Pagan philosophy and 
Christianity, however, owe their elevated ideas on the soul and spirit of 
man and the unknown Deity to Buddhism and the Hindu Manu. No won- 
der that the Manicheans maintained that Jesus was a permutation of 
Gautama ; that Buddha, Christ, and Mani were one and the same person,* 
for the teachings of the former two were identical. It was the doctrine 
of old India that Jesus held to when preaching the com.plete renunciation 
of the world and its vanities in order to reach the kingdom of Heaven, 
Nirvana, where " men neither marry nor are given in marriage, but live 
like the angels." 

It is the philosophy of Siddhartha-Buddha again that Pythagoras 
expounded, when asserting that the ego (vovs) was eternal with God, and 
that the soul only passed through various stages (Hindu Rtipa-locas) to arrive 
at the divine excellence ; meanwhile the thumos returned to the earth, and 
even the phren was eliminated. Thus the metempsychosis was only a 
succession of disciplines through refuge-heavens (called by the Buddhists 
Zion), f to work off the exterior mind, to rid the ?ious of the phren, or soul, 

* Neander : " History of the Church," vol. i. , p. 817. 

f It is from the highest Zion that Maitree-Buddha, the Saviour to come, will descend 
on earth ; and it is also from Zion that comes the Christian Deliverer (see Romans 
xi. 26). 

ST. hilaire's definition of dhyana. 2S7 

the Buddhist "AVinyanaskandaya," that principle that lives from Karma 
and the Skandhas (groups). It is the latter, the metaphysical persona- 
tions of the " deeds " of man, whether good or bad, which, after the death of 
his body, incarnate themselves, so to say, and form their many invisible but 
never-dying compounds into a new body, or rather into an ethereal being, 
the double of what man was morally. It is the astral body of the kabalist 
and the "incarnated deeds" which form the new sentient self as his 
Ahancara (the ego, self-consciousness), given to him by the sovereign 
JVlaster (the breath of God) can never perish, for it is immortal per se as 
a spirit ; hence the sufferings of the newly-born self till he rids himself of 
every earthly thought, desire, and passion. 

We now see that the " four mysteries " of the Buddhist doctrine have 
been as httle understood and appreciated as the " wisdom " hinted at by 
Paul, and spoken " among them that are perfect " (initiated), the " mys- 
tery-wisdom" which "none of the Archons of this world knew." * The 
fourth degree of the Buddhist Dhyana, the fruit of Samadhi, which leads 
to the utmost perfection, to Viconddham a term correctly rendered by 
Burnouf in the verb " perfected," \ is wholly misunderstood by others, as 
well as in himself Defining the condition of Dhyana, St. Hilaire argues 
thus : 

" Finally, having attained the fourth degree, the ascetic possesses no 
more this feeling of beatitude, however obscure it may be ... he has 
also lost all memory . . . he has reached impassibility, as near a neighbor 
of Nirvana as can be. . . . However, this absolute impassibility does not 
hinder the ascetic from acquiring, at this very moment, omniscience and the 
magical power ; a flagrant contradiction, about which the Buddhists no 
more disturb themselves than about so many others." \ 

And why should they, when these contradictions are, in fact, no con- 
tradictions at all ? It ill behooves us to speak of contradictions in other 
peoples' religions, when those of our own have bred, besides the three 
great conflicting bodies of Romanism, Protestantism, and the Eastern 
Church, a thousand and one most curious smaller sects. However it 
may be, we have here a term applied to one and the same thing by the 
Buddhist holy " mendicants " and Paul, the Apostle. When the latter 
says : " If so be that I might attain the resurrection from among the 
dead [the Nirvana], not as though I had already attained, or were already 
perfect" (initiated), § he uses an expression common among the initiated 
Buddhists. When a Buddhist ascetic has reached the " fourth degree," he 
IS considered a rahat. He produces every kind of phenomena by the 

* I Corinth, ii. 6, 7, 8. + "Lotus de la Bonne Loi," p. 806. 

t "Du Bouddhisme," 95. § Philippians iii. II-14, 


sole power of his freed spirit. A raliat, say the Buddhists, is one who has 
acquired the power of flying in the air, becoming invisible, commandmg 
the elements, and working all manner of wonders, commonly, and as erro- 
neously, called ;;2^/>(; (miracles). He is a /^r/f^/ man, a demi-god. A 
god he will become when he reaches Nirvana ; for, like the initiates 
of both Testaments, the worshippers of Buddha know that they " are 

" Genuine Buddhism, overleaping the barrier between finite and infi- 
nite mind, urges its followers to aspire, by their own efforts, to that divine 
perfectibility of which it teaches that man is capable, and by attaining 
which man becomes a god" says Brian Houghton Hodgson.* 

Dreary and sad were the ways, and blood-covered the tortuous paths 
by which the world of the Christians was driven to embrace the Irenfean 
and Eusebian Christianity. And yet, unless we accept the views of the 
ancient Pagans, what claim has our generation to having solved any of 
the mysteries of the " kingdom of heaven ? " What more does the most 
pious and learned of Christians know of the future destiny and prog- 
ress of our immortal spirits than the heathen philosopher of old, or the 
modern "Pagan" beyond the Himalaya? Can he even boast that he 
knows as much, although he works in the full blaze of " divine " revela- 
tion ? We have seen a Buddhist holding to the religion of his fathers, both 
in theory and practice ; and, however blind may be his faith, however 
absurd his notions on some particular doctrinal points, later engraftings 
of an ambitious clergy, yet in practical works his Buddhism is far more 
Christ-like in deed and spirit than the average life of our Christian priests 
and ministers. The fact alone that his religion commands him to "honor 
his own faith, but never slander that of other people," f is sufficient. It 
places the Buddhist lama immeasurably higher than any priest or clergy- 
man who deems it his sacred duty to curse the "heathen" to his face, 
and sentence him and his religion to "eternal damnation." Christianity 
becomes every day more a religion of pure emotionalism. The doctrine 
of Buddha is entirely based on practical works. A general love of all 
beings, human and animal, is its nucleus. A man who knows that unless he 
toils for himself he has to starve, and understands that he has no scape- 
goat to carry the burden of his iniquities for him, is ten times as likely to 
become a better man than one who is taught that murder, theft, and prof- 
ligacy can be washed in one instant as white as snow, if he but believes 
in a God who, to borrow an expression of Volney, " once took food upon 
earth, and is now himself the food of his people." 

* " The Mahavansa," vol. i., Introduction. \ The Five Articles ot Faith. 


""of the tenets of the Dnizes, nothing authentic has ever come to light : the popular belief amongst 
their neighbors is, that they adore an idol in the form of a calf." — King ; The Gnostics and their 

" O ye Lords of Truth without fault, who are forever cycling for eternity . . . save me from the 
annihilation of this Region of the Two TrutjLs." — Egyptian Ritttal of the Dead. 

" Pythagoras correctly regarded the " Ineffable Name " of God ... as the Key to the Mysteries 
of the universe." — Pancoast ; Blue and Red Lisht. 

IN the next two chapters we shall notice the most important of the 
Christian secret sects — the so-called " Heresies " which sprang into 
existence between the first and fourth centuries of our era. 

Glancing rapidly at the Ophites and Mazareans, we shall pass to their 
scions which yet exist in Syria and Palestine, under the name of Druzes 
of Mount Lebanon ; and near Basra or Bassorah, in Persia, under that of 
Mendaans, or Disciples of St. John. All these sects have an immediate 
connection with our subject, for they are of kabalistic parentage and have 
once held to the secret " Wisdom Religion," recognizing as the One 
Supreme, the Nfystery-God of the Ineffable Name. Noticing these nume- 
rous secret societies of the past, we will bring them into direct compari- 
son with several of the modern. We will conclude with a brief surve}' 
of the Jesuits, and of that venerable nightmare of the Roman Catholic 
Church — modern Freemasonry. All of these modern as well as ancient 
fraternities — present Freemasonry excepted — were and are more or less 
connected with magic — practically, as well as theoretically ; and, every one 
of them — Freemasonry not excepted — was and still is accused of 
demonolatry, blasphemy, and licentiousness. 

Our object is not to write the history of either of them ; but only to 
compare these sorely-abused communities with the Christian sects, past 
and present, and then, taking historical facts for our guidance, to defend 
the secret science as well as the men who are its students and champions 
against any unjust imputation. 

One by one the tide of time engulfed the sects of the early centuries, 
until of the whole number only one survived in its primitive integrity. 
That one still exists, still teaches the doctrine of its founder, still exem- 
plifies its faith in works of power. The quicksands which swallowed up 


every other outgrowth of the religious agitation of the times of Jesus, with 
its records, rehcs, and traditions, proved firm ground for this. Driven 
from their native land, its members found refuge in Persia, and to day 
the anxious traveller may converse with the direct descendants of the 
■'Disciples of John," who listened, on the Jordan's shore, to the "man 
sent from God," and were baptized and believed. This curious people, 
numbering 30,000 or more, are miscalled "Christians of St. John," but 
in fact should be known by their old name of Nazareans, or their new one 
of Mendajans. 

To term them Christians, is wholly unwarranted. They neither be- 
lieve in Jesus as Christ, nor accept his atonement, nor adhere to his 
Church, nor revere its " Holy Scriptures." Neither do they worship the 
Jehovah-God of the Jews and Christians, a circumstance which of course 
proves that their founder, John the Baptist, did not worship him either. 
And if not, what right has he to a place in the Bible, or in the portrait- 
gallery of Christian saints? Still further, if Ferho was his God, and he 
was "a man sent by God," he must have been sent by Lord Ferho, and 
in his name baptized and preached ? Now, if Jesus was baptized by 
John, the inference is that he was baptized according to his own faith ; 
therefore, Jesus too, was a believer in Ferho, or Faho, as they call him ; 
a conclusion that seems the more warranted by his silence as to the name 
of his " Father." And why should the hypothesis that Faho is but one 
of the many corruptions of Fho or Fo, as the Thibetans and Chinese call 
Buddha, appear ridiculous ? In the North of Nepaul, Buddha is more 
often called Fo than Buddha. The Book of AlahawMisa shows how 
early the work of Buddhistic proselytism began in Nepaul ; and history 
teaches that Buddhist monks crowded into Syria * and Babylon in the 

* Not only did tlie Buddhist missionaries make their way to the Mesopotamian 
Valley, but they even went so far west as Ireland. Tlie Rev. Dr. Lundy, in liis work on 
" Monumental Christianity," referring to an Irish Round Tower, observes: *' Henry 
O'Brien explains this Round Tower Crucifixion as that of Buddha ; the animals as the 
elephant and the bull, sacred to Buddha, and into which his soul entered after death; 
the two figures standing beside the cross as Buddha's virgin mother, and Kama his 
favorite disciple. The whole picture bears a close likeness to the Crucifixion, in the 
cemetery of Pope Julius, except the animals, which are conclusive proof that it cannot 
be Christian. It came ultimately from the far East to Ireland, with the Phcenician 
colonists, who erected the Round Towers as symbols of the life-giving and preserving 
power of man and nature, and how that universal life is produced through suffering and 

When a Protestant clergyman is thus forced to confess the pre-Christian existence 
of the crucifix in Ireland, its Buddhistic character, and the penetration of the missionaries 
of that faith even to that then remote portion of the earth, we need not wonder that 
in the minds of the Nazarean contemporaries of Jesus and their descendants, he should 


century preceding our era, and that Buddhasp (Bodhisatva) the alleged 
Chaldean, was the founder of Sabism or baptism. * 

What the actual Baptists, el-Mogtasila, or Nazareans, do believe, is 
fully set forth in other places, for they are the very Nazarenes of whom 
we have spoken so much, and from whose Codex we have quoted. Per- 
secuted and threatened with annihilation, they took refuge in the Nesto- 
rian body, and so allowed themselves to be arbitrarily classed as Chris- 
tians, but as soon as opportunity offered, they separated, and now, for 
several centuries have not even nominally deserved the appellation. 
That they are, nevertheless, so called by ecclesiastical writers, is perhaps 
not very difficult to comprehend. They know too much of early Chris- 
tianity to be left outside the pale, to bear witness against it with their 
traditions, without the stigma of heresy and backsliding being fastened 
upon them to weaken confidence in what they might say. 

But where else can science find so good a field for biblical research as 
among this too neglected people ? No doubt of their inheritance of the 
Baptist's doctrine ; their traditions are without a break. What they teach 
now, their forefathers taught at every epoch where they appear in history. 
They are the disciples of that John who is said to have foretold the 
advent of Jesus, baptized him, and declared that the latchet of his shoe 
he (John) was not worthy to unloose. As they two — the Messenger and 
the Messiah — stood in the Jordan, and the elder was consecrating the 
younger — his own cousin, too, humanly speaking — the heavens opened 
and God Himself, in the shape of a dove, descended in a glory upon his 
" Beloved Son ! " How then, if this tale be true, can we account for the 
strange infidelity which we find among these surviving Nazareans? So 
far from believing Jesus the Only Begotten Son of God, they actually 
told the Persian missionaries, who, in the seventeenth century, first dis- 
covered them to Europeans, that the Christ of the IVew Testament was 
"a false teacher," and that the Jewish system, as well as that of Jesus (?), 
came from the realm of darkness! Who knows better than they? 
Where can more competent living witnesses be found ? Christian eccle- 

iiot have been associated with that universally known emblem in the character of a 

In noticing this admission of Dr. Lundy, Mr. Charles Sotheran remarked, in a 
lecture before the American Philological Society, that both legends and arch^ological 
remains unite in proving beyond question " that Ireland, like every other nation, once 
listened to the propagandists of Siddhartha-Buddha." 

* "The religion of multiplied baptisms, the scion of the still existent sect named 
the 'Christians of St. John,' or Mendseans, whom the Arabs call el-Mogtasila and 
Baptists. The Aramean verb j-rfa, origin of the name Saliian, is a synonym of /?a?rTi(,'<.) " 
(Renan: "Vie de Jesus"). 


siastics would force upon us an anointed Saviour heralded by John, and 
the disciples of riiis very Baptist, from the earliest centuries, have stigma- 
tized this ideal personage as an impostor, and his putative Father, Jeho- 
vah, "a spurious God," the Ilda-Baoth of the Ophites! Unlucky for 
Christianity will be the day when some fearless and honest scholar shall 
persuade their elders to let him translate the contents of their secret 
books and compile their hoary traditions ! It is a strange delusion that 
makes some writers think that the Nazareans have no other sacred liter- 
ature, no other literary relics than four doctrinal works, and that curious 
volume full of astrology and magic which they are bound to peruse at 
the sunset hour, on every Sol's day (Sunday). 

This search after truth leads us, indeed, into devious ways. Many are 
the obstacles that ecclesiastical cunning has placed in the way of our find- 
ing the primal source of rehgious ideas. Christianity is on trial, and has 
been, ever since science felt strong enough to act as Public Prosecutor. 
A portion of the case we are drafting in this book. What of truth is there 
in this Theology? Through what sects has it been transmitted? Whence 
was it primarily derived^ To answer, we must trace the history of the 
World Religion, alike through the secret Christian sects as through those of 
other great rehgious subdivisions of the race ; for the Secret Doctrifie is 
the Truth, and that religion is nearest divine that has contained it with 
least adulteration. 

Our search takes us hither and thither, but never aimlessly do we 
bring sects widely separated in chronological order, into critical juxta- 
position. There is one purpose in our work to be kept constantly in 
view— the analysis of religious beliefs, and the definition of their descent 
from the past to the present. What has most blocked the way is Roman 
Catholicism ; and not until the secret principles of this rehgion are 
uncovered can we comprehend the iron staff upon which it leans to 
steady its now tottering steps. 

We will begin with the Ophites, Nazareans, and the modern Druzes. 
The personal views of the author, as they will be presented in the 
diagrams, will be most decidedly at variance with the prejudiced specu- 
lations of Irenseus, Theodoret, and F.piphanius (the sainted renegade, 
who sold his brethren), inasmuch as they will reflect the ideas of certain 
kabalists in close relations with the mysterious Druzes of Mount 
Lebanon. The Syrian okhals, or Spirituahsts, as they are sometimes 
termed, are in possession of a great many ancient manuscripts and 
gems, bearing upon our present subject. 

The first scheme — that of the Ophites — from the very start, as we have 
shown, varies from the description given by the Fathers, inasmuch as 
it makes Bythos or depth, a female emanation, and assigns her a place 


answering to that of Pleroma, only in a far superior region ; whereas, 
the Fathers assure us that the Gnostics gave the name of Bythos to the 
First Cause. As in the kabaUstic system, it represents the boundless 
and infinite void within which is concealed in darkness the Unknown 
Primal motor of all. It envelops Him like a veil : in short we recog- 
nize again the " Shekinah " of the En-Soph. Alone, the name of IAf2, 
lao, marks the upper centre, or rather the presumed spot where the 
Unknown One may be supposed to dwell. Around the lao, runs the 
legend, CEMEC EIAAM ABPASA3. "The eternal Sun-Abrasax " (the 
Central Spiritual Sun of all the kabalists, represented in some diagrams 
of the latter by the circle of Tiphereth). 

From this region of unfathomable Depth, issues forth a circle formed 
of spirals ; which, in the language of symbolism, means a grand cycle, 
KyKXa-;, composed of smaller ones. Coiled within, so as to follow the 
spirals, lies the serpent — emblem of wisdom and eternity — the Dual 
Androgyne : the cycle representing Ennoia or the Divine mind, and the 
Serpent — the Agathodaimon, Ophis — the Shadow of the Light. Both 
were the Logoi of the Ophites ; or the unity as Logos manifesting itself 
as a double principle of good and evil ; for, according to their views, these 
two principles are immutable, and existed from all eternity, as they will 
ever continue to exist. 

This symbol accounts for the adoration by this sect of the Serpent, 
as the Saviour, coiled either around the Sacramental loaf or a Tau. As 
a unity, Ennoia and Ophis are the Logos ; when separated, one is the 
Tree of Life (Spiritual) ; the other, the Tree of Knowledge of Good and 
Evil. Therefore, we find Ophis urging the first huuian couple — the mate- 
rial production of Ilda-Baoth, but which owed its spiritual principle to 
Sophia-Achamoth — -to eat of the forbidden fruit, although Ophis repre- 
sents Divine Wisdom. 

The Serpent, the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, and the Tree 
of Life, are all symbols transplanted from the soil of India. The Arasa- 
Maram, the banyan tree, so sacred with the Hindus, since Vishnu, during 
one of his incarnations, reposed under its mighty shade, and there taught 
humanity philosophy and sciences, is called the Tree of Knowledge and 
the Tree of Life. Under the protective umbrage of this king of the 
forests, the Gurus teach their pupils their first lessons on immortahty and 
initiate them in the mysteries of life and death. The Java-kixmi of 
the Sacerdotal College are said, in the Chaldean tradition, to have taught 
the sons of men to become like one of them. To the present day 
Foh-tchou, * who lives in his Foh-Maeyu, or temple of Buddha, on the 

* Foh-Tchou, literally, in Chinese, meaning Buddha's lord, or the teacher of the 
doctrines of Buddha — Foh. 


top of " Kouin-long-sang," * the great mountain, produces his greatest 
religious miracles under a tree called in Chinese Sung-Ming-Shu, or the 
Tree of Knowledge and the Tree of Life, for ignorance is death, and 
knowledge alone gives immortality. This marvellous display takes 
place every three years, when an immense concourse of Chinese Bud- 
dhists assemble in pilgrimage at the holy place. 

Ilda-Baoth, the " Son of Darkness," and the creator of the material 
world, was made to inhabit the planet Saturn, which identifies him still 
more with the Jewish Jehovah, who was Saturn himself, according to 
the Ophites, and is by them denied his Sinaitic name. From Ilda-Baoth 
emanate six spirits, who respectively dwell with their father in the seven 
planets. These are Saba — or Mars ; Adonai — Sol, or the Sun ; f levo — 
the Moon ; Eloi — Jupiter ; Astaphoi — Mercury (spirit of water) ; and 
Ouraios — Venus, spirit of fire. J 

In their functions and description as given, these seven planets are 
identical with the Hindu Sapta-Loca, the seven places or spheres, or the 
superior and inferior worlds ; for they represent the kabalistic seven 
spheres. With the Ophites, they belong to the lower spheres. The 
monograms of these Gnostic planets are also Buddhistic, the latter difl"er- 
ing, albeit slightly, from those of the usual astrological " houses." In 
the explanatory notes which accompany the diagram, the names of Cir- 
enthius (the disciple of Simon Magus), of Menander, and of certain other 
Gnostics, whose names are not to be met with in the Patristic writings, 
are often mentioned ; such as Parcha (Ferho), for instance. § 

The author of the diagram claims, moreover, for his sect, the great- 
est antiquity, bringing forward, as a proof, that their " forefathers " were 
the builders of all the " Dracontia " temples, even of those beyond "the 
great waters." He asserts that the "Just One," who was the mouth- 
piece of the Eternal ^on (Christos), hmrself sent his disciples into the 
world, placing them under the double protection of Sige (Silence, the 

* This mountain is situated south-west of China, almost between China and 

f Sol, being situated, on the diagram, exactly in the centre of the solar system (of 
which the Ophites appear to have been cognizant) — hence, under the direct vertical 
ray of the Higher Spiritual Sun — showers his brightness on all other planets. 

:j: Speaking of Venus, Placidus, the astrologer, always maintained that " her bluish 
lustre denotes heat." As to Mercury, it was a strange fancy of the Ophites to repre- 
sent him as a spirit of water, when astrologically considered he is as "a cold, dry, 
earthy, and melancholy star." | 

§ The name which Norberg translates, in his Onomasticon to the "Codex Nazar- 
asus," as Ferho, stands, in the original, Parcha Rabba. In the " Life of Manes," given 
by Epiphanius, in his " Ha;r.," Ixvi., is mentioned a certain priest of Mithras, a friend 
of the great Hieresiarch Manes, named Parchus. 



Logos), and Ophis, the Agathodaemon. The author alludes, no doubt, 
to the favorite expression of Jesus, " be wise as serpents, and harmless 
as doves." On the diagram, Ophis is represented as the Egyptian Gnu- 
phis or Kneph, called Dracontije. He appears as a serpent standing 
erect on its tail, with a lion's head, crowned and radiated, and bearing 
on the point of each ray one of the seven Greek vowels — symbol of the 
seven celestial spheres. This figure is quite familiar to those who are 
acquainted with the Gnostic gems,* and is borrowed from the Egyptian 
Hermetic books. The description given in the Revelation, of one " like 
unto the Son of Man," with his seven stars, and who is the Logos, is 
another form of Ophis. 

The Nazarene diagram, except in a change of names, is identical with 
that of the Gnostics, who evidently borrowed their ideas from it, adding a 
few appellations from the Basiledean and Valentinian systems. To avoid 
repetition, we will now simply present the two in parallel. 

Thus, we find that, in the Nazarene Cosmogony, the names of their 
powers and genii stand in the following relations to those of the 
Gnostics : 

First Trinity. 

Lord Ferho — the Life which is no Life — 
the Supreme God. The Cause which 
produces the Light, or the Logos in 
abscondito. The water of Jordanus 
Maximus — the water of Life, or Ajar, 
the feminine principle. Unity m a 
Trinity, enclosed within the IsH Amon. 
Second Trinity. 
(The manifestation of the first.) 

I. Lord Mano — the King of Life and 
Light — Rex Liicis. First Life, or the 
primitive man. 

3. Lord Jordan — manifestation or emana- 
tion of Jordan Maximus — the waters of 
grace. Second Life. 

3. The Superior father — Abatur. Third 

This Trinity produces also a duad — Lord 
Ledhoio, and Fetahil, tlie genius (the 
former, a perfect emanation, the latter, 

First Unity in a Trinity. 

Iao — the Ineffable Name of the Unknown 
Deity — Abraxas, and the " Eternal 
Spiritual Sun." Unity enclosed within 
the Depth, Bythos, feminine principle 
— the boundless circle, within which lie 
all ideal forms From this Unity eman- 
ates the 

Second Trinity. 

1 . Ennoia — mind. 

2. Ophis, the Agathodsmon. 

3. Sophia Androgyne — wisdom ; who, in 
her turn — fecundated with the Divine 
Light — produces 

Christos and Sophia-Achamoth (one per- 
fect, the other imperfect), as an emana- 

* Its description is found in one of the magic books of the Egyptian King Nechep- 
sos, and its use prescribed on green jasper stones, as a potent amulet. Galen mentions 
it in his work, " De Simp. Med.," c. ix. 


Lord Jordan—" the Lord of all Jordans," Sophia-Achamoth emanates Ilda-Baoth— 
manifests Netubto (Faith without the Demiurge, who produces material 
Works).* and soulless creation. " Works ■»»M- 

i;«< Faith" (or grace).* 

Moreover, the Ophite seven planetary genii, who emanated one from 
the other, are found again in the Nazarene religion, under the name of 
the " seven impostor-dcemons," or stellars, who " will deceive all the 
sons of Adam." These are Sol ; Spiritus Venereus (Holy Spirit, in her 
material aspect), \ the mother of the " seven badly-disposed stellars," 
answering to the Gnostic Achamoth ; Nebu, or Mercury, " a false Mes- 
siah, who will deprave the ancient worship of God ; " \ Sin (or Luna, 
or Shuril) ; Kiun (Kivan, or Saturn) ; Bel-Jupiter ; and the seventh, 
Nerig, Mars (Codex Nazarczus, p. 57). 

The Christos of the Gnostics is the chief of the seven yEons, St. 
John's seven spirits of God ; the Nazarenes have also their seven genii 
or good yEons, whose chief is Rex Lucis, Mano, their Christos. The 
Sapta Rishis, the seven sages of India, inhabit the Sapta-Foura, or the 
seven celestial cities. 

What less or more do we find in the Universal Ecclesia, until the days 
of the Reformation, and in the Roman Popish Church after the separation ? 
We have compared the relative value of the Hindu Cosmogony ; the 
Chaldeo, Zoroastrian, Jewish Kabala ; and that of the so-termed Hzeretics. 
A correct diagram of the Judaico-CHRISTIAN religion, to enforce which 
on the heathen who have furnished it, are expended such great sums 
every year, would still better prove the identity of the two ; but we lack 
space and are also spared the necessity of proving what is already thor- 
oughly demonstrated. 

In the Ophite gems of King (Gnostics), we find the name of lao re- 
peated, and often confounded with that of levo, while the latter simply 
represents one of the genii antagonistic to Abraxas. In order that these 
names may not be taken as identical with the name of the Jewish Jeho- 
vah we will at once explain this word. It seems to us surpassingly strange 
that so many learned arch»ologists should have so little insisted that 
there was more than one Jehovah, and disclaimed that the name origin- 

* Consider those two diametrically-opposed doctrines — the Catholic and the Protest- 
ant ; the one preached by Paul, the semi-Platonist, and the other by James, the ortho- 
dox Talmudist. 

■|- The material, bad side of Sophia-Achamoth, who emanates from herself Ilda- 
Baoth and his six sons. 

X See Norberg's translation of " Codex Nazareeus," Preface. This proves once 
more the identification of Jesus with Gautama-Buddha, in the minds of the Nazarene 
Gnostics, as Nebu or Mercury is the planet sacred to the Buddhas. 


ated with Moses. lao is certainly a title of the Supreme Being, and be- 
longs /ar/zW/y to the Ineffable Name; but it neither originated with nor 
was it the sole property of the Jews. Even if it had pleased Moses to 
bestow the name upon the tutelar " Spirit," the alleged protector and 
national deity of the " Chosen people of Israel," there is yet no possible 
reason why other nationalities should receive Him as the Highest and 
One-living God. Bat we deny the assumption altogether. Besides, there 
is the fact that Yaho or lao was a " mystery name " from the beginning, 
nin'> and m never came into use before King David. Anterior to his 
time, few or no proper names were compounded with ia/i or jah. It 
looks rather as though David, being a sojourner among the Tyrians and 
Philistines (2 Samuel), brought thence the name of Jehovah. He made 
Zadok high-priest, from whom came the Zadokites or Sadducees. He 
lived and ruled first at Hebron in^n, Habir-on or Kabeir-town, where the 
rites of the four (mystery-gods) were celebrated. Neither David nor 
Solomon recognized either Moses or the law of Moses. They aspired to 
build a temple to rini, like the structures erected by Hiram to Hercules 
and Venus, Adon and Astarte. 

Says Fiirst : " The very ancient name of God, Yaho, written in the 
Greek lata, appears, apart /?-om its derivation, to have been an old mystic 
name of the Supreme deity of the Sheraites. (Hence it was told to 
Moses when initiated at Hor-eb — the cave, under the direction of Jethro, 
the Kenite or Cainite priest of Midian.) In an old religion of the Chal- 
deans, whose remains are to be found amongst the Neo-platonists, the 
highest divinity enthroned above the seven heavens, representing the 
Spiritual Light-Principle {nous) * and also conceived as Demiurgus, f 
was called lau nni, who was, like the Hebrew Yaho, mysterious and un- 
mentionable, and whose name was communicated to the initiated. The 
Phoenicians had a Supreme God whose name was trilateral and secret, and 
he was law." J 

But while Fiirst insists that the name has a Semitic origin, there are 
other scholars who trace it farther than he does, and look back be3'0nd 
the classification of the Caucasians. 

In Sanscrit we have Jah and Jaya, or Jaa and Ja-ga, and this throws 
light on the origin of the famous festival of the car of Jaga-nath, com- 
monly called Jaggernith. Javhe means " he who is," and Dr. Spiegel 
traces even the Persian name of God, "Ahura," to the root ah, § which 

* Nous, the designation given by Anaxagoras to the Supreme Deity, was talien from 
Egypt, where he was styled NouT. 

f By very few though, for the creators of the material universe were always consid- 
ered as subordinate deities to the Most High God. 

\ Lydus, I.e., Ledrenus, I.e. § " Erau das Land zwischen dem Indus und Tigris." 


in Sanscrit is pronounced as, to breathe, and asu, became, therefore, in 
time, synonymous with "Spirit."* Rawlinson strongly supports the 
opinion of an Aryan or Vedic influence on the early Babylonian mythol- 
ogy. ■ We have given, a few pages back, the strongest possible proofs of 
the identity of Vishnu with Dag-on. The same may be adduced for the 
title of law, and its Sanscrit root traced in every country. Ju ox Jovis 
is the oldest Latin name for God. " As male he is ]Vi-piter, or Ju, the 
father, pilar being Sanscrit for father; as feminine, ]\i-no or Ju, the 
comforter — rn being the Phoenician word for rest and comfort."f Pro- 
fessor Max Muller shows that although " Dyaus," sky, does not occur as 
a masculine in the ordinary Sanscrit, yet it does occur in the Veda, " and 
thus bears witness to the early Aryan worship of Dyaus, the Greek 
Zeus " [The Veda). 

To grasp the real and primitive sense of the term lAfi, and the reason 
of its becoming the designation for the most mysterious of all deities, we 
must search for its origin in the figurative phraseology of all the primi- 
tive people. We must first of all go to the most ancient sources for our 
information. In one of the Books of Hermes, for instance, we find him 
saying that the number ten is the mother of the soul, and that the lije 
and light are therein united. For " the number i (one) is born from the 
spirit, and the number 10 (ten) from matter ;" J "the unity has made 
the TEN, the ten the unity." § 

The kabalistic gemantria — one of the methods for extracting the hid- 
den meaning from letters, words, and sentences — is arithmetical. It 
consists in applying to the letters of a word the sense they bear as num- 
bers, in outtvard shape as well as in their individual sense. Moreover, 
by the Tliemura (another method used by the kabalists) any word could 
be made to yield its mystery out of its anagram. Thus, we find the author 
of Sepher Jezira saying, one or two centuries before our era : || " One, 
the siiirit of the Alahim of Lives." ^ So again, in the oldest kabahstic 
diagrams, the ten Sephiroth are represented as wheels or circles, and 
Adam Kadmon, the primitive man, as an upright pillar. " Wheels and 

* Asi means, moreover, " Thou art," in Sanscrit, and also " sword," " Asi,^'' with- 
out the accent on the first vowel, 

\ Professor A. Wilder. \ These sacred anagrams were called "Zeruph." 

S^ " Book of Numbers, or Book of the Keys." 

1 The " Jezira," or book of the creation, was written by Rabbi Akiba, who was the 
teacher and instructor of Simeon Ben lochai, who was called the prince of the kabalists, 
and wrote the "Sohar." Franck asserts that '* Jezira" was written one century B.C. 
(*' Die Kabbala," 65), but other and as competent judges make it far older. At 
all events, it is now proved that Simeon Ben lochai lived before the second destruction 
of the temple. 

T[ " Jezira," p. 8. 



seraphim and the holy creatures" (chioth), says Rabbi Akiba. * In 
another system of the same branch of the symbolical Kabalat, called Ath- 
bach— which arranges the letters of the alphabet by pairs in three rows- 
all the couples in the first row bear the numerical value ten ; and in the 
system of Simeon Ben-Shetah, f the uppermost couple— the most 
sacred of all, is preceded by the Pythagorean cipher, one and a nought, or 
zero — 10. 

If we can once appreciate the fact that, among all the peoples of 
the highest antiquity, the most natural conception of the First Cause mani- 
festing itself in its creatures, and that to this they could not but ascribe 
the creation of all, was that of an androgyne deity ; that the male principle 
was considered the vivifying invisible spirit, and the female, mother nature ; 
we shall be enabled to understand how that mysterious cause came at first 
to be represented (in the picture-writings, perhaps) as the combination 
of the Alpha and Omega of numbers, a decimal, then as lAO, a trilateral 
name, containing in itself a deep allegory. 

lAO, in such a case, would — etymologically considered — mean 
the " Breath of Life," generated or springing forth between an upright 
male and an egg-shaped female principle of nature ; for, in Sanscrit, as 
means " to be," " to live or exist ; " and originally it meant " to breathe." 
"From it," says Max Miiller, "in its original sense of breadiing, the 
Hindus formed ' asu,' breath, and ' asura,' the rjame of God, whether it 
meant the breathing one or the giver of breath." J; It certainly meant 
the latter. In Hebrew-, " Ah " and "Iah"mean life. Cornelms Agrippa, 
in his treatise on the Preeminence of Woman, shows that " the word Eve 
suggests comparison with the mystic symbols of the kabalists, the name 
of the woman having affinity with the ineffable Tetragrammaton, the most 
sacred name of the divinity." Ancient names were always consonant 
with the things they represented. In relation to the mysterious name of 
the Deity iri question, the hitherto inexplicable hint of the kabalists as to 
the efficacy of the letter H, "which Abrain took away from his wife 
Sarah " and " put into the middle of his own name," becomes clear. 

It may perhaps be argued, by way of objection, that it is not ascer- 
tained as yet at what period of antiquity the nought occurs for the first 
time in Indian manuscripts or inscriptions. Be that as it may, the case 
presents circumstantial evidence of too strong a character not to carry a 
conviction of probability with it. According to Max Miiller "the two 
words 'cipher' and 'zero,' which are in reality but one . . . are sufficient 

* Ibid. See tlie constancy with which Ezekiel sticks in his vision to the " wheels " 
of the " living creatures " (ch. i., passim). 

f He was an Alexandrian Neo-platonic under the first of the Ptolemies. 
i "Chips," vol. i. 


to prove that our figures are borrowed from the Arabs." * Cipher is the 
Arabic " cifron," and means empty, a translation of the Sanscrit name of 
the nought " synya," he says. The Arabs had their figures from Hindus- 
tan, and never claimed the discovery for themselves. f As to the Pytha- 
goreans, we need but turn to the ancient manuscripts of Boethius's 
Geometry, composed in the sixth century, to find in the Pythagorean 
numerals J; the i and the nought, as the first and final cipher. And Por- 
phyry, who quotes from the Pythagorean Moderatus, § says that the nu- 
merals of Pythagoras were " hieroglyphical symbols, by means whereof 
he explained ideas concerning the nature of things." 

Now, if the most ancient Indian manuscripts show as yet no trace of 
decimal notation in them, Max Miiller states very clearly that until now 
he has found but nine letters (the initials of the Sanscrit numerals) in 
them — on the other hand we have records as ancient to supply the wanted 
proof. We speak of the sculptures and the sacred imagery in the most 
ancient temples of the far East. Pythagoras derived his knowledge from 
India ; and we find Professor Max Miiller corroborating this statement, 
at least so far as allowing the iyfti- Pythagoreans to have been the first 
teachers of "ciphering" among the Greeks and Romans; that "they, 
at Alexandria, or in Syria, became acquainted with the Indian figures, 
and adapted them to the Pythagorean abacus " (our figures). This 
cautious allowance implies that Pythagoras himself was acquainted with 
but nine figures. So that we might reasonably answer that although we 
possess no certain proof that the decimal notation was known to Py- 
thagoras, who lived on the very close of the archaic ages, {| we yet have 
sufficient evidence to show that the full numbers, as given by Boethius, 
were known to the Pythagoreans, even before Alexandria was built. ^ 
This evidence we find in Aristotle, who says that " some philosophers 
hold that ideas and numbers are of the same nature, and amount to ten 
in all." ** This, we believe, will be sufficient to show that the decimal 
notation was known among them at least as early as four centuries b. c, 
for Aristotle does not seem to treat the question as an innovation of the 
" Neo-Pythagoreans." 

Besides, as we have remai'ked above, the representations of the 
archaic deities, on the walls of the temples, are of themselves quite sug- 
gestive enough. So, for instance, Vishnu is represented in the Kurmava- 
tara (his second avatar) as a tortoise sustaining a circular pillar, on which 
the semblance of himself (Maya, or the illusion) sits with all his attributes. 

* See Max Miiller's " Our Figures." \ Ibid. 

% See King's "Gnostics and their Remains," plate xiii. § " Vita Pythagor," 

I 608 B.C. *\\ This city was built 332 B. c. 

** "Metaph.," vii. F. 


While one hand holds a flower, another a club, the third a shell, the 
fourth, generally the upper one, or at the right— holds on his forefinger, ex- 
tended as the cipher i, the ckakra, or discus, which resembles a ring, or 
a wheel, and might be taken for. the nought. In his first avatar, the 
Matsyavatam, when emerging from the fish's mouth, he is represented in 
the same position.* The ten-armed Durga of Bengal ; the ten-headed 
Ravana, the giant ; Parvati— as Durga, Indra, and Indrani, are found 
with this attribute, which is a perfect representation of the May-pole, f 

The holiest of the temples among the Hindus, are those of Jaggar- 
nath. This deity is worshipped equally by all the sects of India, and 
Jagga-^nkih. is named " The Lord of the World. " He is the god of 
the Mysteries, and his temples, which are most numerous in Bengal, are 
aU of a pyramidal form. 

There is no other deity which affords such a variety of etymologies 
as laho, nor a name which can be so variously pronounced. It is 
only by associating it with the Masoretic points that the later Rabbins 
succeeded in making Jehovah read " Adonai " — or Lord. Philo Byb- 
lus spells it in Greek letters lEYti — lEOV. Theodoret says that the 
Samaritans pronounced it labe ( Yahva) and the Jews Yaho ; which 
would make it as we have shown I-ah-0. Diodorus states that "among 
the Jews they relate that Moses called the God lao. " It is on the 
authority of the Bible itself, therefore, that we maintain that before his 
initiation by Jethro, his father-in-law, Moses had never known the word 
laho. The future Deity of the sons of Israel calls out from the burning 
bush and gives His name as " I am that I am, " and specifies carefully 
that He is the "Lord God of the Hebrews " {Exod. iii. 18), not of the 
other nations. Judging him by his own acts, throughout the Jewish 
records, we doubt whether Christ himself, had he appeared in the days of 
the Exodus, would have been welcomed by the irascible Sinaitic Deity. 
However, " The Lord God, who becomes, on His own confession, Jeho- 
vah only in the 6th chapter of Exodus (verse 3) finds his veracity put to 
a startling test in Genesis xxii. 14, in which revealed passage Abraham 
builds an altar lo Jehovah-jireh. 

It would seem, therefore, but natural to make a difference between 
the mystery-God law, adopted from the highest antiquity by all who par- 
ticipated in the esoteric knowledge of the priests, and his phonetic coun- 
terparts, whom we find treated with so little reverence by the Ophites 
and other Gnostics. Once having burdened themselves like the Azazel 

* See drawings from the Temple of Rama, Coleman's- " Mythology of the Hhidus." 
New York : J. W. Bouton, Publisher. 

f See Hargrave Jennings : " Rosicrucians," p. 252. 


of the wilderness with the sins and iniquities of the Jewish nation, it now 
appears hard for the Christians to have to confess that those whom they 
thought fit to consider the " chosen people " of God— their sole predeces- 
sors in monotheism — were, till a very late period, as idolatrous and poly- 
theistic as their neighbors. The shrewd Talmudists have escaped the 
accusation for long centuries by screening themselves behind the Maso- 
retic invention. But, as in everything else, truth was at last brought to 
light. We know now that Ihoh -mi must be read lahoh and lah, not 
lehovah. lah of the Hebrews is plainly the lacchos (Bacchus) of the 
Mysteries ; the God " from whom the hberation of souls was expected — 
Dionysus, lacchos, lahoh, lah." * Aristotle then was right when he 
said : " Jon fii-i was Oromasdes and Ahriman Pluto, for the God of heav- 
en, Ahura-mazda, rides on a chariot which the Horse of the Sun follows, f 
And Dunlap quotes Psalm Ixviii. 4, which reads : 

" Praise him by his name lach (ni), 

Who rides upon the heavens, as on a horse," 

and then shows that " the Arabs represented lauk (lach) by a horse. The 
Horse of the San (Dionysus)." \ lah is a softening of lach, "he ex- 
plains." n ch and ii h interchange ; so s softens to h. The Hebrews 
express the idea of I^ife both by a ch and an ,^ ; as chiach, to be, hiah, 
to be; lach, God of Life, lah, "I «;«." § Well then may we repeat 
these lines of Ausonius : 

" Ogugia calls me Bacchus ; Egypt thinks me Osiris ; 

The Musians name me Ph'anax ; the Indi consider me Dionysus ; 

The Roman Mysteries call me Liber ; the Arabian race Adonis ! " 

And the chosen people Adoni and Jehovah — we may add. 

How little the philosophy of the old secret doctrine was understood, is 
illustrated in the atrocious persecutions of the Templars by the Church, 
and in the accusation of their worshipping the Devil under the shape of 
the goat — Baphomet ! Without going into the old Masonic mysteries, 
there is not a Mason — of those we mean who do know something — but 
has an idea of the true relation that Baphomet bore to Azaz^l, the scape- 
goat of the wilderness, || whose character and meaning are entirely per- 

*K O. Miiller : " History of Greek Literature," p. 283; "Movers," pp. 547- 
553 ; Dunlap : " Sod, the Mysteries of Adoni," p. 21. 

f See " Universal History," vol. v., p. 301. 

% "Spirit. Hist.," pp. 64, 67, 78. § "Sod, the Mysteries of Adoni," p. 21. 

1 See Leviticus xvi. 8, 10, and other verses relating to the biblical goat in the 
original texts. 



verted in the Christian translations. " This terrible and venerable name 
of God," says Land, * librarian to the Vatican, " through the pen of bibli- 
cal glossers, has been a devil, a mountain, a wildertiess, and a he-goat." 
In Mackenzie's Royal Masonic Cyclopxdia, the author very correctly 
remarks that " this word should be divided into Azaz and El," for "it 
signifies God of Victory, but is here used in the sense oi author of Death, 
in contrast to Jehovah, the author of Life; the latter received a dead 
goat as an offering." f The Hindu Trinity is composed of three person- 
ages, which are convertible into one. The Trimurti is one, and in its 
abstraction indivisible, and yet we see a metaphysical division taking 
place from the first, and while Brahma, though collectively representing 
the three, remains behind the scenes, Vishnu is the Life-Giver, the Crea- 
tor, and the Preserver, and Siva is the Destroyer, and the Death-giving 
deity. "Death to \.\\e Life-Giver, life to th.^ Death-dealer. The sym- 
bolical antithesis is grand and beautiful," says Gliddon. J " Deus est 
Damon inversus" of the kabalists now becomes clear. It is but the 
intense and cruel desire to crush out the last vestige of the old philoso- 
phies by perverting their meaning, for fear that their own dogmas should 
not be rightly fathered on them, which impels the Catholic Church to 
carry on such a systematic persecution in regard to Gnostics, Kabalists, 
and even the comparatively innocent Masons. 

Alas, alas ! How little has the divine seed, scattered broadcast by 
the hand of the meek Judean philosopher, thrived or brought forth fruit. 
He, who himself had shunned hypocrisy, warned against public prayer, 
showing such contempt for any useless exhibition of the same, could he 
but cast his sorrowful glance on the earth, from the regions of eternal 
bliss, would see that this seed fell neither on sterile rock nor by the 
way-side. Nay, it took deep root in the most prolific soil ; one enriched 
even to plethora with lies and human gore ! 

" For, if the truth of God hath more abounded, through my lie unto 
his glory ; why yet am I also judged as a sinner ? " naively inquires Paul, 
the best and sincerest of all the apostles. And he then adds : " Let us do 
evil, that good may come ! " {Romans iii. 7, 8). This is a confession 
which we are asked to believe as having been a direct inspiration from 
God ! It explains, if it does not excuse, the maxim adopted later by the 
Church that " it is an act of virtue to deceive and lie, when by such 
means the interests of the Church might be promoted." § A maxim 

* " Sagra Scrittura," and " Paralipomeni." f Article " Goat," p. 257. 

X " Types of Mankind," p. 600 ; " Royal Masonic Cyclopedia." 
§" Ecclesiastical ?Iislory," vol. i,, pp. 381, 382. Read the whole quotations to 
appreciate the doctrine in full. 


applied in its fullest sense by that accomplished professor in forgery, the 
Armenian Eusebius ; or yet, that innocent-looking bible-kaleidoscop- 
ist — Irenseus. And these men were followed by a whole army of pious 
assassins, who, in the meanwhile, had improved upon the system of 
deceit, by proclaiming that it was lawful even to kill, when by murder 
they could enforce the new religion. Theophilus, "that perpetual 
enemy of peace and virtue," as the famous bishop was called ; Cyril, 
Athanasius, the murderer of Arius, and a host of other canonized 
" Saints," were all but too worthy successors of Saint Constantine, who 
drowned his wife in boiling water ; butchered his little nephew ; murdered, 
with his own pious hand, two of his brothers-in-law ; killed his own son 
Crispus, bled to death several men and women, and smothered in a well 
an old monk. However,, we are told by Eusebius that this Christian 
Emperor was rewarded by a vision of Christ himself, bearing his cross, 
who instructed him to march to other triumphs, inasmuch as he would 
always protect him ! 

It is under the shade of the Imperial standard, with its famous sign, 
"/« hoc signo vinces," \ha.t '^visionary" Christianity, which had crept 
on since the days of Irenseus, arrogantly proclaimed its rights in the full 
blaze of the sun. The Labarum had most probably furnished the model 
for the true cross, which was " miraculously," and agreeably to the 
Imperial will, found a few years later. Nothing short of such a remark- 
able vision, impiously doubted by some severe critics — Dr. Lardner for 
one — and a fresh miracle to match, could have resulted in the finding of 
a cross where there had never before been one. Still, we have either to 
believe the phenomenon or dispute it at the risk of being treated as infi- 
dels ; and this, notwithstanding that upon a careful computation we 
would tind that the fragments of the " true Cross" had multiplied them- 
selves even more miraculously than the five loaves in the invisible 
bakery, and the two fishes. In all cases like this, where miracles can be 
so conveniently called in, there is no room for dull fact. History must 
step out that fiction may step in. 

If the alleged founder of the Christian religion is now, after the 
lapse of nineteen centuries, preached — more or less unsuccessfully how- 
ever — in every corner of the globe, we are at liberty to think that the 
doctrines attributed to him would astonish and dismay him more than 
any one else. A system of deliberate falsification was adopted from the 
first. How determined Irensus was to crush truth and build up a 
Church of his own on the mangled remains of the seven primitive 
churches mentioned in the Revelation, may be inferred from his quarrel 
with Ptolemseus. And this is again a case of evidence against which no 
blind faith can prevail. Ecclesiastical history assures us that Christ's 


ministry was but of three years' duration. ' There is a decided discrep- 
ancy on. this point between the first three synoptics and the fourth gos- 
pel ; but it was left for Irenjeus to show to Christian posterity that so 
early as a.d. 180 — the probable time when this Father wrote his works 
against heresies — even such pillars of the Church as himself either knew 
nothing certain about it, or deliberately lied and falsified dates to sup- 
port their own views. So anxious was the worthy Father to meet every 
possible objection against his plans, that no falsehood, no sophistry, was 
too much for him. How are we to understand the following ; and who 
is the falsifier in this case ? The argument of Ptoleraasus was that Jesus 
was too young to have taught anything of much importance ; adding 
that " Christ preached for one year only, and then suffered in the twelfth 
riionth." In this Ptolemasus was very little at variance with the gospels. 
But Irenasus, carried by his object far beyond the limits of prudence, 
from a mere discrepancy between one and three years, makes it ten and 
even twenty years ! '• Destroying his (Christ's) whole work, and robbing 
him of that age which is both necessary and more honorable than any 
other; that more advanced age, I mean, during which also, as a teacher, 
he excelled all others." And then, having no certain data to furnish, he 
throws himself back on tradition, and claims that Christ had preached 
for over ten years! (book ii., c. 22, pp. 4, 5). In another place he 
makes Jesus fifty years old. 

But we must proceed in our work of showing the various origins of 
Christianity, as also the sources from which Jesus derived his own ideas 
of God and humanity. 

The Koinobi lived in Egypt, where Jesus passed his early youth. They 
were usually confounded with the Therapeutoe, who were a branch of this 
widely-spread society. Such is the opinion of Godfrey Higgins and De 
Rebold. After the downfall of the principal sanctuaries, which had 
already begun in the days of Plato, the many different sects, such as the 
Gymnospphists and the Magi — from whom Clearchus very erroneously 
derives the former — the Pythagoreans, the Sufis, and the Reshees of 
Kashmere, instituted a kind of international and universal Freemasonry, 
among their esoteric societies. "These Rashees," says Higgins, "are 
the Essenians, Carmelites, or Nazarites of the temple." '* "That occult 
science known by ancient priests under the name of regenerating fire," 
says Father Rebold, "... a science that for more than 3,000 years was 
the peculiar possession of the Indian and Egyptian priesthood, into the 
knowledge of which Moses was initiated at Hehopolis, where he was 
educated ; and Jesus among the Essenian priests of Egypt or Judea ; 

* " Anacalypsis." 


and by which these two great reformers, particularly the latter, wrought 
many of the miracles mentioned in the Scriptures." * 

Plato states that the mystic Magian religion, known under the name 
of Machagistia, is the most uncorrupted form of worship in things divine. 
Later, the Mysteries of the Chaldean sanctuaries were added to it by one 
of the Zoroasters and Darius Hystaspes. The latter completed and per- 
fected it still more with the help of the knowledge obtained by him from 
the learned ascetics of India, whose rites were identical with those of the 
initiated Magi, f Amniian, in his history of JuHan's Persian expedition, 
gives the story by stating that one day Hystaspes, as he was boldly pene- 
trating into the unknown regions of Upper India, had come upon a certain 
wooded solitude, the tranquil recesses of which were " occupied by those 
exalted sages, the Brachmanes (or Shamans). Instructed by their teaching 
in the science o^ the motions of the world and of the heavenly bodies, and 
in pure religious rites ... he transfused them into the creed of the Magi. 
The latter, coupling these doctrines with their own peculiar science of 
foretelling the future, have handed down the whole through their descend- 
ants to succeeding ages." \ It is from these descendants that the Sufis, 
chiefly composed of Persians and Syrians, acquired their proficient knowl- 
edge in astrology, medicine, and the esoteric doctrine of the ages. " The 
Sufi doctrine," says C. W. King, " involved the grand idea of one uni- 
versal creed which could be secretly held under any profession of an out- 
ward faith ; and, in fact, took virtually the same view of religious systems 
as that in which the ancient philosophers had regarded such matters." § 
The mysterious Druzes of Mount Lebanon are the descendants of all 
these. Solitary Copts, earnest students scattered hither and thither 
^ throughout the sandy solitudes of Egypt, Arabia Petrsea, Palestine, and 
the impenetrable forests of Abyssinia, though rarely met with, may some- 
times be seen. Many and various are the nationalities to which belong 
the disciples of that mysterious school, and many the side-shoots of that 

* Quoted in the " Seers of the Ages," by J. M. Peebles. 

■)■ We hold to the idea — which becomes self-evident when the Zoroastrian imbroglio 
is considered — that there were, even in the days of Darius, two distinct sacerdotal castes 
of Magi : the initiated and those who were allowed to officiate in the popular rites 
only. We see the same in the Eleusinian Mysteries. Belonging to every temple there 
were attached the " hierophants" of the z«««- sanctuary, and the secular clergy who 
were not even instructed in the Mysteries. It is against the absurdities and superstitions 
of the latter that Darius revolted, and "crashed them," for the inscription of his tomb 
shows that he was a " hierophant " and a Magian himself. It is also but the exoteric 
rites of this class of Magi which descended to posterity, for the great secresy in which 
were preserved the " Mysteries" of the true Chaldean Magi was never violated, how- 
ever much guess-work may have been expended on them. 

X xxiii., 6. § " The Gnostics and their Remains," p. 185. 


one primitive stock. The secresy preserved by these sub-lodges, as well 
as by the one and supreme great lodge, has ever been proportionate to 
the activity of religious persecutions ; and now, in the face of the growing 
materialism, their very existence is becoming a mystery. * 

But it must not be inferred, on that account, that such a mysterious 
brotherhood is but a fiction, not even a name, though it remains unknown 
to this day. Whether its affiliates are called by an Egyptian, Hindu, or 
Persian name, it matters not. Persons belonging to one of these sub- 
brotherhoods have been met by trustworthy, and not unknown persons, 
besides the present writer, who states a few facts concerning them, by the 
special permission of one who has a right to give it. In a recent and 
very valuable work on secret societies, K. R. H. Mackenzie's Royal 
Masonic Cyclopmdia, we find the learned author himself, an honorary 
member of the Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, No. 2 (Scotland), and a 
Mason not likely to be imposed upon, stating the following, under the 
head. Hermetic Brothers of Egypt : 

"An occult fraternity, which has endured from verj- ancient times, 
having _a hierarchy of officers, secret signs, and passwords, and a pecu- 
liar method of instruction in science, religion, and philosophy. ... If 
we may believe those who, at the present time, profess to belong to it, 
the philosopher's stone, the elixir of life, the art of invisibility, and the 
power of communication directly with the ultramundane life, are parts 
of the inheritance they possess. The writer has met with only three per- 
sons who maintained the actual existence of this body of religious phil- 
osophers, and who hinted that they themselves were actually members. 
There was no reason to doubt the good faith of these individuals — ap- 
parently unknown to each other, and men of moderate competence, 
blameless lives, austere manners, and almost ascetic in their habits. 

* These are truths which cannot fail to impress themselves upon the minds of earnest 
thinkers. While the Ebionites, Nazarites, Hemerobaptists, Lampseans, Sabians, and 
the many other earliest sects which wavered later between the varying dogmatisms sug- 
gested to them by the esoteric and misunderstood parables of the Nazarene teacher, 
whom they justly regarded as a prophet, there were men, for whose names we would 
vainly search history, who preserved the secret doctrines of Jesus as pure and unadulter- 
ated as they had been received. And still, even all these above-mentioned and conflicting 
sects were far more orthodox in their Christianity, or rather Christism, than the Churches 
of Constantine and Rome. *' It was a strange fate that befell tliese unfortunate people " 
(the Ebionites)j says Lord Amberley, " when, overwhelmed by the flood of heathenism 
that had swept into the Church, they were condemned as heretics. Yet, there is no 
evidence that they had ever swerved from the doctrines of Jesus, or of the disciples who 
knew him in his lifetime. . . . Jesus himself was circumcised . . . reverenced the tem- 
ple at Jerusalem as ' a house of prayer for all nations.' . . . But the torrent of progress 
swept past the Ebionites, and left them stranded on the shore " (" An Analysis of Relig- 
ious Beliefs," by "Viscount Amberley, vol. i., p. 44(i). 


They all appeared to be men of forty to forty-five years of age, and evi- 
dently of vast erudition . . . their knowledge of languages not to be 
doubted. . . . They never remained long in any one country, but passed 
away without creating notice." * 

Another of such sub-brotherhoods is the sect of the Pitris, in India. 
Known by name, now that Jacolliot has brought it into public notice, it 
yet is more arcane, perhaps, than the brotherhood that Mr. Mackenzie 
names the " Hermetic Brothers." What Jacolliot learned of it, was from 
fragmentary manuscripts delivered to him by Brahmans, who had their 
reasons for doing so, we must believe. The Agrouchada Parikshai gives 
certain details about the association, as it was in days of old, and, when 
explaining mystic rites and n^agical incantations, explains nothing at all, 
so that the mystic L'om, L'Rhum, Sh'hrum, and Sho-rim Ramaya- 
Namaha, remain, for the mystified writer, as much a puzzle as ever. To 
do him justice, though, he fully admits the fact, and does not enter upon 
useless speculations. 

Whoever desires to assure himself that there now exists a religion 
which has baffled, for centuries, the impudent inquisitiveness of mission- 
aries, and the persevering inquiry of science, let him violate, if he can, 
the seclusion of the Syrian Druzes. He will find them numbering over 
80,000 warriors, scattered from the plain east of Damascus to the western 
Coast. They covet no proselytes, shun notoriety, keep friendly — as far 
as possible — with both Christians and Mahometans, respect the religion 
of every other sect or people, but will never disclose their own secrets. 
Vainly do the missionaries stigmatize them as infidels, idolaters, brigands, 
and thieves. Neither threat, bribe, nor any other consideration will 
induce a Druze to become a convert to dogmatic Christianity. We have 
heard of two in fifty years, and both have finished their careers in prison, 
for drunkenness and theft. They proved to be " real Druzes" \ said one 

* What will, perhaps, still more astonish American readers, is the fact that, in the 
United States, a mystical fraternity now exists, which claims an intimate relationship 
with one of the oldest and most powerful of Eastern Brotherhoods. It is knowm as 
the Brotherhood of Luxor, and its faithful members have the custody of very important 
secrets of science. Its ramifications extend widely throughout the great Republic of 
the West. Though this brotherhood has been long and hard at work, the secret of its 
existence has been jealously guarded. Mackenzie describes it as having " a Rosicrucian 
basis, and numbering many members " (" Royal Masonic Cyclopsedia," p. 461). But, in 
this, the author is mistaken ; it has no Rosicrucian basis. Thename Luxor is primarily 
derived from the ancient Beloochistan city of Looksur, which lies between Bela and 
Kedgee, and also gave its name to the Egyptian city. 

\ These people do not accept the name of Druzes, but regard the appellation as an 
insult. They call themselves the "disciples of Hamsa," their Messiah, who came to 
them, in the tenth century, from the " Land of tlie Word of God," and, together with 
his disciple, Mochtana Boha-eddin, committed this Word to writing, and entrusted it 


of their chiefs, in discussing the subject. There never was a case of an 
initiated Druze becoming a Christian. As to the uninitiated, they are 
never allowed to even see the sacred writings, and none'of them have 
the remotest idea where these are kept. There are missionaries in 
Syria who boast of having in their possession a few copies. The vol- 
umes alleged to be the correct expositions from these secret books (such 
as the translation by Petis de la Croix, in 1701, from the works presented 
by Nasr-AUah to the French king), are nothing more than a compilation 
of " secrets," known more or less to every inhabitant of the southern 
ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Libanus. They were the work of an apos- 
tate Dervish, who was expelled from the sect Hanafi, for improper con- 
duct^the embezzlement of the money of widows and orphans. The 
Expose de la Religion des Druzes, in two volumes, by Sylvestre de Sacy 
(1828), is another net-work of hypotheses. A copy of this work was to 
be found, in 1870, on the window-sill of one of their principal Holowey, 
or place of rehgious meeting. To the inquisitive question of an English 
traveller, as to their rites, the Okhal, * a venerable old man, who spoke 
English as well as French, opened the volume of de Sacy, and, offering 
it to his interlocutor, remarked, with a benevolent smile : " Read this 
instructive and truthful book ; I could explain to you neither better nor 
more correctly the secrets of God and our blessed Hamsa, than it does." 
The traveller understood the hint. 

Mackenzie says they settled at Lebanon about the tenth centurj', and 
"seem to be a mixture of Kurds, Mardi-Arabs, and other semi-civilized 
tribes. Their religion is compounded of Judaism, Christianity, and Maho- 
metanism. They have a regular order of priesthood and a kind of hier- 
archy . . . there is a regular system of passwords and signs. . . . Twelve 
month's probation, to which either sex is admitted, prececfed initiation." 

We quote the above only to show how little even persons as trust- 
worthy as Mr. Mackenzie really know of these mystics. 

Mosheim, who knows as much, or we should rather say as little, as any 
others, is entitled to the merit of candidly admitting that " their religion 
is peculiar to themselves, and is involved in some mystery." We should 
say it was — rather ! 

That their reUgion exhibits traces of Magianism and Gnosticism is 
natural, as the whole of the Ophite esoteric philosophy is at the bottom 
of it. But the characteristic dogma of the Druzes is the absolute unity 

to the care of a few initiates, with the injunction of the greatest secresy. They are 
usually called Unitarians, 

* The Okhal (from the Arabic akl — intelligence or wisdom) are the initiated, or 
wise men of this sect. They hold, in their mysteries, the same position as the hiero- 
phant of old, in the Eleusinian and others. 


of God. He is the essence of life, and although incomprehensible and 
invisible, is to be known through occasional manifestations in human 
form* Like the Hindus they hold that he was incarnated more than 
once on earth. Hamsa was the precursor of the last manifestation to be 
(the tenth avatar) f not the inheritor of Hakem, who is yet to come. 
Hamsa was the personification of the " Universal Wisdom. " Boha- 
eddin in his writings calls him Messiah. The whole number of his dis- 
ciples, or those who at different ages of the world have imparted wisdom 
to mankind, which the latter as invariably have forgotten and rejected in 
course of time, is one hundred and sixty-four (164, the kabaUstic s d k). 
Therefore, their stages or degrees of promotion after initiation are five ; 
the first three degrees are typified by the " three feet of the candlestick 
of the inner Sanctuary, which holds the light of the five elements ; " the 
last two degrees, the most important and terrifying in their solemn 
grandeur belonging to the highest orders ; and the whole five degrees 
emblematically represent the said five mystic Elements. The " three 
feet are the holy Application, the Opening, and the Phantom," says one 
of their books ; on man's inner and outer soul, and his body, a phantom, 
a passing shadow. The body, or matter, is also called the "Rival," for 
" he is the minister of sin, the Devil ever creating dissensions between the 
Heavenly Intelligence (spirit) and the soul, which he tempts incessant- 
ly." Their ideas on transmigration are Pythagorean andkabalistic. The 
spirit, or Temeami (the divine soul), was in Elijah and John the Baptist; 
and the soul of Jesus was that of H'amsa ; that is to say, of the same de- 
gree of purity and sanctity. Until their resurrection, by which they un- 
derstand the day when the spiritual bodies of men will be absorbed into 
God's own essence and being (the Nirvana of the Hindus), the souls 
of men will keep their astral forms, except the few chosen ones who, 
from the moment of their separation from their bodies, begin to exist as 
pure spirits. The life of man they divide into soul, body, and intelli- 
gence, or mind. It is the latter which imparts and communicates to the 
soul the divine spark from its H'amsa (Christos). 

They have seven great commandments which are imparted equally 
to all the uninitiated ; and yet, even these well-known articles of faith 
have been so mixed up in the accounts of outside writers, that, in one 
of the best Cyclopjedias of America (Appleton's), they are garbled after 
the fashion that may be seen in the comparative tabulation below ; the 
spurious and the true order parallel : 

* This is the doctrine of the Gnostics who held Christos to be the personal immortal 
Spirit of man. 

f The ten Messiahs or avatars remind again of the five Buddhistic and ten Brah- 
manical avatars of Buddha and Christna. 


Correct Version of the Command- Garbled Version Reported by the 
MENTs AS Imparted Orally by Christian Missionaries and 

THE Teachers. * given in Pretended 

Expositions, f 

1. The unity of God, or the infinite one- i. (2) '"Truth in words,' meaning in 
ness of Deity. ' . practice, only truth to the religion and 

to the initiated ; it is lawful to aet and 
to speak falsehood to men of another 
creed y \ 

2. The essential excellence of Truth. 2. (7) '-Mutual help, watchfulness, and 


3. Toleration; right given to all men and 3. (?) "To renounce all other reli- 
women to freely express their opinions on gions." § 

religious matters, and make the latter 
subservient to reason. 

4. Respect to all men and women accord- 4. (?) "To be separate from infidels of 
ing to their character and conduct. every kind, not externally but only in 

heart." \ 

5. Entire submission to God's decrees. 5. (i) " Recognize God's eternal unity." 

6. Chastity of body, mind, and soul. 6. (5) " Satisfied with God's acts." 

7. Mutual help under all conditions. 7. (5) " Resigned to God's wiU." 

As will be seen, the only expose in the above is that of the great 
ignorance, perhaps mahce, of the writers who, like Sylvestre de Sacy, 
undertake to enlighten the world upon matters concerning which they 
know nothing. 

"Chastity, honesty, meekness, and mercy," are thus the four theo- 
logical virtues of all Druzes, besides several others demanded from the 
initiates : " murder, theft, cruejty, covetousness, slander," the five sins, to 
which several other sins are added in the sacred tablets, but which we 
must abstain from giving. The morality of the Druzes is strict and 

* See, farther on, a letter from an " Initiate." 

\ In this column the first numbers are those given in the article on the Drtizes in 
the "New American Cyclopaedia " (Appleton's), vol. vi., p. 631. The numbers in 
parentheses show the sequence in which the commandments would stand were they given 

\ This pernicious doctrine belongs to the old policy of the Catholic Church, but is 
certainly false as regards the Druzes. They maintain that it is right and lawful to 
withhold the truth about their own tenets, no one outside their own sect having a right 
to pry into their religion. The okhals never countenance deliberate falsehood in any 
form, although the laymen have many a time got rid of the spies sent by the Chris- 
tians to discover their secrets, by deceiving them with sham initiations. (See the letter 
of Prof. Rawson to the author, p. 313.) 

§ This commandment does not exist in the Lebanon teaching. 

I There is no such commandment, but the practice thereof exists by mutual agree- 
ment, as in the days of the Gnostic persecution. 


uncompromising. Nothing can tempt one of these Lebanon Unitarians 
to go astray from what he is taught to consider his duty. Their ritual 
being unknown to outsiders, their would-be historians have hitherto denied 
them one. Their "Thursday meetings" are open to all, but no inter- 
loper has ever participated in the rites of initiation which take place 
occasionally on Fridays in the greatest secresy. Women are admitted 
to them as well as men, and they play a part of great importance at the 
initiation of men. The probation, unless some extraordinary exception 
is made, is long and severe. Once, in a certain period of time, a solemn 
ceremony takes place, during which all the elders and the initiates of 
the highest two degrees start out for a pilgrimage of several days to a 
certain place in the mountains. They meet within the safe precincts of 
a monastery said to have been erected during the earliest times of the 
Christian era. Outwardly one sees but old ruins of a once grand edifice, 
used, Says the legend, by some Gnostic sects as a place of worship during 
the religious persecutions. The ruins above ground, however, are but 
a convenient mask ; the subterranean chapel, halls, and cells, covering 
an area of ground far greater than the upper building ; while the rich- 
ness of ornamentation, the beauty of the ancient sculptures, and the 
gold and silver vessels in this sacred resort, appear like " a dream of 
glory," according to the expression of an initiate. As the lamaseries 
of Mongolia and Thibet are visited upon grand occasions by the holy 
shadow of " Lord Buddha," so here, during the ceremonial, appears the 
resplendent ethereal form of Hamsa, the Blessed, which instructs the 
faithful. The most extraordinary feats of what would be termed magic 
take place duj'ing the several nights that the convocation lasts ; and one 
of the greatest mysteries — faithful copy of the past — is accomphshed 
within the discreet bosom of our mother earth ; not an echo, nor the 
faintest sound, not a glimmer of light betrays without the grand secret 
of the initiates. 

Hamsa, like Jesus, was a mortal man, and yet " Hamsa" and " Chris- 
tos " are synonymous terms as to their inner and hidden meaning. Both 
are symbols of the Nous, the divine and higher soul of man — his spirit. 
The doctrine taught by the Druzes on that particular question of the 
duality of spiritual man, consisting of one soul mortal, and another im- 
mortal, is identical with that of the Gnostics, the older Greek philosophers, 
and other initiates. 

Outside the East we have met one initiate (and only one), who, for 
some reasons best known to himself, does not make a secret of his initia- 
tion into the Brotherhood of Lebanon. It is the learned traveller and 
artist, Professor A. L. Rawson, of New York City. This gentleman has 
passed many years in the East, four times visited Palestine, and has trav- 


elled to Mecca. It is safe to say that he has a priceless store of facts 
about the beginnings of the Christian Church, which none but one who 
had had free access to repositories closed against the ordinary traveller 
could have collected. Professor Rawson, with the true devotion of a 
man of science, noted down every important discovery he made in the 
Palestinian libraries, and every precious fact orally communicated to him 
by the mystics he encountered, and some day they will see the light. He 
has most obhgingly sent ns the following communication, which, as the 
reader will perceive, fully corroborates what is above written from our 
personal experience about the strange fraternity incorrectly styled the 
Druzes : 

"34 Bond St., New York, June 6, 1S77. 

"... Your note, asking me to give you an account of my initiation into a secret 
order among the people commonly known as Druzes, in Mount Lebanon, was received 
this morning. I took, as you are fully aware, an obligation at that time to conceal 
within my own memory the greater part of the 'mysteries,' with the most interesting 
parts of the ' instructions ; ' so that what is left may not be of any service to the public. 
Such information as I can rightfully give, you are welcome to have and use as you may 
have occasion. 

"The probation in my case was, hy special dispensation, made one month, during 
which time I was * shadowed ' by a priest, who served as my cook, guide, interpreter, and 
general servant, that he might be able to testify to the fact of my having strictly con- 
formed to the rules in diet, ablutions, and other matters. He was also my instructor in 
the text of the ritual, which we recited from time to time for practice, in dialogue or in 
song, as it may have been. Whenever we happened to be near a Druze village, on a 
Thursday, we attended the 'open' meetings, where men and women assembled for 
instruction and worship, and to expose to the world generally their religious practices. 
I was never present at a Friday ' close ' meeting before my initiation, nor do I believe 
any one else, man or woman, ever was, except by collusion with a priest, and that is 
not probable, for a false priest forfeits his life. The practical jokers among them some- 
times ' fool ' a too curious ' Frank ' by a sham initiation, especially if such a one is sus- 
pected of having some connection with the missionaries at Beirut or elsewhere. 

"The initiates include both women and men, and the ceremonies are of so peculiar 
a nature that both sexes are required to assist in the ritual and 'work.' The ' furni- 
ture' of the 'prayer-house' and of the 'vision-chamber ' is simple, and except for con- 
venience may consist of but a strip of carpet. In the ' Gray Hall ' (the place is never 
named, and is underground, not far from Bayt-ed-Deen) there are some rich decora- 
tions and valuable pieces of ancient furniture, the work of Arab silversmiths five or six 
centunes ago, inscribed and dated. The day of initiation must be a continual fast from 
daylight to sunset in winter, or six o'clock in summer, and the ceremony is from begin- 
ning to end a series of trials and temptations, calculated to test the endurance of the 
candidate under physical and mental pressure. It is seldom that any but the young man 
or woman succeeds in ' winning ' all the ' prizes,' since nature will sometimes exert itself 
in spite of the most stubborn will, and the neophyte fail of passing some of tlie tests. 
In such a case the probation is extended another year, when another trial is had. 

"Among other tests of the neophyte's self-control are the following : Choice pieces 


of cooked meat, savory soup, pilau, and other appetizing dishes, with sherbet, coffee, 
wine, and water, are set, as if accidentally, in his way, and he is left alone for a time 
with the tempting things. To a hungry and fainting soul the trial is severe. But a 
more difficult ordeal is when the seven priestesses retire, all but one, the youngest and 
prettiest, and the door is closed and barred on the outside, after warning the candidate 
that he will be left to his ' reflections,' for half an hour. Wearied by the long-continued 
ceremonial, weak with hunger, parched with thirst, and a sweet reaction coming after 
the tremendous strain to keep his animal nature in subjection, this moment of privacy 
and of temptation is brimful of peril. The beautiful young vestal, timidly approaching, 
and with glances which lend a double magnetic allurement to her words, begs him in 
low tones to ' bless her.' Woe to him if he does ! A hundred eyes see him from secret 
peep-holes, and only to the ignorant neophyte is there the appearance of concealment 
and opportunity. 

"There is no infidelity, idolatry, or other really bad feature in the system. They 
have the relics of what was once a grand form of nature-worship, which has been con- 
tracted under a despotism into a secret order, hidden from the light of day, and exposed 
only in the smoky glare of a few burning lamps, in some damp cave or chapel under 
ground. The chief tenets of their religious teachings are comprised in seven ' tablets,' 
which are these, to state them in general terms : 

" I. The unity of God, or the infinite oneness of deity. 

" 2. The essential excellence of truth. 

"3. The law of toleration as to all men and women in opinion. 

"4. Respect for all men and women as to character and conduct. 

'^ 5. Entire submission to God's decrees as to fate. 

"6. Chastity of body and mind and soul. 

*' 7. Mutual help under all conditions. 

" These tenets are not printed or written. Another set is printed or written to 
mislead the unwary, but with these we are not concerned. 

** The chief results of the initiation seemed to be a kind of mental illusion or sleep- 
waking, in which the neophyte saw, or thought he saw, the images of people who were 
known to be absent, and in some cases thousands of miles away. I thought (or per- 
haps it was my mind at work) I saw friends and relatives that I knew at the time were 
in New York State, while I was then in Lebanon. How these results were produced I 
cannot say. They appeared in a dark room, when the 'guide ' was talking, the ' com- 
pany ' singing in the next ' chamber,' and near the close of the day, when I was tired 
out with fasting, walking, talking, singing, robing, unrobing, seeing a great many peo- 
ple in various conditions as to dress and undress, and with great mental strain in resisting 
certain physical manifestations that result from the appetites when they overcome the 
will, and in paying close attention to the passing scenes, hoping to remember them — so 
that I may have been unfit to judge of any new and surprising phenomena, and more 
especially of those apparently magical appearances which have always excited my suspi- 
cion and distrust. I know the various uses of the magic-lantern, and other apparatus, 
and took care to examine the room where the ' visions ' appeared to me the same even- 
ing, and the next day, and several times afterwards, and knew that, in my case, there 
was no use made of any machinery or other means besides the voice of the ' guide and 
instructor.' On several occasions afterward, when at a great distance from the * chamber,' 
the same or similar visions were produced, as, for instance, in Hornstein's Hotel at 
Jerusalem. A daughter-in-law of a well-known Jewish merchant in Jerusalem is an 
initiated ' sister,' and can produce the visions almost at will on any one who will live 


strictly according to the rules of the Order for a few w«eks, more or less, according to 
their nature, as gross or refined, etc. 

" I am quite safe in saying that the initiation is so peculiar that it could not be 
printed so as to instruct one who had not been ' worked' through the 'chamber.' So 
it would be even more impossible to make an expose of them than of the Freemasons. 
The real secrets are acted and not spoken, and require several initiated persons to assist 
in the work. 

" It is not necessary for me to say how some of the notions of that people seem to 
perpetuate certain beliefs of the ancient Greeks— as, for instance, the idea that a man 
has two souls, and many others — for you probably were made familiar with them in 
your passage through the ' upper ' and ' lower chamber.' If I am mistaken in suppos- 
ing you an 'initiate,' please excuse me. I am aware that the closest friends often 
conceal that ' sacred secret ' from each other ; and even husband and wife may live— as 
I was informed in Dayr-el-Kamar was the fact in one family there — for twenty years 
together and yet neither know anything of the initiation of the other. You, undoubt- 
edly, have good reasons for keeping your own counsel. 

" Yours truly, 

"A. L. Rawson." 

Before we close the subject we may add that if a stranger ask for 
admission to a "Thursday" meeting he will never be refused. Only, if 
he is a Christian, the okhal will open a Bible and read from it ; and if a 
Mahometan, he will hear a few chapters of the Koran, and the ceremony 
will end with this. They will wait until he is gone, and then, shutting 
well the doors of their convent, take to their own rites and books, passing 
for this purpose into their subten'anean sanctuaries. " The Druzes 
remain, even more than the Jews, a peculiar people," says Colonel 
Churchill,* one of the few fair and strictly impartial writers. " They marrv 
within their own race ; they are rarely if ever converted ; they adhere 
tenaciously to their traditions, and they baffle all efforts to discover their 
cherished secrets. . . . The bad name of that caliph whom they claim 
as their founder is fairly compensated by the pure lives of many whom 
they honor as saints, and by the heroism of their feudal leaders." 

And yet the Druzes may be said to belong to one of the least esoteric 
of secret societies. There are others far more powerful and learned, the 
existence of which is not even suspected in Europe. There are many 
branches belonging to the great "Mother Lodge" which, mi.xed up with 
certain communities, may be termed secret sects within other sects. One 
of them is the sect commonly known as that of Laghana-Sastra. It reck- 
ons several thousand adepts who are scattered about in small groups in 
the south of the Dekkan, India. In the popular superstition, this sect is 
dreaded on account of its great reputation for magic and sorcery. The 
Brahmans accuse its members of atheism and sacrilege, for none of them 

* " Mount Lebanon," vol. 3. London, 1853. 


will consent to recognize the authority of either the Vedas or Manu, ex- 
cept so far as they conform to the versions in their possession, and which 
they maintain are professedly the only original texts ; the Laghana-Sastra 
have neither temples nor priests, but, twice a month, every member of 
the community has to absent himself from home for three days. Popular 
rumor, originated among their women, ascribes such absences to pilgrim- 
ages performed to their places of fortnightly resort. In some secluded 
mountainous spots, unknown and inaccessible to other sects, hidden far 
from sight among the luxurious vegetation of India, they keep their bun- 
galows, which look like small fortresses, encircled as they are by lofty 
and thick walls. These, in their turn, are surrounded by the sacred trees 
called assonata, and in Tamiil arassa maram. These are the i' sacred 
groves," the originals of those of Egypt and Greece, whose initiates also 
built their temples within such "groves" inaccessible to the profane.* 

It will not be found without interest to see what Mr. John Yarker, Jr., 
has to say on sonje modern secret societies among the Orientals. "The 
nearest resemblance to the Brahmanical Mysteries, is probably found in 
the very ancient ' Paths ' of the Dervishes, which are usually governed 
by twelve officers, the oldest ' Court ' superintending the others by right 
of seniority. Here the master of the ' Court ' is called ' Sheik,' and 
has his deputies, ' Caliphs,' or successors, of which there may be many 
(as, for instance, in the brevet degree of a Master Mason). ' The order is 
divided into at least four columns, pillars, or degrees. The first step is 
that of ' Humanity,' which supposes attention to the written law, and 
' annihilation in the Sheik.' The second is that of the ' Path,' in 
which the ' Murid,' or disciple, attains spiritual powers and ' self-anni- 
hilation ' into the ' Peer ' or founder of the ' Path.' The third stage is 
called ' Knowledge,' and the '■Murid' is supposed to become inspired, 
called ' annihilation into the Prophet.' The fourth stage leads him even 
to God, when he becomes a part of the Deity and sees Him in all things. 
The first and second stages have received modern subdivisions, as 
'Integrity,' 'Virtue,' 'Temperance,' 'Benevolence.' After this the 
Sheik confers upon him the grade of ' Caliph,' or Honorary Master, for 
in their mystical language, ' the man must die before the saint can be 
born.' It will be seen that this kind of mysticism is applicable to Christ 
as founder of a ' Path.' " 

To this statement, the author adds the following on the Bektash Der- 
vishes, who " often initiated the Janizaries. They wear a small marble 
cube spotted with blood. Their ceremony is as follows : Before re- 
ception a year's probation is required, during which false secrets are 

* Every temple in India is surrounded by such belts of sacred trees. And like the 
Koum-bouni of Kansu (Mongolia) no one but an initiate has a right to approach them. 


given to test the candidate ; he has two godfathers and is divested of all 
metals and even clothing ; from the wool of a sheep a cor4 is made for 
his neck, and a girdle for his loins ; he is led into the centre of a square 
room, presented as a slave, and seated upon a large stone with twelve 
escallops ; his arms are crossed upon his breast, his body inclined for- 
ward, his' right toes extended over his left foot ; after various prayers he 
is placed in a particular manner, with his hand in a peculiar way in that 
of the Sheik, who repeats a verse from the Koran : ' Those who on 
giving thee their hand swear to thee an oath, swear it to God, the hand 
of God is placed in their hand ; whoever violates this oath, will do so to 
his hurt, and to whoever remains faithful God will give a magnificent 
reward." Placing the hand below the chin is their sign, perhaps in 
memory of their vow. All use the double triangles. The Brahmans 
inscribe the angles with their trinity, and they possess also the Masonic 
sign of distress as used in France." * 

From the very day when the first mystic found the means of com- 
munication between this world and the worlds of the invisible host, be- 
tween the sphere of matter and that of pure spirit, he concluded that to 
abandon this mysterious science to the profanation of the rabble was to 
lose it. An abuse of it might lead mankind to speedy destruction ; it 
was like surrounding a group of children with explosive batteries, and 
furnishing them with matches. The first self-made adept initiated but a 
select few, and kept silence with the multitudes. He recognized his God 
and felt the great Being within himself. The " Atman," the Self, f the 

* John Yarker, Jr. : " Notes on the Scientific and Religious Mysteries of Anti- 
quity," etc. 

f This " Self," which the Greek philosophers called Augceides, the '• Shining One," 
is impressively and beautifully described in Max Miiller's "Veda." Showing the 
" Veda " to be the first book of the Aryan nations, the professor adds that "we have 
in it a period of the intellectual life of man to which there is no parallel in any other 
part of the world. In the hymns of the " Veda " we see man left to himself to solve the 
riddle of this world. . . . He invokes the gods around him, he praises, he worships 
them. But still with all these gods . . . beneath him, and above him, the early poet 
seems ill at rest within himself. There, too, in his own breast, he has discovered a 
power that is never mute when he prays, never absent when he fears and trembles. 
It seems to inspire his prayers, and yet to listen to them ; it seems to live in him, and 
yet to support him and all around him. The only name he can find for this mysteri- 
ous power is ' Brahman ; ' for brahman meant originally force, will, wish, and the 
propulsive power of creation. But tins impersonal brahman, too, as soon as it is 
named, grows into something str.inge and divine. It ends by being one of many gods, 
one of the great triad, worshipped to the present day. And still the thought within him 
has no real name ; that power which is nothing but itself, which supports the gods, the 
heavens, and every living being, floats before his mind, conceived but not expressed. 
At last he calls it ' Atman,' for Atman, originally breath or spirit, comes to mean Self, 


mighty Lord and Protector, once that man knew him as the " I am," the 
" Ego Sum," the " Ahmi," showed his full power to him who could rec- 
ognize the " still small voice" From the days of the primitive man de- 
scribed by the first Vedic poet, down to our modern age, there has not 
been a philosopher worthy of that name, who did not carry in the silent 
sanctuary of his heart the grand and mysterious truth. If initiated, he 
learnt it as a sacred science ; if otherwise, then, like Socrates repeating to 
himself, as well as to his fellow-men, the noble injunction, " O man, know 
thyself," he succeeded in recognizing his God within himself. "Ye are 
gods," the king-psalmist tells us, and we find Jesus reminding the scribes 
that the expression, " Ye are gods," was addressed to other mortal men. 
claiming for himself the same privilege without any blasphemy. * And, as 
a faithful echo, Paul, while asserting that we are all " the temple of the 
living God," f cautiously adds, that after all these things are only for the 
" wise," and it is "unlawful" to speak of them. 

Therefore, we must accept the reminder, and simply remark that 
even in the tortured and barbarous phraseology of the Codex Nazartzus, 
we detect throughout the same idea. Like an undercurrent, rapid and 
clear, it runs without mixing its crystalline purity with the muddy and 
heavy waves of dogmatism. We find it in the Codex, as well as in the 
Vedas, in the Avesta, as in the Abhidharma, and in Kapila's Sdnkhya 
Sutras not less than in the Fourth Gospel. We cannot attain the 
" Kingdom of Heaven," unless we unite ourselves indissolubly with our 
Rex Lucis, the Lord of Splendor and of Light, our Immortal God. We 
must first conquer immortality and "take the Kingdom of Heaven by 
violence," offered to our material selves. "The first man is of the earth 
earthy; the second \a?ci\ is from heaven. . . . Behold, I show you a mys- 
tery" says Paul (i Corinthians, xv. 47). In the religion of Sakya-iMuni, 
which learned commentators have delighted so much of late to set 
down as purely nihilistic, the doctrine of immortality is very clearly de- 
fined, notwithstanding the European or rather Christian ideas about 
Nirvana. In the sacred Ja'i'na books, of Patiuia, the dying Gautama- 

and Self alone ; Self, whether Divine or human ; Self, whether creating or suffering ; 
Self, whether one or all ; but always Self, independent and free. ' Who has seen the 
first-born,' says the poet, when he who had no bones (;. e., form) bore him that had 
bones ? Where was the life, the blood, the Self of the world ? Who went to ask this 
from any one who knew it ? " (" Rig- Veda," i., 164, 4). This idea of a divine Self, 
once expressed, everything else must acknowledge its supremacy; "i'tZ/'is the Lord of 
all things, Self is the King of all things. As all the spokes of a wheel are contained 
in the nave and the circumference, all things are contained in this Self ; all Selves are 
contained in this Self. Brahman itself is but Self" (Ibid., p. 478 ; " Khandogya-upan- 
ishad," viii, , 3, 3, 4) ; "Chips from a German Workshop," vol. i., p. 69. 

* John X. 34, 35. \ 2 Corinthians, vL 16. 


Buddha is thus addressed : " Arise into Nirvi (Nirvana) from this de- 
crepit body into which thou hast been sent. Ascend into, thy former 
abode, O blessed Avatar ! " This seems to us the very opposite of Nihil- 
ism. If Gautama is invited to reascend into his "former abode," and 
this abode is Nirvana, then it is incontestable that Buddhistic philosophy 
does not teach final annihilation. As Jesus is alleged to have appeared 
to his disciples after death, so to the present day is Gautama believed 
to descend from Nirvana. And if he has an existence there, then this 
state cannot be a synonym for annihilation. 

Gautama, no less than all other great reformers, had a doctrine for 
his " elect " and another for the outside masses, though the main object 
of his reform consisted in initiating all, so far as it was permissible and 
prudent to do, without distinction of castes or wealth, to the great truths 
hitherto kept so secret by the selfish Brahmanical class. Gautama- 
Buddha it was whom we see the first in the world's history, moved by 
that generous feeling which locks the whole humanity within one em- 
brace, inviting the " poor," the "lame," and the " blind " to the King's 
festival table, from which he excluded those who had hitherto sat alone, 
in haughty seclusion. It was he, who, with a bold hand, first opened 
the door of the sanctuary to the pariah, the fallen one, and all those 
"afflicted by men" clothed in gold and purple, often far less worthy 
than the outcast to whom their finger was scornfully pointing. All this 
did Siddhartha six centuries before another reformer, as noble and as lov- 
ing, though less favored by opportunity, in another land. If both, 
aware of the great danger of furnishing an uncultivated populace with the 
double-edged vfe:z.^on. oi knowledge which gives power, left the innermost 
corner of the sanctuary in the profoundest shade, who, that is acquainted 
■with human nature, can blame them for it ? But while one was actuated 
by prudence, the other was forced into such a course. Gautama left 
the esoteric and most dangerous portion of the "secret knowledge" un- 
touched, and lived to the ripe old age of eighty, with the certainty of hav- 
ing taught the essential truths, and having converted to them one-third 
of the world ; Jesus promised his disciples the knowledge which confers 
upon man the power of producing far greater miracles than he ever did 
himself, and he died, leaving but a few faithful men, only half way to 
knowledge, to struggle with the world to which they could impart but 
what they /ia^-knew themselves. Later, their followers disfigured truth 
still more than they themselves had done. 

It is not true that Gautama never taught anything concerning a 
future life, or that he denied the immortality of the soul. Ask any in- 
telligent Buddhist his ideas on Nirvana, and he will unquestionably ex- 
press himself, as the well-known Wong-Chin-Fu, the Chinese orator, now 


travelling in this country, did in a recent conversation with us about 
Niepang (Nirvana). " This condition," he remarked, " we all under- 
stand to mean a final reunion with God, coincident with the perfection of 
the human spirit by its ultimate disembarrassment of matter. It is the 
very opposite of personal annihilation." 

Nirvana means the certitude of personal immortality in Spirit, not in 
Soul, which, as a finite emanation, must certainly disintegrate its particles 
a compound of human sensations, passions, and yearning for some objec- 
tive kind of existence, before the immortal spirit of the Ego is quite 
freed, and henceforth secure against further transmigration in any form. 
And how can man ever reach this state so long as the UpadCma, that 
state of longing for life, more life, does not disappear fronr the sentient 
being, from the Ahancara clothed, however, in a sublimated body? It is 
the " Upadana " or the intense desire which produces WILL, and it in 
K'«7/ which develops /br^r^, and the latter generates matter, or an object 
having form. Thus the disembodied Ego, through this sole undying de- 
sire in him, unconsciously furnishes the conditions of his successive self- 
procreations in various forms, which depend on his mental state and 
Karma, the good or bad deeds of his preceding existence, commonly 
called "merit and demerit." This is why the "Master" recommended 
to his mendicants the cultivation of the four degrees of Dhyana, the noble 
" Path of the Four Truths, " i. e., that gradual acquirement of stoical in- 
difference for either life or death ; that state of spiritual self contempla- 
tion during which man utterl)' loses sight of hisphysical and dual individ- 
uality, composed of soul and body ; and uniting himself with his third 
and higher immortal self the real and heavenly man merges, so to say, into 
the divine Essence, whence his own spirit proceeded like a spark from the 
common hearth. Thus the Arhat, the holy mendicant, can reach Nirvana 
while yet on earth ; and his spirit, totally freed from the trammels of the 
" psychical, terrestrial, devilish wisdom, "as James calls it, and being in its 
own nature omniscient and omnipotent, can on earth, through the sole 
power of his thought, produce the greatest of.phenomena. 

" It is the missionaries in China and India, who first started this false- 
hood about Niepang, or Niepana (Nirvana)," says VVong-Chin-Fu. Who 
can deny the truth of this accusation after reading the works of the AbbS 
Dubois, for instance ? A missionary who passes forty years of his life in 
India, and then writes that the " Buddhists admit of no other God but 
the body of man, and have no other object but the satisfaction of their 
senses," utters an untruth which can be proved on the testimony of the 
laws of the Talapoins of Siani and Birmah ; laws, which prevail unto 
this very day and which sentence a sahaii, or punghi (a learned man ; 
from the Sanscrit pundit), as well as a simple Talapoin, to death by 


decapitation, for the crime of unchastity. No foreigner can be admitted 
into their Kyums, or Viharas (monasteries) ; and yet there are French 
writers, otherwise impartial and fair, who, speaking of the great severity 
of the rules to which the Buddhist monks are subjected in these commu- 
nities, and without possessing one single fact to corroborate their skepti- 
cism, bluntly say, that " notwithstanding the great laudations bestowed 
upon them (Talapoins) by certain travellers, merely on the strength of 
appearances, I do not believe at all in their chastity. " * 

Fortunately for the Buddhist talapoins, lamas, sahSns, upasampadas, f 
and even samenairas, J they have popular records and facts for them- 
selves, which are weightier than the unsupported personal opinion of 
a P'renchman, born in Catholic lands, whom we can hardly blame for 
having lost all faith in clerical virtue. When a Buddhist monk becomes 
guilty (which does not happen once in a century, perhaps) of criminal 
conversation, he has neither a congregation of tender-hearted members, 
whom he can move to tears by an eloquent confession of his guilt, nor 
a Jesus, on whose overburdened, long-suffering bosom are flung, as in a 
common Christian dust-box, all the impurities of the race. No Buddhist 
transgressor can comfort himself with visions of a Vatican, within whose 
sin-encompassing walls black is turned into white, murderers into sinless 
saints, and golden or silvery lotions can be bought at the confessional to 
cleanse the tardy penitent of greater or lesser offenses against God and 

Except a few impartial archieologists, who trace a direct Buddhistic 
element in Gnosticism, as in all those early short-lived sects we know 
of very few authors, who, in writing upon primitive Christianity, have 
accorded to the question its due importance. Have we not facts enough 
to, at least, suggest some interest in that direction ? Do we not learn 
that, as early as in the days of Plato, there were " Brachraans " — read 
Buddhist, Samaneans, Saman, or Shaman missionaries — in Greece, and 
that, at one time, they had overflowed the country ? Does not Pliny 
show them established on the shores of the Dead Sea, for " thousands of 
ages?" After making every necessary allowance for the exaggeration, we 
still have several centuries B.C. left as a margin. And is it possible that 
their influence should not have left deeper traces in all these sects than 
is generally thought ? We know that the Jaina sect claims Buddhism 
as derived from its tenets — that Buddhism existed before Siddhartha, 
better known as Gautama-Buddha. The Hindu Brahraans who, by 

* JacoUiot : " Voyage au Pays ties itlephants." f Buddhist chief priests at Ceylon. 

% Samenaira is one who studies to obtain the high office of a Oepasampata. He is 
a disciple and is looked upon as a son by the chief priest. We suspect that the 
Catholic seminarist must look to the Buddhists for the parentage of his title. 


the European Orientalists, are denied the right of knowing anything about 
their own country, or understanding their own language and records better 
than those who have never been in India, on the same principle as the 
Jews are forbidden, by the Christian theologians, to interpret their own 
Scriptures — the Brahmans, we say, have authentic records. And these 
show the incarnation from the Virgin Avany of the first Buddha — dijiine 
light — as having taken place more than some thousands of years B.C., 
on the island of Ceylon. The Brahmans reject the claim that it was an 
avatar of Vishnu, but admit the appearance of a reformer of Brahmanism 
at that time. The story of the Vii-gin Avany and her divine son, Sakya- 
muni, is recorded in one of the sacred books of the Cinghalese Bud- 
dhists — the Nirdhasa ; and the Brahmanic chronology fixes the great 
Buddhistic revolution and religious war, and the subsequent spread of 
Sakya-muni's doctrine in Thibet, China, Japan, and other places at 4,620 
years B.C. * 

It is clear that Gautama-Buddha, the son of the King of Kapilavastu, 
and the descendant of the first Sakya, through his father, who was of the 
Kshatriya, or warrior-caste, did not invent his philosophy. Philanthropist 
by nature, his ideas were developed and matured while under the tuition 
of Tir-thankara, the famous guru of the Jaina sect. The latter claim 
the present Buddhism as a diverging branch of their own philosophy, and 
themselves, as the only followers of the first Buddha who were allowed 
to remain' in India, after the expulsion of all other Buddhists, probably 
because they had made a compromise, and admitted some of the Brah- 
manic notions. It is, to say the least, curious, that three dissenting and 
inimical religions, like Brahmanism, Buddhism, and Jai'nism, should agree 
so perfectly in their traditions and chronology, as to Buddhism, and that 
our scientists should give a hearing but to their own unwarranted specu- 
lations and hypotheses. If the birth ^of Gautama may, with some show 
of reason, be placed at about 600 B.C., then the preceding Buddhas 
ought to have some place allowed them in chronology. The Buddhas are 
not gods, but simply individuals overshadowed by the spirit of Buddha 
— the divine ray. Or is it because, unable to extricate themselves from 
the difficulty by the help of their own researches only, our Orientalists pre- 
fer to obliterate and deny the whole, rather than accord to the Hindus